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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Kenneth F. Hyde

Independent travelers are those vacationers who have booked only a minimum of their transportation and accommodation arrangements prior to departure on the vacation…

Abstract

Independent travelers are those vacationers who have booked only a minimum of their transportation and accommodation arrangements prior to departure on the vacation. Independent travel is an important and growing sector of worldwide tourism. Choice of vacation itinerary for the independent vacation represents a complex series of decisions regarding purchase of multiple leisure and tourism services. This chapter builds and tests a model of independent traveler decision-making for choice of vacation itinerary. The research undertaken employs a two-phase, inductive–deductive case study design. In the deductive phase, the researcher interviewed 20 travel parties vacationing in New Zealand for the first time. The researcher interviewed respondents at both the beginning and the end of their New Zealand vacations. The study compares pre-vacation research and plans, and actual vacation behaviors, on a case-by-case basis. The study examines case study narratives and quantitative measures of crucial variables. The study tests two competing models of independent traveler decision-making, using a pattern-matching procedure. This embedded research design results in high multi-source, multi-method validity for the supported model. The model of the Independent Vacation as Evolving Itinerary suggests that much of the vacation itinerary experienced in independent travel is indeed unplanned, and that a desire to experience the unplanned is a key hedonic motive for independent travel. Rather than following a fixed itinerary, the itinerary of an independent vacation evolves as the vacation proceeds. The independent traveler takes advantage of serendipitous opportunities to experience a number of locations, attractions and activities that they had neither actively researched nor planned.

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Advances in Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-522-2

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2021

Hao Thi Kim Do, Dung Phuong Hoang and Thuy Thu Pham

This paper aims to examine the factors affecting travelers’ decision to select more than one destination in their trips. Drawn from the rational choice theory, this study…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the factors affecting travelers’ decision to select more than one destination in their trips. Drawn from the rational choice theory, this study posits that the selection of multi-destination tours, as a rational choice, is determined by the travelers’ perception of costs and benefits associated with that choice.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual model was developed from both an exploratory research with in-depth interview and the literature. A logistic regression model linking four explanatory variables representing perceived benefits and costs of multi-destination option with travelers’ choice of multi-destination trips. The conceptual model is controlled for diversity of travel purposes; tour group size; type of travel arrangement and travelers’ demographic characteristics while the research context of multi-destination travel within Phu Yen – Dak Lak – Gia Lai – Binh Dinh helps control for the characteristics of the destination set (spatial proximity and traffic convenience). The conceptual model was tested based on data collected from 1,361 Vietnamese travelers who have ever visited at least one of the four provinces.

Findings

This study finds that perceived benefits in terms of diversifying tourism experiences and perceived costs of traveling in multiple places compared to taking single trips represent the most significant drivers for tourists’ selection of multi-destination tours. In addition, the diversity of travel purposes and tour group size have a positive and significant impact on the demand for traveling more than one destination in a trip. Moreover, the richer, older and married travelers have a significantly higher tendency to select multi-destination packages.

Practical implications

The research findings provide important strategic implications for promoting multi-destination trips, thereby, maximizing economic benefits from tourism.

Originality/value

While multi-destination travel patterns have been examined empirically in individual studies sporadically without a common theoretical background, this research makes some progress on this front by using the rational choice theory to connect the relative contributions of those factors to the travelers’ choice of multi-destination trips. Specifically, this study provides a new perspective in explaining the selection of multi-destination trips – from tourists’ perceptions about costs and benefits associated with that choice.

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International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 25 August 2020

Banasree Dey, Jones Mathew and Chin Chee-Hua

Rural homestays have emerged as an interesting option for tourists. This study aims to assess the role of destination attractiveness factors and travel motivations in…

Abstract

Purpose

Rural homestays have emerged as an interesting option for tourists. This study aims to assess the role of destination attractiveness factors and travel motivations in homestay choice. The moderating role of need for uniqueness towards enhancing these relationships is also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey of 201 Indian tourists who had visited rural homestays in the Uttarakhand state of India was conducted. Data were analyzed using SPSS and WarpPLS, based on structural equation modelling approach.

Findings

Results indicate that two destination attractiveness factors – (a) cultural and rural attractions and (b) destination location and transportation – have a significant association with rural homestay choice. Further, need for uniqueness enhances the relationship between natural attractions and choosing rural homestays.

Originality/value

Although there are several studies on rural homestays, there is scant research on the factors influencing the choice of rural homestays from a tourists’ perspective. Besides, studies on rural homestay tourism have not assessed the role of need for uniqueness in influencing such choices. The implications of the study for destination marketers, homestay operators and owners are discussed which would hopefully aid in attracting discerning tourists to the rural homestays to such regions.

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International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2010

Girish Prayag

The purpose of this paper is to assess the brand image of Cape Town as a tourist destination using a progressive method of unstructured and structured techniques such as…

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4868

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the brand image of Cape Town as a tourist destination using a progressive method of unstructured and structured techniques such as word association and free association.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed method study was designed incorporating two phases. Phase one involved in‐depth interviews with a convenience sample of 85 international visitors to Cape Town. Phase two consisted of a survey, which resulted in 585 useable questionnaires that incorporated both open and closed‐ended questions.

Findings

The results indicate the strengths and weaknesses of each technique used. For example, word association is effective at eliciting positive images and holistic impressions but weak at identifying affective images. The free‐choice technique offers a more balanced perception of positive, negative, cognitive and affective images of a brand.

Research limitations/implications

It is possible through the use of unstructured and structured techniques together to identify commonality in image perceptions but also differences in such perceptions on the basis of visitors' demographic and travelling characteristics.

Practical implications

The findings highlight the strengths and weaknesses of techniques such as word association and free association. The results indicate that some image attributes may not always adequately differentiate the brand from its competitors.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to understand the relationship between three components of brand knowledge namely, image, differentiating attributes and choice factors in the context of an African city brand.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2017

Arch G. Woodside

Consumer behavior in tourism (CBT) is an interdisciplinary field of study encompassing the basic behavioral and economic sciences (e.g., psychology, sociology, and…

Abstract

Consumer behavior in tourism (CBT) is an interdisciplinary field of study encompassing the basic behavioral and economic sciences (e.g., psychology, sociology, and economics) and applied fields of study (e.g., management, marketing, tourism, and hospitality) focusing on all aspects of discretionary travel. This chapter describes major issues and findings in the literature relating to CBT. The chapter directs the reader’s attention to some of the highly-cited studies in this literature – these studies provide a foundation of knowledge on the central topics, issues, methods, findings, and theoretical/practical contributions in research on CBT. Research studies in CBT focus on one-to-all five core theoretical issues in basic and applied fields of study: describe who is doing what, when, where, how, and the consequences of the activities; explain the meanings of activities and motivations of the actors; predict (model) what actions and outcomes will occur and the impacts of influence attempts before, during, and after engaging in tourist actions; control (influence) the beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and assessments of tourists, local community members, and additional stakeholders; evaluate tourism service/product delivery, tourism management performance, and customer satisfaction. Survey research using verbal (written) responses to questions is pervasive and the most frequent method for data collection in CBT. Additional research genres in CBT include direct observations of tourism behavior with or without some oral questioning (unobtrusive studies, the long interview method (McCracken, 1988), use of “consumer culture theory”), participant observation including semester abroad and unpaid internships away from home, formal field experiments, and the study of secondary sources (e.g., photographs and writings in blogs and social media (e.g., TripAdvisor) reviews).

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Consumer Behavior in Tourism and Hospitality Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-690-7

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2018

Chang-Keun Yoo, Donghwan Yoon and Eerang Park

The purpose of this study is to discuss prevalent socio-psychological models which examine how tourists’ needs and motivations affect their destination choices by…

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7876

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to discuss prevalent socio-psychological models which examine how tourists’ needs and motivations affect their destination choices by collectively considering Plog’s (1974) psychographic profiles, Cohen’s (1979) tourist typology and Peace’s (1988) travel career ladder. The current study argues that no single model can adequately explain tourists’ destination selection process as well as travel behaviors and introduces a new integrated perspective of existing psychological models.

Design/methodology/approach

Examining responses from 202 Hong Kong residents who have travel experience, this study divides the respondents’ psychographics into three types.

Findings

Using multinomial logit model (MNL) analysis, the study finds that tourists’ travel motivations and destination settings can be varied by their psychographics types. The findings also reveal that tourist’s psychographic types can be varied by demographics, travel type, frequencies, duration, purpose and destination setting.

Originality/value

The study provides implications for tourism marketers as well as the tourism literature by suggesting an integrative approach for a better understanding of tourist motivations.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 73 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2010

Ian Phau, Tekle Shanka and Neema Dhayan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influences of information sources, namely organic sources and induced sources, on perceived destination image and destination

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3735

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influences of information sources, namely organic sources and induced sources, on perceived destination image and destination choice intention of university student travellers to Mauritius.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using a convenience sample in a large university in Western Australia. A self‐administered questionnaire was designed using established scales. In total, 388 usable responses were collected and analyzed using a variety of statistical techniques.

Findings

The perceived attractiveness of Mauritius as a vacation destination is based on the fact that tourists picture the island as one which offers good value for money and cheap travel. Both information sources are found to have an influence on perceived destination image and destination choice intention. Perceived destination image is found to predict destination choice intention.

Research limitations/implications

The sample is limited to potential tourists in Western Australia. Larger or national sample can be used for future studies. Qualitative methods could be explored in future.

Practical implications

It is recommended that destination marketers should use multiple sources of information to target tourists. In particular, the internet seems to be the highest incidence of information source.

Originality/value

The paper has redressed some deficits in the literature. Prior studies have not examined Mauritius as a tourist destination. Neither have Australians been studied as potential tourists. It has also tested the conceptual determinants of perceived destination image and destination choice intention and has proved that destination image is a multidimensional concept.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2018

Sven Gross and Bente Grimm

The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the determinants that influence the tourists’ choice of mode of transport at the destination, and it is intended to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the determinants that influence the tourists’ choice of mode of transport at the destination, and it is intended to contribute to the sustainable mobility of tourists. In line with this approach, the main emphasis is placed on public transport (PT) within the destination.

Design/methodology/approach

In addition to illustrating frequency, users and non-users of public transport were analysed. Differences in the selected influencing factors on the choice of the modes of transport are determined using the chi-square test for nominal variables, and statistical significance was determined using Kruskal–Wallis H-test for the ordinal variables.

Findings

The analysis illustrates that the most important socio-demographic determinants in public transport use are: age, household size, net household income, car availability and current professional activity. In terms of travel-orientated variables, the arrival transport means, as well as the travel duration, travel expenses and travel organisation stand out.

Research limitations/implications

Although the Reiseanalyse (RA) has been established in German tourism research for many years, the present study is not without limitations. First, the questionnaire of the RA is made up of standard questions that are (nearly) identical year after year and topic-specific questions from one or more customers. The questions used in the present analysis were, therefore, not developed specifically for this contribution. Second, the authors cannot evaluate the existing data in more detail because the data structure does not provide this. Only two variables can be related at a time. Due to financial limitations, the authors could not use the raw data. For this reason, it is not possible to perform mediator analyses or multiple predictions to check relationships between independent variables (such as income, number of cars, profession or age). In this context, it should be noted that the observed differences to the other studies cited can also be because of different methodological approaches of the individual studies. While most of the studies used for comparison include tourists from one overnight stay, this paper focuses on main holiday trips with a duration of five days and more. There are also differences in the survey itself. Most of the face-to-face surveys were conducted on site. The RA, on the other hand, takes place at home with respondents with a time delay after the holiday trip. In this context, it is particularly important to note that these results are representative for the whole of the Federal Republic of Germany, i.e. the domestic holidays of the German-speaking population living in Germany, and that they are not representative for any single city or a similar spatial unit.

Originality/value

Tourism-related mobility negatively effects all (German) destinations. Greater focus on sustainable mobility of tourists, specifically sustainable transportation, is playing an increasingly important role in science and practice. To ensure a successful reorientation, it is crucial to know which factors influence the choice of modes of transport for local tourists. Therefore, this paper analyses selected determinants influencing the choice of modes of transport for tourists. This research is based upon representative data for holiday mobility at destinations during Germans’ domestic holidays. The objective was to learn more about the determinants that influence the tourists’ choice of mode of transport at the destination, and it is intended to contribute to the sustainable mobility of tourists. In line with this approach, the main emphasis is placed on public transport (PT) within the destination.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 73 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Book part
Publication date: 1 June 2021

Melissa Rikiatou Kana Kenfack and Ali Öztüren

It is salient to be acquainted with the key elements that determine educational tourists’ decision in selecting an overseas destination while considering the rise of…

Abstract

It is salient to be acquainted with the key elements that determine educational tourists’ decision in selecting an overseas destination while considering the rise of international competition amidst nations concerning international students. There has been a growth in the number of nations committed to attracting educational tourists. This issue is evident in countries involved in higher education (HE), such as Northern Cyprus, identified as an edu-tourism destination. Northern Cyprus can attract a whopping number of tourists, and the higher population is most likely to be made up of international students regardless of its interdiction on direct flights and political pressure. This chapter centres on analysing educational tourists’ motivators in selecting a tourism education destination abroad and on revealing effective recruitment and promotion plans towards attracting them. The chapter includes the descriptions and discussions of educational tourism, the HE industry over the years, globalisation and internationalisation of educational tourism, factors influencing educational tourists’ decision-making process and key elements influencing educational tourists’ decisions in HE institutions. At the end of the chapter, a case study is presented that reports the findings of interviews with educational tourists, overseas recruitment agents and Eastern Mediterranean University staff responsible for promoting the institution. The results identified eight factors affecting educational tourists’ decisions on study destination. Those factors comprise cost, ease of access, location, social factors, quality of education, instruction language, cultural environment and communication quality. The sub-factors of the main eight factors are scholarships, destination’s scenery, safety, friends’ and relatives’ influence and cultural differences. This chapter brings a significant knowledge about the motives that affect educational tourists in selecting at a particular HE destination. Based on the study’s findings, educational institutions may consider various recommendations to redesign their strategies towards attracting educational tourists more effectively. Generally, this study promotes an apprehension about the diverse elements that affect educational tourists’ selection of a destination study. An in-depth understanding of these factors will help education institutions’ decision-makers better develop plans of action to provide desired services to educational tourists, attract and keep them in return.

Details

Global Perspectives on Recruiting International Students: Challenges and Opportunities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-518-7

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Loredana Di Pietro, Francesca Di Virgilio and Eleonora Pantano

The aim of this paper is to investigate how social networks can become the main tool for achieving fast and detailed information for the choice of tourism destination, in…

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7408

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to investigate how social networks can become the main tool for achieving fast and detailed information for the choice of tourism destination, in order to deeply understand the benefits of these media for promoting tourism destinations in a global perspective, reaching a wider range of potential visitors, and developing ad hoc and marketing strategies with benefits for competitive advantage on the market.

Design/methodology/approach

The research focuses on an extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) which also integrates the constructs e‐word‐of‐mouth communication and enjoyment. In particular, 1,397 experience users have been involved.

Findings

The main findings are related to the key role of e‐word of mouth communication on both the perception of usefulness and the attitude towards the use of social network as powerful tool for the choice of tourism destinations; as well as to enjoyment which underlines the role of the fun provided by the social network and represents a stronger predictor for consumer attitude and tourism behavior intention.

Research limitations/implications

This research does not focus on a specific tourists' destinations, thus the presence of different destinations may affect consumers in different ways, according to their involvement towards to a particular destination. This study contributes to deepening the scientific debate on the tourist's destinations.

Practical implications

The findings of this research support the development of tourism marketing and communication strategies focused on the online contexts as factors capable of influencing tourists' behaviour in a more efficient way.

Originality/value

This paper focuses on the web‐based technologies, like social media, in order to deeply understand to what extend tourists accept the usage of these technologies for the choice of destination, by providing issues for researchers and practitioners. The present research is of a multidisciplinary value, by linking business science, psychology and social science.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

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