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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2021

Yuli Budiati, Wisnu Untoro, Lilik Wahyudi and Mugi Harsono

This study aims to examine the effect of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) on performance and mediation differentiation strategies and market development in small and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effect of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) on performance and mediation differentiation strategies and market development in small and medium enterprises (SMEs).

Design/methodology/approach

This research was conducted using a survey method with a population of furniture SMEs in Jepara, Central Java, Indonesia using a sample area by collecting 158 questionnaires. The data analysis method used the partial least square.

Findings

The result shows that EO has an impact on differentiation, market development and performance. Differentiation strategies and market development mediate the influence of EO and performance. The differentiation strategy further mediates the influence of EO on market development and market development mediates the effect of differentiation on performance.

Practical implications

Managers instill entrepreneurial practice in the organization by proactively creating the market and taking high-risk jobs to provide quality products and services. SMEs require capabilities that are difficult to imitate in creating designs and product quality that are different, providing pre and post-sales services and maintaining good relationships with customers and partners. SMEs emphasize flexibility and speed of operation by adjusting the production process to short waiting times and reliable delivery. The government must support general training and market information, network development, access to capital and knowledge transfer.

Originality/value

This paper explains the importance of differentiation and market development strategies in determining the relationship between EO and performance that has not been explored in the context of SMEs in developing countries.

Details

Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-5201

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2021

Hossam Mahmoud Zaki Ali

This study aims to explore the intermediate role of self-differentiation in anger management and neurotic perfectionism for a sample of high achievers at some public…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the intermediate role of self-differentiation in anger management and neurotic perfectionism for a sample of high achievers at some public universities in Egypt and Saudi Arabia. This increases the chances of these students obtaining their rights.

Design/methodology/approach

The researcher used the microcopy of Drake, Murdock, Marszalek and [(the Differentiation of Self Inventory—Short Form (DSI-SF)] scale, differentiation of self child-adolescent perfectionism scale and Davidson and Munro (2000) scale of neurotic perfectionism in addition to the anger management scale of the current study. The researcher used the appropriate statistical methods and the descriptive design to find the results.

Findings

The results showed that there is no statistically significant difference among male and female students in the positive anger management while three was a statistically significant difference among them in the negative anger management favoring male students. Further, there were no statistically significant differences among the study sample according to the country (Egypt and Saudi Arabia) in anger management (positive and negative). Moreover, there was a correlation matrix between the study variables as shown in the study; The statistical analysis was conducted to identify the suggested constructive model and variables of the study, anger management (positive-negative) as an independent variable, self-differentiation as an intermediate variable and neurotic perfectionism as a dependent variable among high achievers, This explains the necessity of preparing the environment for these students to become more healthy, through which they can enjoy all their rights as a category of special education, where most of the focus is on the handicapped groups from special education more than the high achievers’ students.

Originality/value

The study recommended that higher education courses should focus on anger management skills and the development of self-differentiation and the positive part of perfectionism. Also, the current study provided the educators of higher education with some suggestions to promote it and develop high achievers, which may lead to positive mental and physical health for high achievers and raising awareness of society and obtaining their rights in education and life.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2021

Di Zhao and Wenjun Cai

Emotional intelligence (EI) is deemed important in developing interpersonal relationships. However, in the development of team-member exchange (TMX), the effect of EI on…

Abstract

Purpose

Emotional intelligence (EI) is deemed important in developing interpersonal relationships. However, in the development of team-member exchange (TMX), the effect of EI on TMX and the team context have been largely ignored. For filling these gaps, this study explores the effect of employee EI on employee TMX and introduces EI-based leader-member exchange (LMX) differentiation as a team context to moderate the EI-TMX relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were drawn from 51 teams (consisting of 293 followers and 51 team leaders) selected from 30 companies (across the industries of technology, real estate, commerce and manufacturing).

Findings

Results revealed that employee EI was positively related to employee TMX. EI acted as the basis of LMX differentiation (EI was positively related to LMX, EI variety was positively associated with LMX differentiation), and EI-based LMX differentiation acted as a favorable context for high-EI employees to develop high-quality TMX.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the understanding of EI’s significant and complex influence on interpersonal exchange relationships between leaders, followers and coworkers.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 31 May 2021

Jenny Chen and Helena D. Cooper-Thomas

With organizations hiring from increasingly diverse labor markets, this study aims to examine the implications of newcomers’ individual differentiation for their group…

Abstract

Purpose

With organizations hiring from increasingly diverse labor markets, this study aims to examine the implications of newcomers’ individual differentiation for their group identification. The paper proposes and tests a self-verification process in which individual differentiation predicts group identification through role innovation under positive social feedback on innovation (moderated mediation). Simultaneously, a self-categorization pathway is examined of the indirect negative influence of individual differentiation on group identification through role modeling (mediation).

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected at three time points from 161 UK university alumni.

Findings

The analyses support a self-verification pathway: newcomers with high individual differentiation report higher group identification via role innovation only when they receive positive feedback on their innovative actions. However, there was no support for a self-categorization pathway, with no indirect relationship found between individual differentiation and group identification via role modeling.

Practical implications

HR practitioners and managers who are responsible for helping newcomers adjust should consider newcomers’ individual differentiation. Specifically, newcomers with high individual differentiation may more successfully navigate their transition and identify with their workgroup when given appropriate support, such as positive social feedback on their innovative actions.

Originality/value

The study extends organizational socialization research by focusing on when newcomers with high individual differentiation may experience group identification. The findings highlight the important role of positive social feedback on group identification; this suggests a potential means by which newcomers with high individual differentiation can settle successfully.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2021

Henry F.L. Chung and Mia Hsiao-Wen Ho

This study aims to examine the effects of international competitive strategies, i.e. cost leadership and differentiation, on export (market share and strategic…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effects of international competitive strategies, i.e. cost leadership and differentiation, on export (market share and strategic) performance. This study further explores the roles of exploitative and exploratory organizational learning in the relationships between international competitive strategies and export performances. To fill research gaps, this study intends to provide guidance on how varied exploitative/exploratory organizational learning and cost leadership/differentiation strategy combinations would affect export performance. The outcomes of this study provide a new match and mis-match conceptualization to extant international competitive strategy and organizational learning literature.

Design/methodology/approach

This study selected New Zealand (NZ) exporting as the research setting because exporting plays such a vital role in NZ’s economy and NZ exporting firms have long been highly competitive in international markets (e.g. meat and dairy exporters), with the primary data collected through surveys conducted in 2010 and 2013. This study adopted a three-year lagged performance approach.

Findings

Cost leadership strategy has a positive effect on market share performance. This effect is enhanced by exploitative learning but dampened by exploratory learning. Cost leadership also has a positive effect on strategic performance, which is not affected by exploitative and exploratory learning. Differentiation strategy bears no relation to market share and strategic performance, even allowing for exploitative and exploratory learning. Collectively, the contingent role of organizational learning in the international competitive strategies and export performance framework is far more comprehensive than was expected.

Research limitations/implications

This study reveals that a match between cost leadership strategy and exploitative learning may result in a superior market share. The configuration of differentiation strategy and exploitative learning and the integration of cost leadership strategy and exploratory learning are suggested as mis-matches, as these combinations would not lead to any significant and positive market share and strategic performance. Unexpectedly, the co-alliance of differentiation strategy and explorative learning is not suggested as a match, as it does not result in a superior market share and strategic performance. This latter outcome suggests that the differentiation strategy-export performance link may be stimulated by other moderating factors (e.g. business managerial ties).

Practical implications

While choosing an appropriate international competitive strategy, managers may use cost leadership over differentiation strategy to achieve successful export performance in both the market share and strategic perspectives. Export managers focusing on cost leadership strategy may further implement exploitative learning instead of explorative learning, when market share is vital. Meanwhile, they may note that explorative learning may not have a moderating effect on enhancing strategic performance through cost leadership. These points signify that exploitation of existing knowledge may be more effective than exploration of new knowledge for market share expansion when cost leadership strategy is devoted to exporting activities. Differentiation strategy, however, does not influence market share and strategic performance in exporting, even with an alignment of exploitative/exploratory learning. Managers are urged to pay attention to the mis-match of differentiation strategy and organizational learning when market share and strategic performance are the priorities in export performance evaluation.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the organizational learning literature by providing a new match and mis-match conceptualization relating to international competitive strategy and export performance. The new framework provides directions on when firms should use organizational learning to enhance their competitive strategies (a match scenario) and when they should not use it (a mis-match scenario). This study broadens the existing research that has mainly focused on alignment combinations such as organizational learning-internationalization strategy and organizational learning-social network.

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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Alexander Farestvedt Hem and Magne Supphellen

The purpose of this study is to expand the notion of differentiation by developing and testing a typology of brand benefit differentiation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to expand the notion of differentiation by developing and testing a typology of brand benefit differentiation.

Design/methodology/approach

Brand concept maps were used to identify three types of differentiation. The effects of the types of differentiation on benefit evaluation and brand attachment were tested in two follow-up studies using path analysis.

Findings

A comparison of the association maps of four international brands showed instances of all three types of benefit differentiation – categorical, graded and structural benefit differentiation. The tests of effects revealed that categorical benefit differentiation had negative effects, whereas structural and graded differentiation had positive effects on benefit evaluation and brand attachment, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

The findings suggest that other types of benefit differentiation are more important than uniqueness. Future research should test the relevance and usefulness of the typology for other brands and consumer segments.

Practical implications

The new typology opens new opportunities for the differentiation of brands. Brand managers should avoid a myopic focus on uniqueness. Rather, they should analyze networks of benefit associations in detail for all three types of differentiation identified in this research and strengthen the level of structural and/or graded differentiation.

Originality/value

This research demonstrates, for the first time, the importance of two types of differentiation other than uniqueness. It also supports previous studies showing the negative effects of uniqueness on variables related to brand equity.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 28 February 2020

Allan Discua Cruz, Leonardo Centeno Caffarena and Marcos Vega Solano

There is a growing interest in understanding the strategic behaviour of family firms producing international commodities such as coffee, particularly in contexts where…

Abstract

Purpose

There is a growing interest in understanding the strategic behaviour of family firms producing international commodities such as coffee, particularly in contexts where decisions about what products to sell, where to commercialise them and how to promote them appear to be highly based on both business and family aspects. The purpose of this paper is to explore product differentiation strategies in family firms in the specialty coffee industry across Latin American countries. Whilst the socioeconomic relevance of coffee production in Central America is unequivocal, the approach and rationale of families that engage in specialty coffee production remain underexplored.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examines product differentiation in specialty coffee family farms across countries in Central America: Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. The study relies on in-depth interviews, case studies and an interpretative approach to unpick the dynamics of product differentiation by families in business dedicated to producing specialty coffee.

Findings

The findings show that product differentiation in specialty coffee family farms is influenced by both business and family aspects and driven by entrepreneurial stewards. Coffee-farming families can engage in product differentiation through a shared vision, a combination of traditional and specialised knowledge, and through the continuous development of an exchange network. The findings reveal a connection between families in business balancing family and business interests, and the strategic intention to build up their assets entrepreneurially over time.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on stewardship and strategic behaviour in family firms when families in business engage in differentiating their products in a highly competitive industry. More specifically, this study focuses on companies across countries where coffee is of crucial socioeconomic importance, and where the said companies are owned and managed by families. The study expands understanding of product differentiation in family-enterprise-first businesses and suggests that the family elements in differentiation can be explained through an entrepreneurial stewardship perspective.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2020

Chao Chen and Xinmei Liu

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of team-member exchange (TMX) differentiation on team creativity by developing a moderated mediation model. The model…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of team-member exchange (TMX) differentiation on team creativity by developing a moderated mediation model. The model focuses on the mediating role of team proactivity in linking TMX differentiation with team creativity and the moderating role of leader-member exchange (LMX) median in influencing the mediation.

Design/methodology/approach

A time-lagged field survey data from 331 employees and 68 team leaders in more than ten high-technology firms from Northern China was used to test the model.

Findings

Results indicated that the negative relationship between TMX differentiation and team creativity was mediated by team proactivity. Moderated mediation analyses further revealed that team proactivity mediated the relationship between TMX differentiation and team creativity for only those teams with a low-LMX median.

Originality/value

The empirical study provides preliminary evidence of the mediating role of team proactivity in the negative relationship between TMX differentiation and team creativity. The moderated mediation model also extends the existing finding by showing that LMX quality can moderate the indirect impact of TMX differentiation on team creativity (via team proactivity).

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 41 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2020

Rui Sousa and Giovani J.C. da Silveira

This study theoretically articulates and empirically validates a model of relationships between market complexity (competition intensity, heterogeneity and technological…

Abstract

Purpose

This study theoretically articulates and empirically validates a model of relationships between market complexity (competition intensity, heterogeneity and technological change), strategic focus on product and service differentiation, ADS offerings and differentiation advantage.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors develop and test hypotheses through structural equation modeling based on data from the Sixth International Manufacturing Strategy Survey (IMSS-VI), involving 931 manufacturers from 22 countries.

Findings

The results indicate that (1) market complexity has a positive impact on strategic focus on product and service differentiation; (2) focus on product and service differentiation, but not market complexity, has a positive impact on the extent to which business units offer ADS to their customers; (3) ADS have a positive impact on service differentiation advantage, but no influence on product differentiation advantage.

Practical implications

Managers should incorporate decisions related to ADS provision as part of their manufacturing strategy formulation processes to align markets, strategic focus on product and service differentiation, and ADS provision. ADS seem an appropriate lever for market differentiation, because they appear not only to support service differentiation advantage, but also to be consistent with strategic focus on product differentiation.

Originality/value

The study provides novel insights and large-scale empirical evidence on the influence of the market environment on the offering of ADS, as well as on how relationships between the product and service activity in the manufacturing organization may affect differentiation advantage.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 40 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Hongdan Zhao

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of leader-member exchange (LMX) differentiation on team creativity by developing a moderated mediation model. The model…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of leader-member exchange (LMX) differentiation on team creativity by developing a moderated mediation model. The model focuses on the mediating role of relationship conflict in linking LMX differentiation with team creativity and the moderating role of team-member exchange (TMX) median in influencing the mediation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors tested the model with a time-lagged field survey data from 358 employees and 98 supervisors belonging to 98 teams in a large diversified company with more than 15,000 employees, based in Shanghai, Southeastern China. In the first stage (T1), employees assessed LMX, TMX, relationship conflict, and control variables. In the second stage (T2), the leaders were asked to report team creativity.

Findings

Results indicated that the relationship between LMX differentiation and team creativity was mediated by relationship conflict. Moderated mediation analyses further revealed that relationship conflict mediated the relationship between LMX differentiation and team creativity for only those teams with low-TMX median.

Research limitations/implications

Testing the moderated mediation model helps to advance our theoretical understanding of the intervening processes that underlie the effect of LMX differentiation on team creativity. The findings may also help Chinese managers to inform the importance of helping subordinates better adapt to LMX differentiation, reducing relationship conflict, and constructing high-quality TMX relationships within groups, in order to promote team creativity.

Originality/value

This empirical study provides preliminary evidence of the mediating role of relationship conflict in the negative relationship between LMX differentiation and team creativity. The moderated mediation model also extends the existing finding by showing that not only the quality of social exchange relationships with a supervisor (i.e. LMX) but also with team members (i.e. TMX), can moderate the impact of LMX differentiation on team outcomes.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 36 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

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