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Book part
Publication date: 10 April 2019

Osaro O. Agbontaen

This chapter analyzes the influence of inclusion, equal opportunity and antidiscrimination policies on the strength of diversity in a foreign firm domiciled in a…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter analyzes the influence of inclusion, equal opportunity and antidiscrimination policies on the strength of diversity in a foreign firm domiciled in a developing country.

Design/Approach

It used a questionnaire to collect fact from the depth of employees’ experiences of diversity management in practice to understand its implication for the strength of diversity in the workplace. It questioned the nature of the constructs on diversity in line with the effect of equal opportunity in the workplace.

Methodology

The component factor analysis extraction method obtained valuable constructs from the stated dimensions of items in the questionnaire. The regression technique was used to analyze the influence of these constructs on the strength of diversity in the workplace.

Findings

The results revealed that inclusiveness is necessary to intensify the strength of diversity in foreign organization in a developing nation, with the need to deepen alternative equal opportunity policy and diverse work culture awareness. Power relations strategies foster staff welfare, but weaken compensation by merit heighten employees’ sentiments.

Limitations

Data were only collected from the companies head office; its branches were not covered.

Implications

Employees detect biases in equal opportunity policies beyond the guises of control power relation. Thus, besides a policy for diversity and inclusion in the workplace, an alternative equal opportunity policy is essential to intensify diversity.

Originality

It empirically probes foreign organizations in a developing country staff response to changes in the workplace due to the cautious implementation of inclusion, equal opportunity and antidiscrimination policies to foster diversity.

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Myung Jin, Jaeyong Lee and MiYoung Lee

While prior research has emphasized the importance of diversity management for the betterment of future workforce, the role of managerial actors in leading the diversity

Abstract

Purpose

While prior research has emphasized the importance of diversity management for the betterment of future workforce, the role of managerial actors in leading the diversity management movement has not been substantiated. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of managers in practicing diversity management and the extent to which inclusive leadership affects employee performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The study draws on a large survey data (n=415,696) with a representative sample of employees in federal government in the USA.

Findings

The quantitative results show that diversity policy alone predicts performance less strongly for employees of racial minority than for whites. In contrast, the study finds that inclusive leadership predicts performance more strongly for nonwhites.

Research limitations/implications

The embodied approach to diversity management proposed in this paper expands the understanding of diversity management research by exploring the interaction effect between diversity policy and diversity leadership.

Practical implications

The paper is unique in proposing an interaction effect between diversity policy and diversity leadership in managing diversity.

Social implications

Previous studies in the literature surprisingly neglected to take into account the role of leader behavior in managing diversity. As the study shows the significant moderating role of diversity leadership in diversity management, organizational leaders are encouraged to critically assess and provide training for those team leaders and middle level managers to promote diversity in the workplace.

Originality/value

This is the first empirical study to distinguish and examine the relative impact of diversity policy and inclusive leadership on employee performance in the public sector.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2012

Stijn Verbeek and Sandra Groeneveld

This study aims to examine the effectiveness of three types of diversity policies in improving the numerical representation of ethnic minorities in organizations: the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effectiveness of three types of diversity policies in improving the numerical representation of ethnic minorities in organizations: the assignment of responsibility for the policy within the organization, tiebreak preferential treatment, i.e. selecting the ethnic minority candidate if the best applicants are equally qualified, and the formulation of target figures.

Design/methodology/approach

The dataset consists of 8,283 official reports of Dutch work organizations filed in 2001 and 2002 to comply with the Act Stimulation Labor Participation Minorities (Wet SAMEN). The research is embedded in the broader literature on the underlying motivations for diversity policies and on their potential “symbolic” character.

Findings

The analysis suggests that the three diversity policies and ethnic minority representation are correlated. However, the policies do not impact ethnic minority participation rates in the short run.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should also include long‐term effects, actual implementation processes, and the effectiveness of these three policies in combination with other policies and in specific contexts.

Practical implications

Policymakers and strategic HRM practitioners should adopt a long time frame in trying to increase ethnic minority representation. In line with previous research, the study evaluates assigning responsibility within organizations most positively.

Originality/value

These “hard” policies are central to the debate on equal opportunities, employment equity, and ethnic diversity, but few large N effectiveness studies are available.

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Book part
Publication date: 28 August 2019

Joana Vassilopoulou, Andreas Merx and Verena Bruchhagen

This chapter is partially based on an unpublished Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) background report, titled ‘OECD Research Project on…

Abstract

This chapter is partially based on an unpublished Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) background report, titled ‘OECD Research Project on Diversity in the Workplace: Country Report Germany’, which was written by the authors of this chapter. While the OECD country report illustrates how diversity policies and related diversity instruments targeting various diversity dimensions have developed in Germany over recent decades, this chapter focuses solely on the management of ethnic diversity and its related policies. Diversity policies are broadly understood as any policy that seeks to increase the representation of disadvantaged social groups such as migrants and ethnic minorities, women, disabled persons, older workers and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender/transsexual, intersex and queer/questioning (LGBTIQ) in the workplace, both in the public and in the private sector. The central idea of this chapter is to provide an overview of which policies and instruments have been implemented for migrants and ethnic minorities at the workplace and to evaluate their success or failure where possible. In doing so, this chapter also discusses obstacles, success factors and challenges for policy implementation for the past and for the future.

Details

Race Discrimination and Management of Ethnic Diversity and Migration at Work
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-594-8

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2020

Susan Shortland and Stephen J. Perkins

The purpose of this paper is to examine how female expatriates interpret the effectiveness of practical implementation of equality/diversity policies, trusting this to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how female expatriates interpret the effectiveness of practical implementation of equality/diversity policies, trusting this to support their expatriate careers.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional, qualitative research approach draws upon in-depth semi-structured interviews with 14 human resources equality/diversity policy implementers and 26 current female expatriates in two oil and gas firms.

Findings

Early-career stage female expatriates believe that equality/diversity policy implementation will support their international careers. At the most senior levels, women expatriates highlight unequal treatment breaching their trust in delivery of equality/diversity principles to support their expatriate career progression.

Research limitations/implications

Longitudinal research is needed to assess how early-career women expatriates' willingness to trust in organisational equality/diversity principles alters as their careers progress, and the effects of any changing trust relations on their contributions to organisational strategic objectives. Larger senior female expatriate samples are needed to research links between trust relations and turnover.

Practical implications

Organisations must weigh up benefits from using transparent expatriate selection processes versus less formal mechanisms, if informal processes are not to undermine espoused equality interventions. Unconscious bias training should form part of wide-ranging programmes to tackle discrimination. Senior managerial action with embedded accountability is needed.

Originality/value

Exploring the rhetoric and reality of equality/diversity policy implementation on women comprising a minority expatriate group, this research demonstrates women expatriates' early-career trust in gender equality falls away as they first recognise and then accept diminishing female expatriate senior grade representation and the implications for their expatriate careers. Should turnover result, this could detrimentally affect organisational expatriate gender diversity objectives.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2011

Anne R. van Ewijk

The purpose of this paper is to offer scholars an analytical framework to identify what the fundamental choices are in the definition of diversity (the what), in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to offer scholars an analytical framework to identify what the fundamental choices are in the definition of diversity (the what), in the motivation for diversity within organisations (the why), and in diversity policy as an organisational strategy (the how). It also hopes to stimulate diversity professionals to reflect upon the underlying assumptions of their policies and, if needed, provide inspiration as to how to align them towards a more coherent approach.

Design/methodology/approach

Academic contributions from political, social and management theory on diversity and diversity policy are analyzed on their conceptual coherence to identify important research gaps and construct an analytical framework that can serve to fill these gaps.

Findings

Although increasing societal diversity challenges many organisations to change and facilitate diversity within their structures, defining diversity and diversity policy is an uncommon habit both in the professional practice and in academic studies, while this definition influences the scope and validity of research results and can have a considerable impact on the practical consequences of diversity initiatives. The few studies in this field tend to be quantitative and jump to explanations for differences. The proposed analytical framework contains fundamental choices in the definition of diversity (the selection, interpretation, and categorization of modes of differentiation), the motivation for diversity within organisations (the desired base of difference is individual or collective, and arguments are moral or practical), and the diversity policy approach (the intensity is high or low, and the relevance of collective difference is high or low).

Originality/value

A theoretical exploration of the concept of diversity and diversity policy draws on sources from three distinct disciplines that have not been combined in such a way before, resulting in a new analytical framework that facilitates theory building and policy learning on the topic.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2019

Mohamed-Osman Shereif Mahdi Abaker, Omar Ahmad Khalid Al-Titi and Natheer Shawqi Al-Nasr

The purpose of this paper is to report empirical research conducted in Saudi Arabia on the impacts of organizational policies and practices on the diversity management of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report empirical research conducted in Saudi Arabia on the impacts of organizational policies and practices on the diversity management of the Saudi private sector. To this end, the Saudization policy and views of key respondents have been tested and discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data were collected through questionnaire surveys from the largest 11 private sector organizations listed on the Saudi Stock Market in the financial/banking, oil and gas, petrochemical, private higher education and private health service sectors. Statistical tools such as means and standard deviations and one-sample t-tests were used for analysis.

Findings

The findings suggest that Saudization, retention, pay with benefits and health insurance policies significantly affect the diversity management in the Saudi private sector. Therefore, there is a need to develop organizational policies that support the existence of foreign employees for private businesses in Saudi Arabia. Considering differences as strengths that can be utilized to enhance performance, a diverse workforce might better be able to serve diverse markets.

Research limitations/implications

Collecting data from a closed environment such as Saudi Arabia is constrained by access difficulties, as well as inadequate literature on relevant diversity issues. However, the convenience sampling method and snowballing approach adopted in this study generated reliable data. As a result, this study has implications for both the multinational corporations operating in Saudi Arabia and Saudi owned companies operating in the West and intending to adopt and implement diversity management initiatives for branches in different countries. As such, further research on the gulf countries’ diversity management issues would be critical.

Originality/value

The current study is a first survey-based research endeavor on the topic of diversity management in the Saudi context. The findings contribute to the limited knowledge base on middle eastern countries, thus presenting new empirical evidence on the organizational policies and practices of Saudization, retention, pay and benefits and health insurance policies. The study of the Saudi case, thus adds value to the existing knowledge on diversity management.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2010

Jawad Syed and Robin Kramar

This paper seeks to assess the Australian approach to managing a culturally diverse workforce by examining the outcomes of this approach.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to assess the Australian approach to managing a culturally diverse workforce by examining the outcomes of this approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper applies Syed and Özbilgin's relational, multilevel framework for managing diversity to study policies at three interrelated levels. At the macro‐national level, the paper examines legal and public policy initiatives for managing cultural diversity. At the meso‐organisational level, the paper discusses a variety of workplace diversity management approaches. This discussion encompasses the legal requirements for organisations to remove discrimination, and to create an equal employment opportunity workplace. A voluntary management approach known as “diversity management” is also outlined. At the micro‐individual level, the paper examines unique employment‐related issues faced by ethnic minority workers because of their ethnic, linguistic and religious identities. The multilevel perspectives are synthesised in a model labelled “the Australian model for managing cultural diversity”.

Findings

The legal framework in Australia places only limited obligations on organisations to manage cultural diversity. As a consequence, while a range of organisational responses have proliferated, an integrated approach towards managing culturally diverse workers is absent. The paper argues that, unless cultural diversity is tackled at multiple levels and in a more integrated way, any attempt to either understand or manage such diversity may prove unrealistic.

Originality/value

The paper offers helpful advice to decision makers at the macro‐national and meso‐organisational policy levels vis‐à‐vis developing a realistic understanding of managing diversity through a multilevel framework.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2016

Hanna Ylöstalo

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how equality and diversity are experienced in everyday work within Finnish work organizations and how equality policy and diversity

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss how equality and diversity are experienced in everyday work within Finnish work organizations and how equality policy and diversity management participate in maintaining the inequality regimes of the organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical findings are based on 31 interviews, which were collected in two private sector work organizations. Inequality regimes, the interlocked practices, and processes that result in continuing inequalities in all work organizations, are used as an analytic tool.

Findings

There is an individualizing tendency of equality in Finnish work organizations, which is also the premise of diversity management. Accordingly, the organizations cannot address structural and historical discrimination based on gender, race, and class. Also, when diversity is intrinsic to the corporate image, the members of the organization downplay and legitimize inequalities in their organization.

Originality/value

The paper analyzes inequality regimes in a context that should be ideal for equality and diversity: Finland, where gender equality policies are relatively progressive, and organizations that strive for equality and diversity. This gives new insight on why inequalities are difficult to change.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 35 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Shaun Pichler, Enrica Ruggs and Raymond Trau

The purpose of this paper is to develop a cross-level conceptual model of organizational- and individual-level outcomes of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a cross-level conceptual model of organizational- and individual-level outcomes of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)-supportive policies for all workers regardless of their sexual orientation.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper based on an integration of propositions from perceived organizational support and organizational justice theories.

Findings

The model suggests that LGBT-supportive policies should be related to perceptions of organizational support directly and indirectly through diversity climate and perceptions of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice.

Practical implications

The model implies that employees should feel more supported and more fairly treated among firms with LGBT-supportive policies and practices, and that these feelings will be reciprocated.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to develop propositions about the outcomes of LGBT-supportive policies for all workers, and advances the literature by developing a multi-level model of outcomes of these policies.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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