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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2012

G. Jayaprakash, K. Sivakumar and M. Thilak

Due to technological and financial limitations, nominal dimension may not be able achievable during manufacturing process. Therefore, tolerance allocation is of…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to technological and financial limitations, nominal dimension may not be able achievable during manufacturing process. Therefore, tolerance allocation is of significant importance for assembly. Conventional tolerance analysis methods are limited by the assumption of the part rigidity. Every mechanical assembly consists of at least one or more flexible parts which undergo significant deformation due to gravity, temperature change, etc. The deformation has to be considered during tolerance design of the mechanical assembly, in order to ensure that the product can function as intended under a wide range of operating conditions for the duration of its life. The purpose of this paper is to determine the deformation of components under inertia effect and temperature effect.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, finite element analysis of the assembly is carried out to determine the deformation of the components under inertia effect and temperature effect. Then the deformations are suitably incorporated in the assembly functions generated from vector loop models. Finally, the tolerance design problem is optimized with an evolutionary technique.

Findings

With the presented approach, the component tolerance values found are the most robust to with stand temperature variation during the product's application. Due to this, the tolerance requirements of the given assembly are relaxed to certain extent for critical components, resulting in reduced manufacturing cost and high product reliability. These benefits make it possible to create a high‐quality and cost‐effective tolerance design, commencing at the earliest stages of product development.

Originality/value

With the approach presented in the paper, the component tolerance values found were the most robust to withstand temperature variation during the product's application. Due to this, the tolerance requirements of the given assembly are relaxed to a certain extent for critical components, resulting in reduced manufacturing cost and high product reliability. These benefits make it possible to create a high‐quality and cost‐effective tolerance design, commencing at the earliest stages of product development.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2018

Florian Englmaier, Nicolai J. Foss, Thorbjørn Knudsen and Tobias Kretschmer

The authors argue that organization design needs to play a more active role in the explanation of differential performance and outline a set of ideas for achieving this…

Abstract

The authors argue that organization design needs to play a more active role in the explanation of differential performance and outline a set of ideas for achieving this both in theoretical and empirical research. Firms are heterogeneous in terms of (1) how well they do things, capturing persistent productivity differences, and (2) how they do things – and both reflect firms’ organization design choices. Both types of heterogeneity can be persistent, and are interdependent, although they have typically been studied separately. The authors propose a simple formal framework – the “aggregation function framework” – that aligns organization design thinking with the emphasis on performance heterogeneity among firms that is characteristic of the strategy field. This framework allows for a more precise identification of how exactly organization design may contribute to persistent performance differences, and therefore what exactly are the assumptions that strategy and organization design scholars need to be attentive to.

Article
Publication date: 22 June 2010

Christer Karlsson, Margaret Taylor and Andrew Taylor

The purpose of this paper is to identify and examine the various mechanisms that can be used to integrate new technology into existing products, and to determine some of…

4208

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and examine the various mechanisms that can be used to integrate new technology into existing products, and to determine some of the conditions under which specific integration mechanisms are most appropriate.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopted an exploratory theory‐building approach based on analysis of data from 12 case studies, each representing companies with varying levels of: technological maturity of the organization and technological advancement of their products. Informants were managers and engineers who had responsibility for, or a significant role in, the integration of software and hardware. At least three interviews were conducted in each company and all interviews were of at least two hours duration. In total, 41 interviews were conducted. The different approaches used for technology integration were examined and subsequently mapped using the twin dimensions outlined above.

Findings

Cross‐case pattern analysis indicates that for technologically mature organizations, mechanisms based on processes are most appropriate, while for less mature organizations an approach based on structural mechanisms may be more suitable. Similarly, in cases involving high levels of technology advancement in the products, integration mechanisms based on processes and culture are preferable, whereas for low technology products the mechanisms are clustered around resource‐based approaches.

Research limitations/implications

Multiple cases do not permit as much depth as the classic single case study and tend to yield “modest” rather than “grand” theoretical development. The use of scaling to convert qualitative data into quantitative data, and the identification of patterns in cross‐case analysis are both based on interpretive judgements. Future research should examine the proposed model and its constructs in different settings and using alternative research methods. There is also an opportunity to explore the relationships between the integration mechanisms and the outcomes of integration projects, and finally, it would be useful to extend the work to service settings and to integration of process technology.

Practical implications

The findings provide guidance to managers in selecting alternative approaches to managing the process of technology integration in different contexts. Examples are given of practices associated with each integration mechanism, together with some of the tensions and challenges which arise during implementation.

Originality/value

The paper provides clear guidance on the approaches that can be used for technology integration for product development. It classifies these according to the level of maturity and experience in the organization and the level of advancement of the product offered by the technology.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Vinayak Kalluri and Rambabu Kodali

The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic review and analysis of existing research articles on new product development (NPD) published in the 12-year period…

2675

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic review and analysis of existing research articles on new product development (NPD) published in the 12-year period starting from 1998 to 2009.

Design/methodology/approach

To explore the articles related to NPD, four key words namely new product, product design, product development and product innovation were used in combination of title or abstract or keyword of the articles through several knowledge databases. The abstracts of journal papers were read and a decision as to whether article belongs to any NPD research issue or not was made. In total, 1,127 research articles were categorized systematically and then analyzed on various principal NPD information groups.

Findings

Analysis of selected articles led to a certain level of dispersion in the publication of NPD research in different journals. It is found that more attention needs to be on knowledge and creativity management, communication and information transfer in any NPD process.

Originality/value

By observing extended literature from authors reviewing articles from various journals, growth in research, and variety of topics covered in NPD, a broad systematic multi journal review of NPD literature is clearly overdue. The authors have developed a comprehensive listing of publications on NPD where they have classified the surveyed papers according to various principal NPD information groups like: published year, NPD research stream, type of organization studied (industrial/consumer/service), level of innovation (high/moderate/low), NPD focus on frameworks, performance perspective (success, failure or both), NPD research design (conceptual/empirical and qualitative/quantitative) and NPD relevant best practice element. Based on the classification scheme, the issues were analyzed from the system's perspective and their implications to NPD research.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 July 2020

Hsin-Hsien Liu and Hsuan-Yi Chou

Based on mental accounting theory, this study explored whether the comparability of missed and subsequent promotional formats/frames affects inaction inertia.

Abstract

Purpose

Based on mental accounting theory, this study explored whether the comparability of missed and subsequent promotional formats/frames affects inaction inertia.

Design/methodology/approach

Four experiments with imaginary and incentive-compatible designs were conducted to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Consumers are more likely to express inaction inertia after having missed a comparable promotion than after having missed a noncomparable promotion. Devaluation of the promoted target mediates the impact of comparability on inaction inertia, while referent others' actions do not moderate the comparability effect. Finally, when consumers accept a subsequent inferior promotion, they prefer using a different payment format because it reduces comparability of the two promotions.

Practical implications

Companies should use different promotional formats/frames to reduce comparability and inaction inertia when a new promotion is relatively inferior to a recent previous one. Companies should offer different payment options to help customers actively avoid comparing a current promotion with a missed promotion.

Originality/value

This study provides a more comprehensive conceptual structure for understanding the relationship between psychological comparability and inaction inertia. It provides insights into what actions companies should take to reduce inaction inertia. Furthermore, this study empirically tests the influence of multiple comparison referents, which provides a reference point for future studies on the factors affecting inaction inertia. A new method to examine whether consumers actively avoid comparisons is used, which clarifies the internal mechanism of inaction inertia.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 39 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 October 2017

David M. Gray, Steven D’Alessandro, Lester W. Johnson and Leanne Carter

This paper aims to examine the antecedents of customer inertia (i.e. knowledge, confusion, perceptions of competitor similarity and switching costs) and their relationship…

1458

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the antecedents of customer inertia (i.e. knowledge, confusion, perceptions of competitor similarity and switching costs) and their relationship to customer satisfaction, service providers’ switching intentions and actual switching behavior. Customer inertia is said to reduce the incidence of service provider switching; however, little is known about the antecedent drivers of inertia.

Design/methodology/approach

The conceptual model was tested by a longitudinal/discontinuous panel design using an online survey research of 1055 adult (i.e. +18 years old) subscribers to cell phone services. Partial least squares (PLS) path modeling was used to simultaneously estimate both the measurement and structural components of the model to determine the nature of the relationships between the variables.

Findings

Findings of the PLS structural model provide support for the direct relationship between customer inertia and its antecedents (i.e. knowledge, confusion, perceptions of competitor similarity and switching costs). The results show that customer inertia has a moderate negative effect on the intention to change service providers but had no measurable effect on the actual behavior of changing service providers, other than indirectly, by influencing the perception of difficulty in switching some 11 months later. Further results from an analysis of indirect pathways of the antecedents to inertia show that switching costs are the only variable which indirectly reduce intentions to change service providers. The results also show that the effect of satisfaction on switching service providers is partially moderated by inertia. Importantly, these relationships are reasonably robust given past switching behavior and contract status of consumers.

Research limitations/implications

The authors find evidence which explains some of the causes of inertia, and show that it has both direct and moderating effects on service provider switching intentions, though not necessarily the behavior of changing service providers. However, support was found for its indirect role through intent as an influence on switching behavior. Importantly, the authors find that inertia has lingering effects, in that it influences the perception of switching difficulties and, hence, behavior up to 11 months in the future.

Practical implications

Managerial implications are that service firms can profit from customer inertia through a reduction in churn. However, high levels of customer inertia over the longer term may increase the level of customer vulnerability to competitor offers and marketing activities, as satisfaction with the provider does not in itself explain switching intentions or behavior.

Originality/value

This study is the first study to contribute to an understanding of the antecedent drivers of customer inertia with respect to service provider switching and to empirically evaluate a variety of antecedent factors that potentially affect switching intentions. Importantly, the long lasting latent effect of inertia in indirectly influencing service switching behavior was found to persist some 11 months later.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 31 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 June 2014

Hung-Tai Tsou, Ja-Shen Chen and Wen-Hsuan Liao

The purpose of this paper is to deploy an alternative way, drawing upon research in service innovation, to predict service delivery innovation from the extents of market…

1654

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to deploy an alternative way, drawing upon research in service innovation, to predict service delivery innovation from the extents of market and technology orientations and innovative competence.

Design/methodology/approach

Five hypotheses were proposed. A two-part questionnaire was developed. One part of the questionnaire was completed by the sales manager and the other part by the marketing manager of select companies. The questionnaires were distributed to 533 information technology companies in Taiwan. Of the 533 questionnaires returned, 160 questionnaires were deemed usable. This study uses the partial least square analysis to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Proactive market orientation and technology orientation affect exploratory and exploitative innovative competences; but, only exploitative innovation competence affects service delivery innovation.

Practical implications

The findings indicate that managers need to understand the market trends and the technology availability and be able to customize corresponding service/product features which can further lead to stimulate exploitative innovative competence and facilitate service delivery innovation.

Originality/value

The paper is among the first attempts to examine how market and technology orientations affect innovative competence and service delivery innovation. In addition, this study provides the explanatory variance missing in the literature that has not examined the black box relationship between market and technology orientations and service delivery innovation.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

Chung-An Chen

The literature of organizational change hints that adaptability and inertia not only counterbalance but also reinforce each other, and the inertia-adaptability balance…

1491

Abstract

Purpose

The literature of organizational change hints that adaptability and inertia not only counterbalance but also reinforce each other, and the inertia-adaptability balance over time is nonlinear. The author aims to address this view more clearly by presenting a multi-stage conceptual model that delineates how adaptability and inertia take turns to override each other. In addition, data collected from over 400 nonprofit organizations within the USA were used to test this model.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses polynomial regression to examine the multi-stage conceptual model. More precisely, it tests how organizational age influences an organization's innovativeness, managerial risk aversion, and red tape.

Findings

The findings support the multi-stage conceptual model. The results imply that organizational ecology and rational adaptation are mutually compatible perspectives in explaining organizational age dynamics.

Originality/value

This study introduces a multi-stage model that more clearly examines how adaptability and inertia counterbalance and reinforce over time. More importantly, the author empirically examines the nonlinear organizational age dynamics using quantitative data.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 January 2011

Seth Allcorn and Lynn Godkin

The purpose of this paper is to present a psychoanalytical approach to dealing with organizational inertia.

1572

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a psychoanalytical approach to dealing with organizational inertia.

Design/methodology/approach

The concept of organizational inertia is defined and factors contributing to insight inertia and action inertia are delineated.

Findings

It was found that applying psychoanalytically informed theory provides alternative insight into dealing with organizational inertia.

Originality/value

The paper illustrates how human nature influences the workplace in general and contributes to organizational inertia in particular.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 January 2014

Ahmad Mashayekhi, Ali Nahvi, Mojtaba Yazdani, Majid Mohammadi Moghadam, Mohammadreza Arbabtafti and Mohsen Norouzi

This paper aims to present the design and implementation of VirSense, a novel six-DOF haptic interface system, with an emphasis on its gravity compensation and fixed-base…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present the design and implementation of VirSense, a novel six-DOF haptic interface system, with an emphasis on its gravity compensation and fixed-base motors.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the design and manufacture of the VirSense robot and its comparison with the existing haptic devices are presented. The kinematic analysis of the robot, design of the components, and manufacturing of the robot are explained as well.

Findings

The proposed system is employed to generate a Virtual Sense (VirSense) with fixed-base motors and a spring compensation system for counterbalancing the torques generated by the weight of the links. The fixed bases of the motors reduce the system's effective mass and inertia, which is an important factor in haptic interface systems. A novel cabling system is used to transmit the motor torques to the end-effector. The spring-based gravity compensation system causes more reduction in the effective mass and inertia.

Originality/value

This paper provides the details of the VirSense haptic device, its gravity compensation system, and a novel cabling power transmission.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

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