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Book part
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Kathryn M Neckerman and Roberto M Fernandez

The literature on job networks predicts that employees referred through networks would be better matched and mentored and thus would have lower turnover. However, existing…

Abstract

The literature on job networks predicts that employees referred through networks would be better matched and mentored and thus would have lower turnover. However, existing research on this question has neglected the ways in which network effects are contingent upon firm organization. Using the personnel records of a large retail bank, we examine the relationship between network recruitment and turnover among new employees. There was no significant difference between network referrals and non-referrals, but referrals eligible for the employee referral program did have lower turnover. These results are explicable in light of the bank’s organization.

Details

The Governance of Relations in Markets and Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-202-3

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Article
Publication date: 28 August 2019

Decha Dechawatanapaisal

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mediating effect of organizational identification in the relationship between person-organization fit and intention to stay…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mediating effect of organizational identification in the relationship between person-organization fit and intention to stay as well as word-of-mouth referrals. The study also examines the role of perceived external prestige as a moderator of the relationship between organizational identification and intention to stay and word-of-mouth referrals.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 2,649 millennial employees working in various companies located within the Central Thailand Industrial Estates. The hypothesized relationships were tested and analyzed by means of a confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling, hierarchical regression and a bootstrapping procedure.

Findings

The results revealed that the direct relationships between person-organization fit and intention to stay as well as word-of-mouth referrals were found to be partially mediated by organizational identification. In addition, perceived external prestige was found to have a moderating effect on the relationship between organizational identification and word-of-mouth referrals, but found no effect on employee retention.

Research limitations/implications

The current research took place among the millennial workers in Thai organizations, which needs to be extended to other generational cohorts or different culture settings for more generalization.

Practical implications

The results imply that managers should routinely assess and monitor person-organization compatibility, and ensure that corporate cultures, values and norms are properly communicated and mutually shared among the millennial workers. The aim is to inspire them to perceive better fits and proudly identify with their workplace. Such efforts are likely to induce not only retention, but also should encourage word-of-mouth referrals.

Originality/value

This study extends existing knowledge by assessing the relationships among person-organization fit, organizational identification and perceived external prestige as well as their impacts on intention to stay and word-of-mouth referrals by millennial employees, which has not been extensively investigated in the literature.

Details

Evidence-based HRM: a Global Forum for Empirical Scholarship, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-3983

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Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2020

Koji Chavez

Are White and Asian job applicants advantaged in access to professional jobs relative to Black and Latinx job applicants at the initial screening stage of the hiring…

Abstract

Are White and Asian job applicants advantaged in access to professional jobs relative to Black and Latinx job applicants at the initial screening stage of the hiring process? And, are the mechanisms of advantage for White applicants different than the mechanisms for Asian applicants? In this chapter, the author proposes a theoretical framework of “parallel mechanisms” of White and Asian advantage during hiring screening – that White and Asian applicants are advantaged compared to Black and Latinx applicants, but that the mechanisms of advantage subtly differ. The author focuses specifically on mechanisms related to two important factors at the hiring interface: referrals and educational attainment. The author applies the concept of parallel mechanisms to a case study of software engineering hiring at a midsized high technology firm in Silicon Valley. The author finds that at this firm, White applicants are advantaged at initial screening relative to Black and Latinx applicants due to average racial differences in applicant characteristics – namely having a referral – as well as differences in treatment by recruiters. For Asian applicants, average racial differences in possession of elite educational credentials, as well as racial differences in recruiter treatment, explain the racial disparity in callbacks. The author discusses the implications of parallel mechanisms of advantage for racial inequality in a multiracial context, and for organizational policy meant to address racial disparities during organizational hiring processes.

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Professional Work: Knowledge, Power and Social Inequalities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-210-9

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Luis González and Lorenzo Rivarés

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the referral-based recruitment process in temporary work agencies (TWA) and its influence on workers’ attitudes and turnover.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the referral-based recruitment process in temporary work agencies (TWA) and its influence on workers’ attitudes and turnover.

Design/methodology/approach

By means of a quasi-experimental design with equivalent groups and repeated measures, differences in attitudes -group commitment, task commitment, group satisfaction, general job satisfaction and job involvement- and turnover in a group of workers recruited by the TWA through the “bring a friend” procedure based on employee referrals and in another group comprising workers not recruited through employee referrals are studied.

Findings

The results obtained show that workers recruited through employee referrals by the TWA are characterized by having greater group commitment, task commitment, task satisfaction, general job satisfaction and turnover than employees not recruited through employee referrals. These differences are explained on the basis of expectations and the feeling of obligation generated in the recruitment process.

Research limitations/implications

The sample size is an element to take into account when valuing the obtained results. Moreover, the effects of the recruitment programs with employee referral on the TWA should be analyze on more qualified jobs. Furthermore, they should be also evaluated if the effects on the attitudes stay the same in longer periods.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to examine the impact of the employee-referral-based recruitment method known as “bring a friend” on attitudes – group commitment, task commitment, group satisfaction, general job satisfaction, and job involvement – and turnover of employees when used by TWA. Likewise, we want highlight the fact that this is a longitudinal research study.

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Book part
Publication date: 14 July 2014

Roberto M. Fernandez and Roman V. Galperin

Recent labor market research has called into question whether social capital effects are causal, or are spuriously due to the influence of social homophily. This essay…

Abstract

Recent labor market research has called into question whether social capital effects are causal, or are spuriously due to the influence of social homophily. This essay adopts the demand-side perspective of organizations to examine the causal status of social capital. In contrast with supply-side approaches, we argue that homophily is a key mechanism by which organizations derive social capital. We develop an approach to bolster inferences about the causal status of social capital, and illustrate these ideas using data from a retail bank.

Details

Contemporary Perspectives on Organizational Social Networks
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-751-1

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Article
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Chaturong Napathorn

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the social enterprises and human resource management (HRM) literatures by examining how institutional and cultural contexts…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the social enterprises and human resource management (HRM) literatures by examining how institutional and cultural contexts influence human resources (HR) practices, i.e., recruitment practices (specifically, recruitment channels) and employee relations (ER) practices that are adopted in social enterprises in the developing country of Thailand.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper applies an embedded cross-case analysis of four social enterprises in Thailand across a variety of industries. The case study evidence in this paper draws on semi-structured interviews with each social enterprise’s representatives; field visits to each social enterprise in Bangkok and in other provinces in Thailand; and a review of archival documents and web-based reports and resources. This paper uses thematic analysis to pinpoint, examine and record the patterns or themes found in the data.

Findings

Based on these four case studies, this paper proposes that the deficiencies in the Thai skill formation system, especially skill shortages, are associated with the adoption of alternative or substream recruitment channels among social enterprises. Additionally, the weak and highly fragmented ER institution and the cultural context that favor conflict avoidance and unassertiveness among workers within the workplace are associated with the adoption of a paternalistic ER practice in these enterprises.

Research limitations/implications

This paper has only focused on the role of national skill formation system, ER system, and the cultural context that favor conflict avoidance and unassertiveness among workers within the workplace. Future research may explore how other institutional and cultural domains influence the adoption of HR practices in these enterprises in the context of emerging market economies. Additionally, because this research is based on the case studies of four social enterprises in a variety of industries in Thailand, the findings of this paper may not be generalizable to all social enterprises across countries. Another limitation of this research is that it did not include social enterprises in several other industries, including the entertainment and media industry and the printing and publishing industry, and it does not include other forms of social enterprises, such as community-led social ventures. Future research may explore how institutional and cultural contexts influence HR practices adopted in social enterprises in other industries or in other types of social enterprises. Moreover, quantitative studies using large samples of social enterprises across industries might be useful in deepening our understanding of a topic that is significant from the perspective of both social enterprises and HRM.

Practical implications

This paper provides practical implications for HR professionals, founders and top managers of social enterprises not only in Thailand but also in other countries that face the problem of a skill shortage in the labor market.

Social implications

This paper provides policy implications for the government of Thailand and the governments of several other emerging market economies in which the skill shortage is particularly severe. These governments should focus on solving this problem to alleviate severe competition among several types of organizations in the labor market. Furthermore, these governments should foster the implementation of a partnership model for employee–management relationships within the workplace. In this model, employees and management perceive each other as partners rather than enemies to sustain win–win solutions to any problems or disputes that may occur.

Originality/value

This paper aims to fill the gap in the literature regarding how social enterprises manage HR across contexts, especially in developing countries where institutional and cultural contexts might differ from those of developed countries. Batt and Banerjee (2012) suggested that the literature on HRM, including strategic human resource management (SHRM), should extend beyond the organizational context and examine how institutional contexts influence the adoption of organizations’ HR practices. Additionally, Batt and Banerjee (2012) noted that the majority of studies in the HRM literature focus on profit-oriented firms in the private sector and ignore other types of organizations such as non-profits or social enterprises.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 13 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2010

Vegard Iversen and Gaute Torsvik

The purpose of this paper is to explore the roles of social networks and intermediares in recruitment and as instruments to control the workforce in lower end urban labour…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the roles of social networks and intermediares in recruitment and as instruments to control the workforce in lower end urban labour markets in developing countries. The existing literature favours explanations where networks and middlemen are vehicles to disburse information about vacant jobs or screening mechanisms that improve worker‐job matches. Intermediaries may also enable employers to evade labour regulations. This paper highlights instead their roles as incentive providers or mechanisms that alleviate behavioural risks in work relations. A novel aspect of this approach is that behavioural risks on both sides of the work relation are considered.

Design/methodology/approach

After reviewing the literature, a simple agency model is introduced to suggest new ways to identify whether networks and middlemen alleviate incentive problems in labour relations.

Findings

Studies of disparities in labour market access and outcomes are usually anchored in ideas of discrimination. A key insight is that the access to and performance of urban labour markets depend critically on the specific “services” networks and intermediaries extend to workers and employers. This adds an important complication to the evaluation of opportunities for income diversification through rural‐urban migration. Under some circumstances, both “institutions” may give rise to strong and persistent exclusion that is likely to vary systematically across sectors of the urban economy. In other circumstances, access restrictions can be remedied through simple policy interventions.

Originality/value

This paper introduces a new and important dimension to the study of urban labour markets as level playing fields.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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Article
Publication date: 10 December 2018

Chaturong Napathorn

This paper aims to bridge the literatures on social enterprises and human resource management to examine the recruitment practices, specifically the recruitment channels…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to bridge the literatures on social enterprises and human resource management to examine the recruitment practices, specifically the recruitment channels, which are used by social enterprises to attract workers and how and why these practices differ from those used by more mainstream organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

It uses the cross-case analysis approach and evaluates four different social enterprises in Thailand. These four social enterprises are located in different industries, including food and beverages, textiles and garments, printing and publishing and entertainment and media. The case study evidence draws on semi-structured interviews, field visits and observations and a review of archival documents and Web resources.

Findings

Through these case studies, this paper proposes that social enterprises typically use sub-stream or alternative recruitment channels that differ from those used by more mainstream organizations to attract qualified workers whose beliefs and attitudes are consistent with the objectives of social enterprises, to avoid severe competition in the labor market and to foster the internal development of their employees over time.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation of this research is its methodology. Because this research is based on case studies of four social enterprises across industries in Thailand, it does not claim generalizability to all social enterprises and their recruitment channels. Rather, the results of this research should lead to further discussion of how and why social enterprises are able to recruit qualified candidates, solve financial and human resources constraints and survive severe competition among organizations in the labor market.

Practical implications

This paper also provides managerial implications for human resources practitioners, founders and top managers of social enterprises, not only in Thailand but also in other countries across the globe. First, these human resources practitioners, founders and top managers can use sub-stream or alternative recruitment channels to recruit employees to their social enterprises because these channels should help them attract qualified candidates whose beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, skills, experience and work performance fit with the philosophy and objectives of social enterprises. Second, they can use mainstream recruitment channels only when they have sufficient budgets to support this activity because these channels are expensive and may not support the dual missions of social enterprises. Third, they may attempt to search for an alternative source of potential employees, such as the blind and the disabled, to alleviate the problem of skill shortages at the occupational level and at the national level as a whole.

Social implications

This paper provides policy implications for the government of Thailand and the governments of several other emerging market economies where the problem of skill shortages is particularly severe. Specifically, these governments should pay attention to solving the problem of occupational-level skill shortages to alleviate severe competition among several types of organizations in the labor market.

Originality/value

First, the findings in this paper extend the literature on human resource management, specifically on recruitment and selection practices, regarding how and why small and emerging organizations such as social enterprises can compete with mainstream organizations to survive severe competition in the labor market. Second, this paper contributes to the literature on social enterprises, specifically regarding how social enterprises resolve the issue of financial constraints to access skilled employees whose identification is consistent with the objectives of social enterprises. Finally, social enterprises in the under-researched country of Thailand are frequently overlooked in the literature. The four social enterprises in this paper are located in a variety of industries, including food and beverages (the Doi Tung Development Project and Doi Chaang Coffee), textiles and garments (the Doi Tung Development Project), printing and publishing (Butterfly Publishing House) and entertainment and media (Payai Creation). These industries, especially the printing and publishing industry and the entertainment and media industry, are also understudied in the literature on human resource management.

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Kumar Mukul and Gordhan K. Saini

The purpose of this paper is to explore the talent acquisition practices adopted by startups and understand how small entrepreneurs leverage social capital to address the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the talent acquisition practices adopted by startups and understand how small entrepreneurs leverage social capital to address the talent acquisition challenges faced by them, and; identify some of the unique parameters adopted by startups in talent acquisition.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a multiple case study method to explore the talent acquisition practices in startups in India. The study included six case studies on startups in Hubli city of North Karnataka in India.

Findings

This paper finds that startups (especially in smaller cities) face challenges such as lower quality of talent pool, absence of a brand name, inability to provide competitive salary and other benefits as per industry standards and locational disadvantages in talent acquisition. Thus, entrepreneurs leverage their social capital for talent acquisition by handpicking talent on the basis of familiarity or credible networks and recommendations. Incubation centres provide institutionalized sources of social capital to help them attract good talent. This study finds that employee-culture fit and trust play important role in acquiring talent in startups.

Practical implications

The study has implications for startup entrepreneurs, recruitment service providers, incubation centres, trainers, policymakers, etc. The study provides useful insights to the startups with regard to their recruitment practices.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature in the domains of talent acquisition, startups and social capital by describing hiring challenges faced by startups and exploring the mechanisms used by them in overcoming such challenges.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2010

Pramila Rao

The purpose of this paper is to detail staffing practices of five software companies located in India.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to detail staffing practices of five software companies located in India.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative research paper uses purposeful sampling to provide rich data on senior‐level staffing practices. The interviews conducted in India are tape‐recorded and notes are also taken diligently. The interviews are coded to identify similar and dissimilar themes.

Findings

This research identifies internal recruitment, employer references, succession planning, interviews, personality tests, newspaper recruitment, professional search agencies, and bio‐data as the predominant senior‐level staffing practices.

Practical implications

The paper identifies successful staffing practices adopted by domestic software companies. As multinational companies significantly increase their presence in India, global practitioners can implement successful staffing practices by having a thorough understanding of local staffing practices.

Originality/value

This paper identifies successful staffing practices of the Indian software organizations. This paper further provides a staffing model based on the Lepak and Snell staffing typology and details the main human resource management challenges of the Indian software industry.

Details

Journal of Indian Business Research, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4195

Keywords

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