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Book part
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Diane A. Lawong, Gerald R. Ferris, Wayne A. Hochwarter and John N. Harris

Work environments, which are widely acknowledged to exert strong influences on employee attitudes and behavior, have been studied since the initiation of formal work…

Abstract

Work environments, which are widely acknowledged to exert strong influences on employee attitudes and behavior, have been studied since the initiation of formal work entities. Over this time, scholars have identified myriad impactful internal and external factors. Absent though are investigations examining economic downturns despite their acknowledged pervasiveness and destructive effects on worker performance and well-being. To address this theoretical gap, a multistage model acknowledging the impact of recessions on workplace responses, response effects, and environmental considerations is proposed. Inherent in this discussion is the role of economic decline on reactive change processes, the nature of work, and the structure and design of organizations. These significant changes affect employee attitudes and behaviors in ways that increase the political nature of these work environments. Organizational factors and employee responses to heightened recession-driven politics are discussed. Additionally, theoretically relevant intervening variables capable of influencing work outcomes are described. The chapter is concluded by discussing the implications of this theoretical framework as well as directions for future research.

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Book part
Publication date: 19 August 2021

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Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-430-5

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Book part
Publication date: 17 September 2018

W. Ian O’Byrne

Purpose – To examine whether or not exposing novice teachers in a graduate literacy education diversity course to particular texts and activities focused on economic…

Abstract

Purpose – To examine whether or not exposing novice teachers in a graduate literacy education diversity course to particular texts and activities focused on economic diversity and lifestyle differences among students makes them more likely to positively respond to these lesser understood forms of diversity in their own teaching and if so, in what ways.

Design – The research design was qualitative and included written reflections from the teacher-participants at the beginning, middle and end of the semester, and videotaping and transcribing activities and post-activity discussions. Ethnographic observations and notes were made by the primary investigator (PI). The theoretical frameworks that were foundational to the study were critical literacy and teaching for social justice.

Findings – The findings of this qualitative study indicate that exposing teachers to texts, discussions, and activities that educate them on economic diversity and lifestyle differences among students makes them more likely to positively respond to these forms of diversity in their own teaching. Specific examples of how participants did this are provided.

Practical Implications – This study contributes to the literature on diversity in literacy instruction by providing concrete, research-based suggestions for how both teacher educators and K-12 teachers can expand their definitions of student diversity to include economic disparities and lifestyle differences among students. It includes recommended texts and activities for both teacher educators and K-12 teachers to address less typical forms of diversity, with a focus on economic diversity and lifestyle differences.

Details

Best Practices in Teaching Digital Literacies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-434-5

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2019

Yavuz Köse

This paper aims to investigate the introduction of Nescafé, a brand of the Swiss multinational company Nestlé, into the Turkish market and examines the formative period…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the introduction of Nescafé, a brand of the Swiss multinational company Nestlé, into the Turkish market and examines the formative period (1952-1987) before it succeeded to become the most popular and leading coffee brand in Turkey. By that it aims to draw attention to Turkey as an interesting case in point for the study of the history of marketing practices in a non-Western context.

Design/methodology/approach

This study deploys a variety of largely unexplored material ranging from archival sources to newspaper reports and advertisements. In the first part, archival sources provided by the Nestlé archives (AHN) will be analyzed to present the company’s marketing strategy. As the amount on advertisements between 1952 and 1984 remained modest, the second part is devoted to the analysis of Turkish media reports to discuss Nescafé’s public perception.

Findings

The paper demonstrates that during the period under consideration the instable political and economic environment was pivotal for Nescafé’s marketing. Nestlé in the early years used similar strategies as in the West advertising Nescafé as a premium product for the upper middle-class. Due to import restrictions, it was a scarce and high-priced product. Nescafé succeeded to become a highly esteemed and sought-after product because it stood for Western modernity and prosperity. The study argues that it was not primarily Nestlé’s marketing that resulted in Nescafé’s considerable brand recognition but its public “visibility” through media reporting.

Research limitations/implications

This study is a preliminary attempt to investigate the history of instant coffee and its marketing in a non-Western market. The paper is mainly focused on Nescafé because it was and still is the most important brand in Turkey. Further, this paper brings into spotlight a country with distinct sociopolitical and cultural particularities which distinguish it from Western countries and allow to scrutinize how marketing practice and thought may develop in a non-Western setting. Further research is needed as Turkey's specific marketing environment is far from being thoroughly investigated.

Originality/value

By focusing on Turkey, this paper provides an insight into the specific ways Nescafé was marketed, consumed and perceived in a non-Western market. By that it allows to consider how multinational companies responded and adapted to a culturally, politically and economically challenging environment.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2008

Mike Bull, Helen Crompton and Dilani Jayawarna

This paper aims to investigate the organisational development of three small‐ and medium‐sized social enterprises (SMSEs). The objectives of the paper are to highlight the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the organisational development of three small‐ and medium‐sized social enterprises (SMSEs). The objectives of the paper are to highlight the critical stages of development that have led to change, growth and success for these enterprises. Although social purpose organisations have existed for some time, recent political interest in the subject has created a new and emerging field of interest where little empirical research exists. This paper examines how SMSEs evolve, utilizing the framework of organisational life cycle (OLC) models, specifically Adizes's model. Thus, drawing on the OLC field of study this paper will make a significant contribution to a deeper understanding of social enterprise development.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative methodological approach was undertaken in order to understand the stories and experiences. A semi‐structured approach enabled the researcher to gain deep insights into the life cycle stages that changed and developed each of these organisations over time – which would not have been as insightful through a quantitative methodological approach.

Findings

The key findings indicate that a host of internal and external incidents were critical to the development of these firms. The entrepreneurialism shown within these organisations was crucial. These three firms all grew from community‐based campaigns that were able to exploit financial opportunities and grow with a momentum over a number of years. The organisation structures, although different across the three cases, were critical factors in the ability to deliver, develop skills and handle growth. Through analysing these cases through the framework of the OLC model we found that the development stages were similar and that the model is a useful lens for viewing social enterprise organisation development.

Originality/value

Empirical evidence of this nature is currently lacking from the SMSE community. This research therefore contributes to the knowledge capital on this sector and is important for practitioners, business support agencies and academics in understanding the organisational development of social enterprises.

Details

Social Enterprise Journal, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-8614

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Book part
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Abstract

Details

Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-430-5

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2012

Steffen Kinkel

The purpose of this paper is to present an empirical investigation of recent trends and changes in companies' production relocation and backshoring behaviour against the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an empirical investigation of recent trends and changes in companies' production relocation and backshoring behaviour against the background of the global economic crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical research is based on a large data set of 1,484 German manufacturing companies as part of the European Manufacturing Survey (EMS). The paper employs a structured set of probit analyses to identify the differences of production relocation and backshoring determinants before and within the crisis.

Findings

Against common belief the paper finds that not only the relocation of production to emerging countries, but also the backshoring of once offshored manufacturing capacities to the home base is a relevant phenomenon. Since the emergence of the global economic crisis, relocation activities declined significantly, whereas the level of backshoring activities has remained stable. Far‐shore destinations in Asia gain in attractiveness over near‐shore locations in Eastern Europe. Particularly export‐intensive companies tended recently towards (re‐)concentrating of their production capacities, trying to exploit the benefits of higher capacity utilisation and a superior relation of variable costs to fix costs at their existing locations.

Research limitations/implications

Although covering a significant range of industrial sectors in Germany, more empirical evidence is needed from other branches and countries. Looking forward it is proposed to systemically integrate scenarios on the future development of the most influential environmental factors in future research frameworks for global production decisions and value chains.

Practical implications

The findings strongly recommend a revision of established decision‐making schemes for production relocations based on pure cost efficiency considerations. Decision‐making should integrate qualitative environmental factors and dynamic considerations using scenario‐based tools. Companies need to understand and prepare for dynamic developments at different locations which can strategically necessitate backshoring after a certain time.

Originality/value

The research considerably widens the empirical knowledge on recent trends in relocation activities and their inherent risks, which in a dynamic perspective are sometimes forcing backshoring activities.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2018

Krzysztof Kozłowski

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the perspectives of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) Belt and Road strategy. The challenge in terms of studying the New Silk…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the perspectives of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) Belt and Road strategy. The challenge in terms of studying the New Silk Road concept comes from the fact of dramatic difference between the declared ambitions of the Chinese state and the elusive character of concrete Chinese involvement, in particular as far as the digital dimension of the strategy is concerned.

Design/methodology/approach

The goal will be achieved by comparing the Chinese expansion in the Post-Soviet Central Asia with nowadays declarations concerning the digital version of the New Silk Road. For China, the Post-Soviet Central Asia was the first frontier approached on the basis of genuinely own integration strategy: the New Silk Road Diplomacy, which later evolved into the New Silk Road concept. An overview of Chinese activity in the region tells a lot about its grand strategy of today.

Findings

To paraphrase T.S. Kuhn, what one sees depends on not only what one is looking at but also what one has learned to notice. The Post-Soviet Central Asia shows the way Beijing thinks about integration. PRC achieved the most by basing on the free rider effect: concentrating on economic expansion, while other Powers provided relative regional security and stability.

Originality/value

The comparison of the beginnings of the New Silk Diplomacy in the 1990s with the plans of the New Digital Road gives a unique angle to grasp the specific features of the Chinese approach to international integration.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy Management, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4620

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Steffen Kinkel, Oliver Kleine and Janis Diekmann

As a consequence of the sluggish growth in Europe caused by the Euro-crisis, many German companies are currently expanding their manufacturing and innovation activities in…

Abstract

Purpose

As a consequence of the sluggish growth in Europe caused by the Euro-crisis, many German companies are currently expanding their manufacturing and innovation activities in fast-growing China – or intend to do so. The paper aims to provide new practical and theoretical insights on how German manufacturing companies are readjusting and further developing their production and innovation strategies in China and which future paths they plan to follow to make the most out of their foreign factories in this market.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on in-depth interviews with the top management of 18 German manufacturing companies in China, this paper analyzes the present state, interlinkages and future development paths of their local manufacturing and innovation strategies, employing Ferdows' framework of foreign factory roles.

Findings

The authors find that up to now most of the surveyed factories represent an additional type of an advanced server factory, characterized by a “Chinese gap” in new product development (NPD) and basic innovations. Based on that the authors propose five guiding principles on how foreign factories in China can cope with the upcoming challenges in China and make the most of their local strategies.

Originality/value

The research provides unexpected insights of a high strategic relevance for practitioners currently engaged in optimising their global production and innovation footprint. It challenges established frameworks on foreign production and innovation modes by comparing them to the established practice of frontrunner companies from key sectors of the German manufacturing industry.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2013

Lovemore Ndlovu

Sociologists view the family, the most basic unit of social organization, as the cornerstone of society. As societies continue to evolve, social changes such as…

Abstract

Sociologists view the family, the most basic unit of social organization, as the cornerstone of society. As societies continue to evolve, social changes such as urbanization produce changed family structures. This has recently happened in Zimbabwe, creating new family forms such as the “small house practice”: the trend among married men to maintain a single woman as a quasi-permanent sexual partner outside official marriage. This relationship is considered subsidiary (small) compared to the official marriage; yet, it is important to the welfare of both man practicing it and the unmarried woman being looked after. The study focused on the development of the “small house practice” in Zimbabwe and its impact on the traditional family unit. The economic crisis in Zimbabwe, between 2000 and 2010, in particular, affected families negatively and also led to the proliferation of the small house. The study reveals that the family unit in Zimbabwe continues to evolve.

Details

Visions of the 21st Century Family: Transforming Structures and Identities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-028-4

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