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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2022

Reginald U. Amanze and Jerome Carson

The purpose of this study was to investigate forgiveness and mental well-being amongst Forgiveness and mental well-being were investigated amongst British European and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate forgiveness and mental well-being amongst Forgiveness and mental well-being were investigated amongst British European and Nigerian African samples to compare and determine the similarities and differences in dispositional forgiveness levels between the two populations conducted in terms of their general samples, gender and age and the difference in mental well-being scores between the two samples. Finally, the relationship between forgiveness and mental well-being in both groups was examined.

Design/methodology/approach

The Bolton Forgiveness Scale and the Short Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale were administered to the participants (Nigerian n = 1,164, British n = 855). SPSS was used to analyse data; a series of t-test was conducted; and Eta-squared and Z-value were calculated to determine the magnitude of each significant difference among variables and the magnitude of the difference in the correlation coefficient among variables, respectively.

Findings

Statistically significant results suggested significant differences in the way and manner dispositional forgiveness is conceptualised and practised within one group relative to the other, whereas non-significant results indicated similarities in forgiveness opinions and practises between the two groups. Overall British sample, men and those aged 36–55 reported higher levels of forgiveness than their Nigerian counterparts. However, Nigerians under the age of 35 reported higher levels of forgiveness than their British counterparts, and there was no statistically significant difference between the forgiveness levels of British and Nigerian women. Furthermore, the British total sample, men and women, all had higher well-being scores than their Nigerian counterparts.

Research limitations/implications

Forgiveness varies according to culture. The findings of this study suggest that the individualistic/collectivistic cultural arguments long held by some authors may not adequately explain the differences and similarities in forgiveness conceptualization and practise across cultures. As a result, research may focus on a variety of factors such as educational background, income, socioeconomic level and religion, among others. Second, consistent with previous studies, this research suggests that forgiveness is positively related to mental health and well-being. Finally, one of the limitations of this study is its exclusive focus on two countries, namely, the UK and Nigeria. Future research could include more countries with both individualistic and collectivistic societies.

Originality/value

This paper, which is, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, the first to examine forgiveness and mental well-being in a comparative perspective between British European and Nigerian African samples, has made a unique contribution to the forgiveness and mental well-being literature and in particular, has provided a solid foundation and resources for future research of a similar nature in Africa, where little or no research had been conducted previously.

Details

Mental Health and Social Inclusion, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-8308

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2022

Michael Minkov and Anneli Kaasa

It is often believed that the type of religion that a group of people follow (Protestant, Catholic, Orthodox, Muslim, Jewish, Hindu, Buddhist, etc.) can account for…

Abstract

Purpose

It is often believed that the type of religion that a group of people follow (Protestant, Catholic, Orthodox, Muslim, Jewish, Hindu, Buddhist, etc.) can account for significant and important cultural differences, with implications for business ethics, corporate and social responsibility, and other business-related variables. The alternative view is that the cultural differences between religions are either trivial or are actually misinterpreted ethnic or national differences. The purpose of this paper is to compare and evaluate these two views.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors focus on Africa, the most religious region of the world, whose cultures should therefore be especially susceptible to the effect of religion. We used latest data from 100 religious groups, following 19 religions, and living in 27 countries, from the nationally representative Afrobarometer. The items in the authors’ analysis reveal cultural ideologies concerning key cultural domains, such as inclusive–exclusive society (gender equality, homophobia and xenophobia), the role of government and the role of religion in politics. These domains are related to cultural conservatism versus modernization and have clear implications for management. The authors compare the group-level effect of belonging to a certain nation to the effect of belonging to a certain religion.

Findings

A hierarchical cluster analysis produced crystal-clear national clusters, with only one of the 100 religious groups systematically clustering outside its respective national cluster. The authors did not obtain a single cross-national cluster of coreligionists. Variation between nations was far greater than between religious groups and the latter was most often statistically insignificant. A comparison of Muslims with other religions revealed that Muslims are not generally more conservative, although they do have a marginally greater tendency to be less gender egalitarian. The authors conclude that the African national environments have a much stronger impact on cultural differences than do religions. The effect of the latter, compared to the former, is negligibly small and often insignificant. Thus, they find no evidence that religions can produce a powerful discriminant effect on some of the most important elements of culture.

Research limitations/implications

Non-Abrahamic religions are poorly represented in Africa. Therefore, we could not assess their effect on culture. Nevertheless, it seems that attempts to explain cultural differences in values and ideologies in terms of religious differences are misguided, even in a cultural environment where religion is very strong.

Practical implications

The findings could help improve executive training in cross-cultural awareness, purging it from erroneous views on the origins of cultural differences. Managers should avoid simplistic explanations of the values and ideologies of their employees in terms of their religious affiliation.

Social implications

Simplistic (yet very popular) explanations of culture as a function of type of religion should be avoided in society at large, too. The idea that different religions generate different cultures is not only dubious from a scientific perspective but also socially dangerous as it may lead to religious intolerance.

Originality/value

This is only the second study in the history of the whole cross-cultural field that provides a multinational and multidenominational comparison of the effect of nations versus religious denominations on culture.

Highlights:

  1. Religions are often portrayed as sources of important cultural differences.

  2. We compared differences in cultural modernization between religions and between nations in Africa.

  3. Variation between 27 African countries dwarfed that between 100 religious groups.

  4. Practically all religious groups yielded perfectly homogeneous national clusters.

  5. We did not observe a single cluster of coreligionists from different countries.

  6. We conclude that nations have a strong effect on cultural differences whereas religions have a minimal effect at best.

Religions are often portrayed as sources of important cultural differences.

We compared differences in cultural modernization between religions and between nations in Africa.

Variation between 27 African countries dwarfed that between 100 religious groups.

Practically all religious groups yielded perfectly homogeneous national clusters.

We did not observe a single cluster of coreligionists from different countries.

We conclude that nations have a strong effect on cultural differences whereas religions have a minimal effect at best.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Daniel Rottig, Taco H. Reus and Shlomo Y. Tarba

This chapter aims to make sense of the growing research that examines the role of culture in mergers and acquisitions. We provide a detailed review of the many related but…

Abstract

This chapter aims to make sense of the growing research that examines the role of culture in mergers and acquisitions. We provide a detailed review of the many related but distinct constructs that have been introduced to the literature. While each construct has contributed to our understanding of the role of culture, the lack of connections made among constructs has limited the consolidation of contributions. The review shows what these constructs mean for mergers and acquisitions, what major findings have been discovered, and, most importantly, how constructs interrelate. Our discussion provides several opportunities to foster the needed consolidation of this research.

Details

Advances in Mergers and Acquisitions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-836-5

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2016

Eddy S. Ng and Emma Parry

Interest in generational research has garnered a lot of attention, as the workplace is seeing multiple generations (i.e., the Silent Generation, Baby Boomers, Gen Xers…

Abstract

Interest in generational research has garnered a lot of attention, as the workplace is seeing multiple generations (i.e., the Silent Generation, Baby Boomers, Gen Xers, and Millennials) working side-by-side for the first time. However, it is unclear how multiple generations of workers interact with each other and affect the workplace. Although there is extant literature on generational differences, some scholars have argued that the effect sizes are small and the differences are not meaningful. The focal aim of this chapter is to present the current state of literature on generational research. We present the relevant conceptualizations and theoretical frameworks that establish generational research. We then review evidence from existing research studies to establish the areas of differences that may exist among the different generations. In our review, we identify the issues arising from generational differences that are relevant to human resource management (HRM) practices, including new workforce entrants, aging workers, the changing nature of work and organizations, and leadership development. We conclude with several directions for future research on modernizing workplace policies and practices, ensuring sustainability in current employment models, facilitating future empirical research, and integrating the effects of globalization in generational research.

Book part
Publication date: 14 June 2002

Alex R. Hoen

Abstract

Details

An Input-output Analysis of European Integration
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44451-088-4

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Arthur J. Keown, Paul Laux and John D. Martin

Partner firms to the same joint venture experience sharply different stock price reactions. These differences cannot be explained by mechanical factors related to…

Abstract

Partner firms to the same joint venture experience sharply different stock price reactions. These differences cannot be explained by mechanical factors related to differences in firm size and ownership share in the project, nor are they attributable to different partner roles in the project or differences in investor anticipation of the announcement. We conclude that the stock price reactions reflect a revaluation of non-project assets that is different for each partner. Additionally, we find evidence indicating that investors infer information about agency problems (in the sense of Jensen, 1986) from the joint venture announcements and subsequently, revalue the whole firm – not just the marginal project being announced. Finally, we find that free cash flow is value-enhancing for one type of partner firm after we control for the extent of agency problems.

Details

Research in Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-277-1

Book part
Publication date: 9 November 2020

Riikka Hofmann

There is an identified need in higher education research for methods which have the capacity to generate conceptual insights grounded in concrete local practice but with…

Abstract

There is an identified need in higher education research for methods which have the capacity to generate conceptual insights grounded in concrete local practice but with wider applicability in understanding and facilitating research-based change. This chapter outlines an intermediate approach to qualitative data analysis which can support theoretical knowledge advancement from practice-based research, which I call the difference-within-similarity approach. It involves a particular way of conducting dialogues with our data: of interanimating similarities and differences within our qualitative datasets. The approach outlined involves first identifying a similarity, then systematically examining differences within that similarity to generate theoretical explanations. Drawing on sociocultural theorising, particularly dialogic theory and cultural–historical activity theory, the approach is based on the idea that new meanings arise from a comparison of multiple perspectives on the ‘same’ phenomenon. The tensions between such perspectives are seen as a key driver for change in educational practice. Therefore, articulating and examining such tensions in our data gives an opportunity to simulate the possibility of change in our analysis and, hence, develop insights which can inform change beyond local settings. Important here is that the differences examined are bound together by an analytically productive similarity. Through multiple research examples, the chapter identifies and illustrates a range of ways of articulating productive analytical similarities for comparison in our data: through theory/literature, through forward and backwards processing of data itself and through a process termed ‘weaving’.

Book part
Publication date: 14 August 2015

Jyoti Rai and Jean Kimmel

Do women exhibit greater financial risk aversion than men? We answer this question using attitudinal and behavioral specifications of risk aversion drawn from the 2010…

Abstract

Do women exhibit greater financial risk aversion than men? We answer this question using attitudinal and behavioral specifications of risk aversion drawn from the 2010 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF). To approximate attitudinal specification of risk aversion, we use individuals’ self-reported financial risk tolerance. We use individuals’ relative risk aversion, that is, the effect of wealth on the proportion of assets categorized as risky as behavioral specification of risk aversion. We find that while women display greater attitudinal risk aversion, gender difference in behavioral risk aversion depends upon individuals’ marital status and role in household finances. Single women exhibit greater behavioral risk aversion compared to single men. However, this gender difference does not exist when we compare behavioral risk aversion of married women and men in charge of household finances.

Book part
Publication date: 21 May 2021

Çağla Aslı Gülduran and Arzu Gürdoğan

Introduction: The world has become a global village with the development of globalization, technology, transportation opportunities, and socioeconomic living conditions…

Abstract

Introduction: The world has become a global village with the development of globalization, technology, transportation opportunities, and socioeconomic living conditions. Multinational, multicultural businesses have been formed with the effect of globalization. Tourism activities have also gained a global dynamic. People from different cultures travel to different geographies for different purposes, and this highlights the need for managers and employees of tourism businesses to adapt to people from different cultures and multicultural environments.

Aim: In order to achieve success in intercultural communication, it is necessary to work with employees with a high level of intercultural sensitivity. Respect for different cultures without prejudices is very important in hotel businesses to provide quality service. For this reason, the high level of intercultural sensitivity of the employees in tourism businesses, which have a multicultural structure both with their customers and managers, will significantly affect their competitiveness in the sector. The aim of this study is to examine the intercultural sensitivity level of department managers working in hotel businesses according to some demographic features.

Method: The data collected via a survey were analyzed with statistical software. Frequency, percentage, etc., descriptive analysis and difference tests were performed.

Result: Intercultural sensitivity levels of hotel managers were examined according to some demographic characteristics. It was revealed that intercultural sensitivity levels of the managers working in hotel enterprises who participated in the research were far from ethnocentrism.

Implication: In the research, it was found that those who received tourism education respected intercultural differences more than those who did not receive any tourism education, and that they were affected by intercultural interaction more than those who did not receive any tourism education. For those working in the tourism sector, the recruitment of qualified personnel who received tourism education is important in order to achieve intercultural communication.

Originality of Study: The research was conducted on the department managers working in 4 and 5-star hotel enterprises in Marmaris and Bodrum districts of Muğla Province. There are a very limited number of studies in terms of determining the intercultural levels of employees and managers in hotel enterprises and examining them according to demographic characteristics. The research achieved results supporting similar studies. It is deemed significant in terms of determining according to which variables the concept of intercultural sensitivity differ and achieving results that can be generalized. Furthermore, the results which emphasized the importance of intercultural communication in the recruitment of the employees who received tourism education within the sector were also obtained.

Details

New Challenges for Future Sustainability and Wellbeing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-969-6

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 8 July 2008

Greg Hundley and Carlos Sánchez Runde

Data from samples of managers from eight countries, Thailand, Nigeria, Philippines, Peru, Uruguay, Argentina, Spain, and the United States, are used to explore…

Abstract

Data from samples of managers from eight countries, Thailand, Nigeria, Philippines, Peru, Uruguay, Argentina, Spain, and the United States, are used to explore cross-national differences in how individuals make judgments about an individual's pay. A policy-capturing instrument is used to elicit judgments about the ways that variations in individual employee job performance, business unit performance, seniority, schooling, and need affect judgments about pay fairness. Significant between-country differences are found in the sensitivities of pay fairness judgments. However, these differences are not well explained by differences in individualism/collectivism reflected either by a priori categorizations of national culture or direct measures of horizontal/vertical collectivism. Implications for the explanation of cross-national differences are explored.

Details

The Global Diffusion of Human Resource Practices: Institutional and Cultural Limits
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1401-0

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