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Book part
Publication date: 15 September 2016

Pedro Pimpão, Antónia Correia, João Duque and Carlos Zorrinho

This chapter aims to assess how effective loyalty programs are in contributing to retaining guests for hotels. The effectiveness is measured by means of a Bass model which…

Abstract

This chapter aims to assess how effective loyalty programs are in contributing to retaining guests for hotels. The effectiveness is measured by means of a Bass model which allows the measurement of the diffusion patterns of adopters within potential adopters. The data used to perform this model allow the depiction of the effect of geographical localization over a time frame of three years. Results suggest that the loyalty card’s acceptance was measured from the internal and external parameters, based on the concept of diffusion theory. The results indicated a need for innovation of the loyalty program from 2019. Due to the existence of several hotels with different typologies in different countries, a segmentation of clients by nationalities is suggested with a “waterfall” strategy being placed in the hotel chain loyalty program.

Details

Tourism and Hospitality Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-714-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 August 2021

Zhihua Hu

The microstructure and properties of Zn-Sn coating on sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets were investigated by the grain boundary diffusion process, to improve the corrosion…

Abstract

Purpose

The microstructure and properties of Zn-Sn coating on sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets were investigated by the grain boundary diffusion process, to improve the corrosion resistance of magnet surface and explore the feasibility of realizing the lower-temperature grain boundary diffusion.

Design/methodology/approach

The Zn-Sn coating was deposited on sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets by magnetron sputtering, and then the Zn-Sn coated magnets were put into the vacuum tube furnace for grain boundary diffusion process. The morphology and structure of Zn-Sn coating as well as its mechanical properties and corrosion resistance were investigated.

Findings

Results showed that the particle size of vacuum diffusion-treated Zn-Sn coating increased and the particle agglomeration was weakened with increasing diffusion temperature, and the non-vacuum diffusion-treated Zn-Sn coating was oxidized to generate SnO2 and ZnO compounds. The binding force of coating first increased and then decreased with increasing diffusion temperature, and the maximum binding force was obtained at 540 °C. The binding force and corrosion resistance of non-vacuum diffusion-treated Zn-Sn coating were higher than the vacuum diffusion-treated Zn-Sn coating at the same diffusion temperature.

Originality/value

The Zn-Sn coating after diffusion treatment can provide complete protection, and the coating elements diffusion can be carried out at the same temperature as the secondary aging of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets. Simultaneously, further diffusion process optimization needs to be completed because the diffusion depth is very low and only about 10 µm, which does not meet the requirements of traditional grain boundary diffusion method.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 68 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 13 October 2022

David Kocsis and Jason Xiong

Information and communication technology (ICT) has the potential to address and reduce income inequality. However, since 1980, income inequality in the United States has…

Abstract

Purpose

Information and communication technology (ICT) has the potential to address and reduce income inequality. However, since 1980, income inequality in the United States has caused concerns for researchers, policymakers and the public. Entrepreneurs and managers can take advantage of information technologies, while those in the middle and the bottom see fewer benefits. Meanwhile, countries such as Iceland are more capable of using ICT infrastructure to reduce income inequality, which contributes to the well-being of its citizens. This research study explores the relationship between infrastructure diffusion and income inequality through Rogers’s diffusion of innovations theory.

Design/methodology/approach

To answer the research questions, the author assessed the data through a series of regression analyses using SPSS. The authors used Power BI software to chart the relationships between ICT infrastructure diffusion and income inequality by country and in the United States by state and region.

Findings

The results show diffusion of innovations theory’s tenets do not necessarily hold, because a significant negative relationship exists between infrastructure diffusion and income inequality, especially in countries with emerging economies. In the United States, this relationship significantly differs by region.

Originality/value

This research contributes to research by expanding economic and sociology work to the IS domain, while providing conflicting evidence for diffusion of innovations theory. The research also provides suggestions for practice, such as more focused ICT infrastructure investments and regulations.

Details

Journal of Electronic Business & Digital Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2754-4214

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 October 2022

Wojciech Filipowski

The purpose of this paper is to develop a model that allows determining the boron concentration profile in silicon based on duration and temperature of the diffusion process.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a model that allows determining the boron concentration profile in silicon based on duration and temperature of the diffusion process.

Design/methodology/approach

The model was developed on the basis of the Fick’s second law, which is fundamental for describing the diffusion process. The explicit scheme of the finite difference method was used in the conducted simulations. Results of measurements made using the secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were used as template dopant concentration profiles. Solution of boric acid in ethanol is the dopant source for which this model was developed.

Findings

Based on the conducted simulations, it was proposed that besides the influence of electric field of ionized dopants, which is already described in literature, an appropriate factor reflecting the influence of the threshold concentration on the coefficient of diffusion of boron in silicone should also be introduced.

Originality/value

The developed model enables determination of the boron concentration profile in silicon consistent with the results of SIMS measurements. A factor taking into account the influence of threshold concentration on the coefficient of diffusion was introduced. The influence of concentration of boric acid in the dopant solution on the concentration profile was also considered.

Details

Microelectronics International, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-5362

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 October 2010

Hui‐Chih Wang and Her‐Sen Doong

Taiwan is one of several leading countries in the mobile music context. Accordingly, Taiwan's experiences in promoting mobile music service diffusion are of importance and…

Abstract

Purpose

Taiwan is one of several leading countries in the mobile music context. Accordingly, Taiwan's experiences in promoting mobile music service diffusion are of importance and interest to international practitioners and researchers. Applying Rogers' innovation diffusion theory, this study aims to employ econometric models to investigate whether the diffusion of mobile music service adoption is affected by external influences (e.g. mass media advertising, salespeople, and service providers), internal influences (e.g. interactions and imitations among acquaintances), or a combination of such influences.

Design/methodology/approach

To determine which influence best explained the diffusion of mobile music adoptions, the external, internal, and Von Bertalanffy mixed influence diffusion models were tested in this study. GNUS, a strongly functional language and environment to statistically explore data sets, was used to estimate the parameters of each model. The performance of each diffusion model was then examined using the Akaike AIC and Schwarz BIC statistics.

Findings

Findings indicated that the Von Bertalanffy mixed influences model best describes the diffusion pattern of mobile music service adoption and that acquaintances' influence in terms of interactions is the dominant factor influencing mobile music service adoption decision in Taiwan.

Originality/value

How managers of a mobile music service provider can use the internal and external influences interchangeably to effectively accelerate the mobile music diffusion at the different stage of product lifecycle is presented in this study. Indeed, the mobile music service is one of the most important industries worldwide not only because its penetration rate in many countries is over 50 percent, but also because of its killer applications. In light of this, the study contributes highly to theoretical and empirical examinations because the diffusion of the mobile music services within a society is the essence of the development/usage of the m‐commerce or music industries.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 48 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1987

M.T. HEARNE, T.G. ROGERS and B. TUCK

A simple approach is developed for modelling the distribution of dopant in crystals grown by the Czochralski technique. Allowance is made for the temperature dependence of…

Abstract

A simple approach is developed for modelling the distribution of dopant in crystals grown by the Czochralski technique. Allowance is made for the temperature dependence of the diffusivity and for the diffusion of dopant behind the moving boundary. It is found that the effect can make a significant difference to the final dopant distribution. The diffusion process is modelled using a discrete method, previously developed for situations in which the boundary is static.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Evgeny L. Pankratov and Elena A. Bulaeva

It has been recently shown that diffusion of dopant during doping of inhomogeneous structure could be accelerated or decelerated in comparison with diffusion of dopant in…

Abstract

Purpose

It has been recently shown that diffusion of dopant during doping of inhomogeneous structure could be accelerated or decelerated in comparison with diffusion of dopant in structure with averaged diffusion coefficient. As a continuation of previous work, the purpose of this paper is to introduce an approach of estimating the limited value of acceleration of the dopant diffusion by choosing the dependence of the dopant diffusion coefficient on the coordinates.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyzed relaxation of concentration of dopant during diffusion in inhomogeneous material. The authors determine conditions for maximal acceleration and deceleration of diffusion of dopant. The authors introduced analytical approach for analysis of dopant diffusion in inhomogeneous material.

Findings

The authors determine conditions for maximal acceleration and deceleration of diffusion of dopant.

Originality/value

It has been shown that dopant diffusion could be decelerated essentially to a greater extent, rather than accelerated.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2009

Zongwu Cai and Yongmiao Hong

This paper gives a selective review on some recent developments of nonparametric methods in both continuous and discrete time finance, particularly in the areas of…

Abstract

This paper gives a selective review on some recent developments of nonparametric methods in both continuous and discrete time finance, particularly in the areas of nonparametric estimation and testing of diffusion processes, nonparametric testing of parametric diffusion models, nonparametric pricing of derivatives, nonparametric estimation and hypothesis testing for nonlinear pricing kernel, and nonparametric predictability of asset returns. For each financial context, the paper discusses the suitable statistical concepts, models, and modeling procedures, as well as some of their applications to financial data. Their relative strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Much theoretical and empirical research is needed in this area, and more importantly, the paper points to several aspects that deserve further investigation.

Details

Nonparametric Econometric Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-624-3

Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 1 May 2019

John Lindgren and Kristian Widén

This study aims to focus on a reinforcement supplier’s efforts to diffuse solutions, more or less innovative, in the construction sector to gain understanding of what…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to focus on a reinforcement supplier’s efforts to diffuse solutions, more or less innovative, in the construction sector to gain understanding of what facilitates and complicates innovation diffusion from a supplier perspective.

Design/Methodology/Approach

The interpretative research presented builds on 28 semi-structured interviews with the supplier and its customers and document studies. The research emphasizes dynamics in the diffusion process and rests on the assumption that the innovation content, innovation context and the innovation process interacts in the diffusion process.

Findings

The findings and the contribution from the study provide significant details concerning how the dimensions interact and how the diffusion process may unfold over time, but also that different solutions interact to push diffusion forward.

Research Limitations/Implications

The study relates to one supplier’s work and the interplay implies uniqueness in different cases. Studies in other contexts could, therefore, also be suitable to develop findings and their transferability.

Practical Implications

The study provides understanding for suppliers diffusing innovations in construction on how to act.

Originality/Value

A major contribution from the study is that it puts emphasis on how the diffusion process proceeds in interaction with its content and context and problematizes this dimension. Furthermore, the importance of nuancing sub-contexts to display decisive factors in the diffusion process is emphasized.

Details

10th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-051-1

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 April 2012

Seleshi Sisaye and Jacob G. Birnberg

Researchers in the social sciences have studied the process by which new ideas are adopted (implemented) and how acceptance is generated among those charged with accepting…

Abstract

Researchers in the social sciences have studied the process by which new ideas are adopted (implemented) and how acceptance is generated among those charged with accepting and implementing an innovation. Sociology, in particular, has developed an extensive literature on diffusion analysis which examines how innovations are diffused (see Coleman, Katz, & Menzel, 1966; Leagans & Loomis, 1971; Rogers, 1971; Rogers & Shoemaker, 1971). While many of these studies dealt with the adoption and diffusion of a new product, for example, seed corn or drugs, the same analysis has been applied to process innovations, that is, system and organizational change.

Details

An Organizational Learning Approach to Process Innovations: The Extent and Scope of Diffusion and Adoption in Management Accounting Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-734-5

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