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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1975

Mary Harding

Since there are many diseases and errors of metabolism which result in the individual being unable to cope with a normal diet, only diabetes and coeliac diseases were…

Abstract

Since there are many diseases and errors of metabolism which result in the individual being unable to cope with a normal diet, only diabetes and coeliac diseases were examined in the ensuing survey. The two diets chosen represent different aspects of adjusting to a special diet. Diabetes involves regulation of intake of all carbohydrate foods, whereas coeliacs can eat as much as they like of some foods but nothing that contains gluten. The specific areas studied outlined the problems involved in adjusting to a special diet, in relation to the type of help available when the diet is prescribed. This included collecting a representative selection of literature connected with special diets and considering them in respect of their ability to help patients understand their diet; a small amount of gluten free recipe testing and diabetic menu planning; and a pilot questionnaire survey of patients in the South East.

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Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 75 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1994

Jill Davies

With the knowledge that body mass index (BMI) exceeding 30 is increasingin Britain, explores various good diets, popular throughout the century,e.g. The Hay Diet

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Abstract

With the knowledge that body mass index (BMI) exceeding 30 is increasing in Britain, explores various good diets, popular throughout the century, e.g. The Hay Diet, Hollywood 18‐day Diet, Two‐food Diets, etc. and reveals that most are potentially harmful, lacking in essential nutrients. Points out that it is paradoxical that obesity is on the increase but as many as one in five women at a given time are on a diet, and supports the view that “it is better to be fat than be dead”, suggesting a healthy diet to follow.

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Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 94 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1996

Anita Eves

Diets, notably diets aimed at weight reduction, appear regularly in women’s general interest magazines. Recently there has also been an increase in publications aimed at…

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Abstract

Diets, notably diets aimed at weight reduction, appear regularly in women’s general interest magazines. Recently there has also been an increase in publications aimed at health promotion or slimming, and in the availability of “slimming aids”. The efficacy of some of these has been questioned, and concern expressed over the nutritional adequacy of some diets. Investigates the nutritional adequacy of nine diets drawn from a variety of publications. Most diets were aimed at weight loss, but some were promoted as a “new way of life”, e.g. food combining. Energy levels supplied by all diets were below current recommendations, thus weight reduction would be the result of low energy intakes. Overall, the nutritional value of the diets was reasonable.The main concern was low iron intakes supplied by the Food Combining for Health diet, where the diet is followed for long periods.

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Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 96 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 23 March 2012

Samson Ibironke, Joseph B. Fashakin and A.O. Badmus

The purpose of this paper is to nutritionally evaluate the potency of complementary food produced by mixing different sources of vegetable and animal protein together.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to nutritionally evaluate the potency of complementary food produced by mixing different sources of vegetable and animal protein together.

Design/methodology/approach

Maize (carbohydrate), peanut (groundnut) and crayfish (Euastacus spp) were the sole energy and protein sources, respectively. Diet 1 (Basal); diet 2 (groundnut‐fermented‐maize (ogi) 1:9); diet 3 (crayfish‐ground‐nut‐ogi, 1:1:9); diet 4 (crayfish‐ogi, 1:9); diet 5 control (Nutrend). The formulated complementary diets were fed to 30 albino rats. A commercial product (Nutrend) manufactured by nestle plc was obtained at a local supermarket, Ile‐Ife, Nigeria and was used as standard diet.

Findings

The result showed the growth rate (non‐protein diet) decreased from 37.962‐36.910; and the growth rate (protein diet) increased from 37.270‐54.544, 37.770‐82.662, 37.900‐78.570, and 37.636‐80.521 for diets 1 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. Protein efficiency ratio (PER), for diets 1 2, 3, 4 and 5 were nil, 1.45, 3.30, 3.15, and 2.94, respectively. Net protein ratio (NPR), for diets 1 2, 3, 4 and 5 were nil, 0.85, 2.78, 2.59, and 2.45, respectively. The average nitrogen retained in various organs of experimental animals, such as liver, kidney and muscle of the diets 1 2, 3 4 and 5 were 35.52, 33.55, 33.58: 48.32, 48.40 48.68: 55.70, 53.20, 56.08: 52.30, 50.48, 54.65: and 56.76, 44.63, 56.80, respectively. The formulations compared to control were found superior in terms of growth rate, PER, NPR and ensure optimum nitrogen content in the liver, kidney and tissues.

Originality/value

The paper's findings show that the complementary food formulations which are not expensive, locally available, and affordable, could be produced from plant and animal sources and may be suitable to eradicate protein energy malnutrition (PEM).

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Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2021

Abimbola Abiodun Adeyemi-Doro, Sule Ola Salawu and Akintunde Afolabi Akindahunsi

The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of two green leafy vegetables (Gongronema latifolium and Celosia argentea) on the hepatic biomarkers [Alanine…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of two green leafy vegetables (Gongronema latifolium and Celosia argentea) on the hepatic biomarkers [Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST)], cardiac biomarkers [Creatine Kinase (CK) and Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)] and histopathology of the heart of high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats, with the aim of evaluating the vegetables as functional foods.

Design/methodology/approach

Experimental diets consisted of Control Diet (CD), High-Fat Diet (HFD), High-Fat Diet with Blanched Celosia argentea (HCB), High-Fat Diet with Unblanched Celosia argentea (HCU), High-Fat diet with Blanched Gongronema latifolium (HGB) and High-Fat Diet with Unblanched Gongronema latifolium (HGU). Seventy-five albino male rats (weighing 180–200 g) were used. The animals were divided into 15 groups of five albino rats each. Animals in Groups 1, 2 and 3 were fed with CD, HFD only and HFD with Atorvastin (5 mg/kg b.w), respectively. Animals in Groups 4, 5 and 6 were fed with 5, 10 and 15% HCB, respectively. Animals in Groups 7, 8 and 9 were fed with 5, 10 and 15% HCU, respectively, whereas animals in Groups 10, 11 and 12 were fed with 5, 10 and 15% HGB, respectively, and animals in Groups 13, 14 and 15 were fed with 5, 10 and 15% diet-inclusion of HGU, respectively.

Findings

The incorporation of the vegetal matter into the diet brought about a significant reduction (p = 0.05) in the activities of ALT, AST, CK and LDH when compared with HFD. However, the histological examination showed no pathological lesion, only at 15% inclusion of the vegetables.

Originality/value

The paper established that the incorporation of Celosia argentea and Gongronema latifolium into diet, most especially at 15% inclusion, may serve as functional food in the management of hyperlipidemia and associated complications.

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Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 18 August 2021

Jéssica Sena Gonçalves, Arthur Rocha-Gomes, Amanda Escobar Teixeira, Alexandre Alves da Silva, Mayara Rodrigues Lessa, Nísia Andrade Villela Dessimoni-Pinto, Sergio Ricardo Stuckert Seixas and Tania Regina Riul

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the increase in sensitivity of a single risperidone administration in relation to energy intake of Wistar rats treated with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the increase in sensitivity of a single risperidone administration in relation to energy intake of Wistar rats treated with cafeteria diet from birth to adulthood (119 days).

Design/methodology/approach

During the lactation period, six litters of Wistar rats (dam + 8 pups each litter) were fed one of the following two diets: Control (n = 3) or Cafeteria (n = 3) diets and water ad libitum. After weaning, the males were placed in individual cages, receiving the same diet offered to their respective dams (Control = 18; or Cafeteria = 18) until adulthood (119 postnatal days). The following parameters were evaluated: food and energy intake; macronutrient intake; weight gain; adipose tissue relative weight; sucrose preference; food intake after an administration of risperidone (0.1 mg/kg body weight).

Findings

The Cafeteria group showed a higher energy intake in relation to the Control group (p < 0.001). The consumption of energy beyond the individual needs can be understood as a hyperphagic condition. Also, the Cafeteria group reported greater weight gain (p = 0.048) and accumulation of adipose tissue (p < 0.001) with respect to the Control group. These results indicate that the cafeteria diet generated obesity in animals. The Cafeteria group showed reduced sucrose preference (p = 0.031), which is associated with the development of anhedonia-like behavior. In the food intake test, risperidone showed a greater sensitivity in Cafeteria animals, promoting a decrease in their energy intake in relation to the Control group that received risperidone (p = 0.040).

Originality/value

The cafeteria diet promoted hyperphagia, anhedonia-like behavior and obesity in animals. Acute risperidone administration showed greater sensitivity in the Cafeteria group, with a decrease in energy intake. The reported effects may be related to a downregulation of the dopaminergic system in the NAc region.

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Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Steven M. Suranovic and Robert S. Goldfarb

This paper presents a behavioral economics model with bounded rationality to describe an individual's food consumption choices that lead to weight gain and dieting. Using…

Abstract

This paper presents a behavioral economics model with bounded rationality to describe an individual's food consumption choices that lead to weight gain and dieting. Using a physiological relationship determining calories needed to maintain weight, we simulate the food consumption choices of a representative female over a 30-year period. Results show an individual will periodically choose to diet, but that diet will reduce weight only temporarily. Recurrence of weight gain leads to cyclical dieting, which reduces the trend rate of weight increase. Dieting frequency is shown to depend on decision period length, dieting costs, and habit persistence.

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The Economics of Obesity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-482-9

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Book part
Publication date: 6 December 2018

Jasenka Gajdoš Kljusurić

Diet therapy or nutritional therapy has become a real challenge in the fight against the increasing number of modern illnesses such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular…

Abstract

Diet therapy or nutritional therapy has become a real challenge in the fight against the increasing number of modern illnesses such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancers. The scientific community has recognized the importance of studies that will support or rebut the association of certain nutrition/energy inputs with the prevention and/or improvement of certain diseases. Patient counseling is offered by medical doctors, nutritionists and dieticians, but patients often seek additional sources of information from popular media that may not be adequately scientifically supported. Whose responsibility is it when the Diet Therapy is not an effective treatment and where does the consequent ethical and moral responsibility lie?

This chapter argues for the importance of a nutritionally educated scientist evaluating the diets that are seen to be related with the health improvement also excluding diets that are mostly related to the patients’ well-being as the Mediterranean, DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension), Ketogenic and Vegetarian diet. Diet guidelines are often explained with linguistic variables (as “reduce the input of” etc.) which can be differently perceived by the end user. The interpretation if a linguistic variable is presented using the body mass index categories using a bell-shaped curve. The preferable area fits to the linguistic variable “acceptable BMI.” But also are indicated those areas which are less preferable. Those examples of information interpretations show the necessity of knowledge transfer. The quantity of information presented in diet guidelines can be experienced as a great muddle for patients; leaving them not knowing where and how to start. So, remains the ethical and moral responsibility of all links in the chain of nutritional and diet research and recommendations. Only objective and open-minded recommendations based on the latest scientific facts can gain confidence of the social, economical, and political subjects which must put the well-being of the population uppermost in their mind.

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Ethics and Integrity in Health and Life Sciences Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-572-8

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Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2016

Franca Bimbi

The chapter is an auto-ethnographic account of the self-management of a chronic illness within the context of a participatory research project on Mediterranean Diet (MD)…

Abstract

Purpose

The chapter is an auto-ethnographic account of the self-management of a chronic illness within the context of a participatory research project on Mediterranean Diet (MD). A group of Italian women with type 2 diabetes is following a non-medical, personal interpretation of the Mediterranean-style diet. The research account is preceded by a critical appraisal of the scientific narratives of the MD.

Methodology/approach

Analysis of epidemiological research on MD examines some methodological aspects of gender blindness in its scientific approach. The ethnography concerns self-management of MD diet and redefinition of gender relations.

Findings

MD is analyzed as a case of transplantation of yesterday’s cultural and social capitals of the peasant classes, to today’s discourses on food considered as appropriate for affluent people suffering from satiety diseases. The ethnography highlights gender aspects of biographical work, examining in particular a “conversion” dietary model.

Research limitations

The ethnography must be amplified to include women and men from different social classes with various Mediterranean cooking habits, and family and gender patterns.

Practical implications

The chapter highlights cultural processes for women’s empowerment in self-managing type 2 diabetes.

Originality/value

This chapter may represent a seminal sociological work on chronic illness, gender and food studies in one of the “native” contexts of the Mediterranean-style diet.

Details

Gender and Food: From Production to Consumption and After
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-054-1

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Book part
Publication date: 30 June 2017

Cecilia Díaz-Méndez and Cristobal Gómez-Benito

In this chapter the aim is to analyse the way the relationship between health and food has been changing at the same time as Spanish society itself. From the beginnings of…

Abstract

In this chapter the aim is to analyse the way the relationship between health and food has been changing at the same time as Spanish society itself. From the beginnings of the consumer society until the present day the modernization process has made its imprint on the guidelines public bodies have issued to the public on caring for their health and diet. Beginning in the 1960s with a welfare idea of a healthy diet, very typical of the decade, and meant for a population with nutritional problems, today we have guidelines for an overfed population. The social trends dominant in each historical moment are shown throughout this transformation process and the dietary recommendations have been part of the social change. However, the perceptions of the administration itself on what constitutes a healthy diet have also made their mark on the criteria. The modernizing nature of the paternalistic administration of the 1960s can be easily seen in contrast with the public bodies of the 1980s competing with the messages from the food and agricultural businesses. As the 20th century drew to a close, dietary advice was in keeping with a background dominated by considerations on the nature of social change and in which both public bodies and citizens trusted in the truths of science as a reference point for correct action. At the beginning of the 21st century, reflexivity and questioning of scientific power appear and also an increase in public preoccupation with food risks. Each stage is analysed relating historical background and dietary recommendations.

Details

Transforming the Rural
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-823-9

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