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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2018

Jennifer Jones-Morales and Alison M. Konrad

The existence of disadvantaged sub-populations whose talents are under-leveraged is a problem faced by developing and developed countries alike. Life history data revealed…

Abstract

Purpose

The existence of disadvantaged sub-populations whose talents are under-leveraged is a problem faced by developing and developed countries alike. Life history data revealed that a large proportion of elite business leaders in the Caribbean emerged from childhood poverty (families subsisting on US$1-2 a day, 40 percent). The purpose of this paper is to examine the key factors supporting the career development of elite leaders from a broad socioeconomic spectrum and both genders in order to build a model of career development for elite leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected via in-depth interviews from a deliberately gender-balanced sample of 39 male and 39 female elite business leaders. Thematic analysis identified consistencies across independent interviews and resulted in a model identifying factors supporting pre-career development as key to eventual attainment of elite leadership.

Findings

Findings indicated that in childhood and youth, proactivity plus talent recognition and mentoring by adults enhanced access to early developmental opportunities. Early career mentoring guided talented youth to build personal drive, self-esteem, altruism, and integrity, which created a foundation for developing career capital through values-based action. Altogether, these findings indicate the importance of pre-career relational capital to attainment of elite career success.

Originality/value

Difficult-to-access elite leaders provided rich information emphasizing the importance of pre-career development in childhood and youth to eventual elite leadership attainment. Virtually all of the elites in the sample remember being identified as talented early in life and consider early messages about drive to achieve as well as support received from parents, teachers, and other interested adults to be critical to their success. Hence, a process of talent recognition and encouragement to excel appear to be crucial for connecting young people to important relational capital allowing them to eventually achieve elite status, particularly those individuals hailing from disadvantaged backgrounds.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Book part
Publication date: 10 February 2015

Mairi Maclean, Charles Harvey and Gerhard Kling

Bourdieu’s construct of the field of power has received relatively little attention despite its novelty and theoretical potential. This paper explores the meaning and…

Abstract

Bourdieu’s construct of the field of power has received relatively little attention despite its novelty and theoretical potential. This paper explores the meaning and implications of the construct, and integrates it into a wider conception of the formation and functioning of elites at the highest level in society. Drawing on an extensive dataset profiling the careers of members of the French business elite, it compares and contrasts those who enter the field of power with those who fail to qualify for membership, exploring why some succeed as hyper-agents while others do not. The alliance of social origin and educational attainment, class and meritocracy, emerges as particularly compelling. The field of power is shown to be relatively variegated and fluid, connecting agents from different life worlds. Methodologically, this paper connects biographical data of top French directors with the field of power in France in a novel way, while presenting an operationalization of Bourdieu’s concept of the field of power as applied to the French elite.

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2018

Kirstin Hallmann, Christoph Breuer, Michael Ilgner, Thomas Giel and Lea Rossi

The purpose of this paper is to identify the determinants of success of elite athletes by applying the concept of career success to a sporting context. The concept of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the determinants of success of elite athletes by applying the concept of career success to a sporting context. The concept of career success includes extrinsic (i.e. tangible) career accomplishments like medals as well as intrinsic factors referring to subjective judgements about career attainments. Thereby, a holistic perspective is taken which has not been studied extensively before.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on previous literature, a theoretical model was derived outlining how human capital, motivation, organisational characteristics and socio-demographics affect both intrinsic and extrinsic career success. To measure the impact of these factors, primary (n=1,249) and secondary data of elite athletes were collected. Regression analyses indicated that all factors included in the theoretical model were associated with extrinsic and intrinsic success.

Findings

Institutional support was an important driver for intrinsic career success while financial support affected extrinsic career success. There was no significant influence of extrinsic career success on intrinsic career success.

Practical implications

These findings imply that policy makers should offer enhanced dual career options, such as mentoring programmes, aspects like sport-psychological support and nutrition counselling, and long-term, stable financial support for athletes to maximise career success.

Originality/value

This paper applies the construct of career success to sports. A focus on the athletes’ intrinsic career success is placed as this area has been neglected in past research.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Book part
Publication date: 11 December 2006

Peter Munk Christiansen and Lise Togeby

Theories concerning the recruitment of the political elite traditionally view the composition of parliament as a result of a multi-phased process, as a kind of an…

Abstract

Theories concerning the recruitment of the political elite traditionally view the composition of parliament as a result of a multi-phased process, as a kind of an elimination race (Norris, 1997; cf. also Best & Cotta, 2000). In each phase, the candidates who best fulfil the demands of the gatekeepers are selected. Who is selected is the outcome of the interplay of the supply and demand factors, meaning that it depends on the characteristics of the candidates and the priorities of the gatekeepers. Comparative studies reveal that this process varies among countries, meaning that the composition of parliaments also varies. New institutionalism (Ostrom, 1986; Norris, 1997) accounts for this variation in terms of the differences in the national recruitment systems, which create differences in supply and demand.

Details

Comparative Studies of Social and Political Elites
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-466-9

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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2010

Izabela Wagner

Socialization of young virtuosos in the milieu of soloists involves creating and entertaining particular ties. Those ties, which mix the private and professional lives of…

Abstract

Socialization of young virtuosos in the milieu of soloists involves creating and entertaining particular ties. Those ties, which mix the private and professional lives of teacher, student, and parents, offer an interesting avenue for studying socialization. I examine one relationship crucial to the virtuoso's career: the close-knit relationship between teacher and student, and the effect each one has on the career of the other. I define this process as “career coupling,” where those involved build their careers together. I base this analysis on ethnographic research of the careers of elite musicians.

Details

Studies in Symbolic Interaction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-361-4

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Book part
Publication date: 5 February 2016

Daniel Davis and Amy Binder

This study documents a new case of the further commercialization of the university, the rapid adoption of corporate partnership programs (CPPs) within centralized…

Abstract

This study documents a new case of the further commercialization of the university, the rapid adoption of corporate partnership programs (CPPs) within centralized university career services departments. CPPs function as a type of headhunting agency. For an annual fee they facilitate a corporate hiring department’s direct access to student talent, allowing the company to outsource much of its hiring tasks to the university career center. CPPs are a feature found predominantly, though not exclusively, on campuses where there is a highly rationalized logic around the economic benefits of academic science. Further, CPPs represent a commercialization of practice that is in tension with the student-development mission of traditional career counselors. Using an inhabited institutionalist approach, we show how the models differ and how staff on each side attempt to negotiate their competing roles in the multiversity environment. We also discuss some of the potential impact on students, on the career services profession, and on college-to-work pathways.

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Book part
Publication date: 5 February 2016

Joseph C. Hermanowicz

What is associated with a rise in academic career expectations, and why have levels risen to such levels wherein prominent dissatisfaction is a sustainably generated…

Abstract

What is associated with a rise in academic career expectations, and why have levels risen to such levels wherein prominent dissatisfaction is a sustainably generated outcome? This paper examines work satisfaction among faculty in U.S. research universities. At a micro level, I discuss the career patterns of work satisfaction as found in a set of universities, drawing on data from qualitative studies of academic careers. I present findings on four analytic dimensions: the overall modal career patterns of professors, their overall work satisfaction, their work attitudes, and whether they would again pursue an academic career. The data capture variation in careers over time and the type of university in which they work. A prominent and pervasive pattern is transparent: that of ill-content and ill-institutional regard. At a macro level, these patterns are suggestively situated in developments in the social-institutional environment of U.S. higher education. This environment consists of systemic trends in which neoliberalism enables academic capitalism to flourish with its attendant effects in privatization and marketization. It is argued that a shift in organizational priority brought about by these conditions entails a “valorization of shiny things” – a valuing of market-related phenomena over knowledge of its own accord. This valorization, ritually supported by practices endemic of changed organizational culture, may weaken the ground on which the traditional scholarly role is played and may make precarious a basis for positive work sentiment.

Details

The University Under Pressure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-831-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Josephine Pichanick Mogelof and Lisa Haueisen Rohrer

The original purpose of this study was not to focus on job satisfaction, but rather to conduct an exploratory investigation of how symphony orchestra players cope with the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The original purpose of this study was not to focus on job satisfaction, but rather to conduct an exploratory investigation of how symphony orchestra players cope with the frustrations and disappointments of orchestra life. Symphony orchestra players report surprisingly low levels of job satisfaction given the perception held by many that life and work in symphony orchestras is glamorous and rewarding.

Design/methodology/approach

Job satisfaction data were collected in the form of interviews and surveys from 66 musicians in an élite, major orchestra and a non‐élite, regional orchestra.

Findings

Players in both orchestras were similarly satisfied with co‐worker relationships and experienced similar levels of intrinsic work motivation and job involvement. Despite better financial resources in the major orchestra, satisfaction with opportunities for growth and opportunities to exert influence increased with tenure in the regional orchestra, whereas the opposite was true for major players.

Originality/value

The article discusses context‐driven job satisfaction tradeoffs associated with careers in élite versus non‐élite organizations and the role organizations may play in facilitating or impeding workers’ participation in valued activities. It emphasizes the importance of participation in valued activities as a key driver of job satisfaction.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Book part
Publication date: 26 July 2014

Richard Whitley

Recent changes in the funding and governance of academic research in many OECD countries have altered established authority relationships governing research priorities and…

Abstract

Recent changes in the funding and governance of academic research in many OECD countries have altered established authority relationships governing research priorities and judgements. These shifts in the influence of a variety of groups and organisations over scientific choices and careers can be expected to affect the development of different kinds of intellectual innovations by changing the level of protected space they provide researchers and the flexibility of dominant intellectual standards governing the allocation of resources and evaluation of research outcomes. Variations in these features of public science systems influence scientists’ willingness to pursue unusual and risky projects over many years and help to explain cross-national differences in the rate and mode of development of four innovations in the physical, biological and human sciences.

Details

Organizational Transformation and Scientific Change: The Impact of Institutional Restructuring on Universities and Intellectual Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-684-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2020

Anu Järvensivu

Multiple jobholders’ workplace learning is an under-researched theme, although it offers possibilities to add knowledge of learning at several workplaces at a time. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Multiple jobholders’ workplace learning is an under-researched theme, although it offers possibilities to add knowledge of learning at several workplaces at a time. The purpose of this study is to explore the career development and workplace learning of Finnish multiple jobholders with university degree.

Design/methodology/approach

The qualitative extreme case study of “elite multiple jobholders” was based on 45 in-depth interviews, which were analysed by abductive content analysis using the chaos theory of careers (CTC).

Findings

This study showed that elite multiple jobholders were attracted by meaningful jobs, which were significant, had broader purposes or offered possibilities for self-realization and self-development, whereas they criticized paid work organizations. They tried to anticipate the future working life and labour markets and adjusted their careers to them by educating and by choosing jobs with learning possibilities. However, they saw themselves as constructers of the future, which left them at vulnerable position concerning the institutional setting. They organized their work flexibly with different contracts and their professional identities were networked.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited in Finns with university degree. Future research should inspect multiple jobholders with lower degree educations, in different contexts and with other methodologies.

Originality/value

This study gives an example of applying CTC as a holistic framework to study how individual careers emerge contextually and how they are recursively connected to work organization and working life changes. Possibilities to understand fractals are offered.

Details

Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 32 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

Keywords

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