This study applied the GM(1,1) model of Grey theory to forecast sales of eight sub‐category non‐alcoholic beverages in Taiwan between 2001 and 2003. According to our…
This study applied the GM(1,1) model of Grey theory to forecast sales of eight sub‐category non‐alcoholic beverages in Taiwan between 2001 and 2003. According to our measured results, the accuracy of the new forecasting model exceeds 95 per cent. The validity of predictions using the new model is clearly high. The model estimates that the total beverages market will grow, but growth rates will vary for individual sub‐categories. In relation to current growth, from 2001 to 2003, tea drinks, carbonated drinks, functional drinks and sports drinks will experience decreased market growth, while bottled water and fruit and vegetable juices will be a high growth market and coffee drinks and other drinks will enjoy improved sales. These results provide a valuable reference for the Taiwanese beverage industry developing marketing plans.
The development of marketing thinking has been stimulated by the pressures of competition. If growing competition for more mature and discriminating markets is a major…
The development of marketing thinking has been stimulated by the pressures of competition. If growing competition for more mature and discriminating markets is a major trend for the next decade, the pursuit of improved product quality and of excellence will be an essential management response. New product development is a vital part of marketing policy for all companies and organisations, as it represents one of the key means by which corporate renewal is achieved and a future secured. This article analyses new product development in the light of the new alcohol soft drink products, which presents a myriad of challenges and opportunities for beverage manufactures and the UK drinks market These drinks have been latched onto by brewers who were desperate to win over young people who had snubbed beer and cider; but their drive has backfired, with drinks such as Hoopers Hooch being condemned for their appeal towards the teenager. In view of this, the article will conclude by identifying the controversial implications these drinks will have for the future stability of the alcoholic soft drink market
Excessive drinking of fluids occurs across the autism spectrum but despite the detrimental and potentially hazardous consequences very few studies of this phenomenon have…
Excessive drinking of fluids occurs across the autism spectrum but despite the detrimental and potentially hazardous consequences very few studies of this phenomenon have been published. Literature on the topic is sparse. The purpose of this paper is to explore the issues via a large on-line survey and a clinic sample. It is hoped this study will encourage further interest in and investigation including exploration of the links with the neurology underlying autistic conditions.
Results were obtained via a large on-line survey of autistic individuals and parents and carers (n=637) and data from referrals to a single diagnostic assessment and diagnostic clinic.
Of 634 respondents of the on-line survey 474 reported excessive drinking of fluids in severe form. Almost two-thirds stated that this started before the age of five years. Of the children and adults seen at the clinic approximately one-third had dunk fluids excessively in the past. The effects of gender, type of autism condition, intellectual disability, reported stress and associated conditions were examined as were the type of fluids drunk and rate of drinking. The response to having to wait for a drink and the occurrence of vomiting and diarrhoea were also examined.
This is a preliminary study but with a large sample size. Limitations lie in the sparse amount of literature on this topic as it affects autism and reliance on parental and self-reports from an on-line survey, the majority of whom responded to an appeal for participants for whom excessive drinking of fluids was an established problem. The clinic sample comprised children and adults who had not been referred for reasons connected to excessive drinking of fluids but for whom this was still a significant problem. A further limitation concerns the absence of data on sensory profiles. This would be worth including in any follow up.
It is important to be aware of the implications of excessive drinking of fluids on the health and well-being of children and adults on the autism spectrum. As there are potentially lethal consequences associated with such behaviours it is essential that they are recognised, understood and responded to.
Excessive drinking of fluids has implications for the development of the child and far reaching consequences for physical and social well-being.
This is an original paper that draws on the limited literature available but is primarily based on the results of a unique on-line survey and evaluation of a clinic sample.
The aim of this paper is to determine lifestyle factors associated with different drink choices as past research has suggested some differences.
Caffeinated tea and coffee consuming habits in a South Wales sample were investigated by postal questionnaire. Multiple regression was used to determine odds ratios for demographic, health and lifestyle factors associated with drink patterns. There were 7,979 questionnaire respondents, 58 per cent of whom were female. Their mean age was 45.61 years (SD =18.00, range =16‐97).
Caffeinated tea/coffee consumption was associated with both alcohol and smoking behaviours. The results also suggested that non‐consumers of caffeinated tea or coffee were not a homogeneous group, as different demographic and lifestyle profiles were identified for: those that did not drink tea or coffee at all; and those that drank only decaffeinated tea or coffee.
Future caffeine research may need to consider whether a broad distinction based on caffeine consumption or non‐consumption alone is always appropriate.
The findings suggest some differences within the caffeinated drink consuming population, including demographic profiles relating to whether consumers drank tea or coffee. They add to the data already available in comparing not only caffeine versus no caffeine, but also characteristics associated with different caffeinated drinks.
It has been suggested that habitual consumers of sugar experience “cravings” when deprived. Subjects (n = 27) who habitually consumed sugar‐sweetened drinks were placed on…
It has been suggested that habitual consumers of sugar experience “cravings” when deprived. Subjects (n = 27) who habitually consumed sugar‐sweetened drinks were placed on a seven‐day regime receiving either sugar‐sweetened drinks, or aspartame‐sweetened alternatives. A between‐subjects design was used to prevent subjects comparing the drinks, which were given blind with the cover story that the study was testing a new drink. In fact commercial carbonated beverages were given. At the end, subjects were unable to guess which they had received. Subjects completed a prospective food diary and rated mood daily using the Profile of Mood States, as well as before and after each test drink, using simple visual analogue scales. Compared to subsequent days, on the first day of the study subjects receiving aspartame‐sweetened drinks ate fewer grams of carbohydrate and had fewer sugar episodes (where sugars, or sugar‐fat, or sugar‐alcohol mixtures were consumed). Overall energy intake for the day was unaffected. By day two, there were no differences between the groups in diet or mood. Body weight at seven days was unaltered from baseline. Blind substitution of aspartame‐sweetened for sugar‐sweetened soft drinks did not increase other sugar consumption and did not adversely affect mood. Any effects of this dietary change appear transient.
The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been a social custom throughout the world since the beginning of recorded history. Various wines, beers, and liquors have been a…
The consumption of alcoholic beverages has been a social custom throughout the world since the beginning of recorded history. Various wines, beers, and liquors have been a part of almost every culture since ancient times. The modern cocktail originated in Elizabethan England and quickly spread throughout the world. And just as new experiments continually add to the variety of known alcoholic beverages, new books appear describing these drinks and the recipes required to mix them. From yesterday's mulled wine and cider to today's Mai Tai, Margarita, and Tequila Sunrise, bartenders and home party planners refer to these sources when making both traditional and exotic drink recipes. This review is a comparison of thirteen currently available commercial bar guides. While libraries have not traditionally collected in the bar guide genre, every library should have at least one in its collection for use as a reference source or for patrons to use in their homes.
Purpose – This chapter illustrates how female university kendo club members participate in kendo-related hegemonic drinking in formal (heterosocial) and informal (homosocial) club settings. An alternative perspective on gender relations and identity politics in Japan is outlined in this chapter by describing the significance of hegemonic drinking for female kendo club members within homosocial spaces.
Methodology – As a participant-observer, an ethnographic method was applied for an 18-month period as a quasi-member of a Japanese Sports University Kendo Club. Key to accessing the female members' lived experience was the primary author's participation in daily training and the consumption of alcohol in various kendo spaces. The data discussed in this chapter were collected via semi-structured interviews, daily self-reflexive descriptive field notes and ethnographic interviews.
Findings – Hegemonic drinking practices in heterosocial university kendo club spaces encompass networking opportunity, transference of knowledge, and fortitude building, all of which are systemized to support the advancement of male members. Although female members are relatively obscured in heterosocial spaces, women mimic and engage in hegemonic drinking practices in homosocial settings to substantiate meaning to their membership.
Research limitations/implication – Research that engages with the intersection of sport and gender needs to consider aspects of social interaction not only of the physical component of the sport but also the other day-to-day activities related to it. The examination of women and kendo-related hegemonic drinking in this chapter provides an insightful perspective and highlights the value of the ethnographic method in unexplored places of enquiry integral to researching physical cultures and body politics in Japan.
Drawing on the social cognitive theory, this study investigated the effect of mentors' drinking norms on their protégés' alcohol misuse by focusing on the mediating role…
Drawing on the social cognitive theory, this study investigated the effect of mentors' drinking norms on their protégés' alcohol misuse by focusing on the mediating role of conformity drinking motives and the moderating role of moral disengagement. We conducted a three-wave survey of 148 mentor–protégé dyads and found that mentors' drinking norms were positively related to their protégés' alcohol misuse and that this relationship was fully mediated by conformity drinking motives. Moreover, the moderated mediation model revealed that moral engagement strengthens the main effects of mentors' drinking norms on conformity drinking motives and the indirect effects of mentors' drinking norms on protégés' alcohol misuse via enhanced conformity drinking motives. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
This study aims to further investigate the relationship between perceived adherence to gender norms and binge drinking in college students. Thus, researchers examined…
This study aims to further investigate the relationship between perceived adherence to gender norms and binge drinking in college students. Thus, researchers examined college students’ perceptions of adherence to masculine and feminine gender norms when gender and alcohol consumption of a vignette character were manipulated.
Undergraduate participants (N = 368) were randomly assigned to one of four vignette conditions: female moderate drinker, female binge drinker, male moderate drinker, male binge drinker and then surveyed regarding perceptions of the vignette character.
The results of this study indicate that there are significant relationships between the vignette character’s alcohol consumption and perceived adherence to feminine gender norms. The character’s gender, as well as the participant’s own alcohol consumption patterns, also related to perceived adherence to feminine gender norms.
College students’ perceptions of binge drinkers are influenced by gender norms, which has important implications for safe consumption of alcohol. When young men (or young women) are encouraged to drink to avoid appearing too feminine, negative consequences may be more likely. In this study, perceptions of the vignette character’s safety were also found to be related to alcohol consumption of the vignette character, as well as the alcohol consumption of the participant, suggesting that a heavy drinker might not show as much concern for another’s heavy consumption.