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Publication date: 10 December 2018

Florian Englmaier, Nicolai J. Foss, Thorbjørn Knudsen and Tobias Kretschmer

The authors argue that organization design needs to play a more active role in the explanation of differential performance and outline a set of ideas for achieving this…

Abstract

The authors argue that organization design needs to play a more active role in the explanation of differential performance and outline a set of ideas for achieving this both in theoretical and empirical research. Firms are heterogeneous in terms of (1) how well they do things, capturing persistent productivity differences, and (2) how they do things – and both reflect firms’ organization design choices. Both types of heterogeneity can be persistent, and are interdependent, although they have typically been studied separately. The authors propose a simple formal framework – the “aggregation function framework” – that aligns organization design thinking with the emphasis on performance heterogeneity among firms that is characteristic of the strategy field. This framework allows for a more precise identification of how exactly organization design may contribute to persistent performance differences, and therefore what exactly are the assumptions that strategy and organization design scholars need to be attentive to.

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Article
Publication date: 27 June 2019

Yi Zhang and Wanhong Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between team heterogeneity and team performance in entrepreneurial team and is also of significance in guiding the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between team heterogeneity and team performance in entrepreneurial team and is also of significance in guiding the management practice of an entrepreneurial team.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is carried out based on an experiment, in which a 2×2 experimental group is devised to collect data concerned with the heterogeneity of entrepreneurial team’s expertise and the attitude toward heterogeneity.

Findings

The entrepreneurial team’s heterogeneity has a significant effect on entrepreneurial performance; the entrepreneurial team’s heterogeneity influences entrepreneurial performance through team task conflict; attitudes toward heterogeneity play a mediating role in the above process.

Originality/value

This paper is carried out based on an experiment which can be used to determine the mediating effects of team conflict on the relationship between team expertise heterogeneity and the entrepreneurial performance.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 June 2018

Kamal Fatehi, Jennifer L. Priestley and Gita Taasoobshirazi

Most international marketing studies, taking a sociological position, assume homogeneity within and heterogeneity between cultures. Taking a psychological position and…

Abstract

Purpose

Most international marketing studies, taking a sociological position, assume homogeneity within and heterogeneity between cultures. Taking a psychological position and based on the Mindscape Theory, the purpose of this paper is to support the hypothesis that there is intra-cultural and intra-market heterogeneity.

Design/methodology/approach

The translated survey for international use has many problems. These problems can greatly be minimized by the use of pictorial/geometric shapes that were used in this study. These shapes were constructed using redundant and non-redundant complexity, and made to be culture neutral.

Findings

Data analysis supported the presence of three of the four Mindscape types as was hypothesized, indicating individual intra-market heterogeneity in the three cultures under investigation. Additionally, the corollary hypothesis of transcultural heterogeneity was confirmed.

Research limitations/implications

It has been proposed that Mindscape types are partly innate and partly learned. What proportions constitute each part? Can the learned aspect be unlearned? Can different marketing strategies appeal to each? What marketing programs are better suited to influence the learned aspect? Future studies could explore these issues.

Practical implications

The findings of this paper have wide applicability and implications for international marketing strategy, including ways of deploying market segmentation, target marketing, positioning strategies, as well as configurations of marketing mix elements.

Originality/value

This paper used a novel and unique way for data collection and analysis. A geometric-pictorial survey was used for data collection. Data analysis was done with factor analysis and cluster analysis combined.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2013

K.B. Saji and Shashi Shekhar Mishra

The purpose of this paper is to explain the role of firm resources and environmental variables for pursuing new product commercialization in high‐tech markets.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain the role of firm resources and environmental variables for pursuing new product commercialization in high‐tech markets.

Design/methodology/approach

The research design employed for the study consisted of both exploratory and descriptive phases. To begin with, a focused literature review was performed to develop a theoretical framework with seven research hypotheses, which was then empirically validated through a carefully executed survey conducted on the products managers of high tech firms.

Findings

The study results have supported six research hypotheses, viz. technology acquisition intent (TAI) to new product commercialization relationship, direct influence of dominant design, market heterogeneity, and network externalities on the firm's TAI relationship. The results of hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the “dominant design to TAI” and the “network externalities to TAI” relationships are significantly moderated by firm resources. However, the “market heterogeneity to TAI” relationship is found to be not moderated by firm resources.

Practical implications

Findings of the study have significant implications to extant product management theory and practice. The study highlights the most important environmental variables in high‐tech markets that act as antecedents to a firm's TAI and the effect of TAI on new product commercialization. Further, the study reveals the differential effects of these antecedent variables across firms owing to the varying levels of resource availability.

Originality/value

The paper reports the significant outcomes of an important study on product management that attempted to establish the linkages across environmental variables, firm resources, and firm's technology strategy in pursuing the new product commercialization.

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2014

Arpita Agnihotri

– The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of top management teams on firms' value chain action intensity and value chain activity heterogeneity.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of top management teams on firms' value chain action intensity and value chain activity heterogeneity.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted from an emerging market perspective. The sample was based on the secondary data collected from three fast-growing industries in India: automobile, pharmaceutical and fast-moving consumer goods over the three-year period from 2009 to 2012. The Panel Poisson and Tobit regression have been used to conduct this study.

Findings

Drawing upon the upper echelon theory, the author found that a top management team's educational level, functional heterogeneity and total organizational tenure influence value chain action intensity and value chain activity heterogeneity.

Originality/value

The author introduces the concept of value chain action intensity and value chain action heterogeneity and investigates the role of the upper echelon in influencing intensity and heterogeneity.

Details

Competitiveness Review, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 October 2018

AMM Ahsan, Ruinan Xie and Bashir Khoda

The purpose of this paper is to present a topology-based tissue scaffold design methodology to accurately represent the heterogeneous internal architecture of tissues/organs.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a topology-based tissue scaffold design methodology to accurately represent the heterogeneous internal architecture of tissues/organs.

Design/methodology/approach

An image analysis technique is used that digitizes the topology information contained in medical images of tissues/organs. A weighted topology reconstruction algorithm is implemented to represent the heterogeneity with parametric functions. The parametric functions are then used to map the spatial material distribution following voxelization. The generated chronological information yields hierarchical tool-path points which are directly transferred to the three-dimensional (3D) bio-printer through a proposed generic platform called Application Program Interface (API). This seamless data corridor between design (virtual) and fabrication (physical) ensures the manufacturability of personalized heterogeneous porous scaffold structure without any CAD/STL file.

Findings

The proposed methodology is implemented to verify the effectiveness of the approach and the designed example structures are bio-fabricated with a deposition-based bio-additive manufacturing system. The designed and fabricated heterogeneous structures are evaluated which shows conforming porosity distribution compared to uniform method.

Originality/value

In bio-fabrication process, the generated bio-models with boundary representation (B-rep) or surface tessellation (mesh) do not capture the internal architectural information. This paper provides a design methodology for scaffold structure mimicking the native tissue/organ architecture and direct fabricating the structure without reconstructing the CAD model. Therefore, designing and direct bio-printing the heterogeneous topology of tissue scaffolds from medical images minimize the disparity between the internal architecture of target tissue and its scaffold.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Fu-Sheng Tsai

Observing across four comparative case organizations, the purpose of this paper is to identify two sources of contingency (i.e. construct and contextual contingency) for…

Abstract

Purpose

Observing across four comparative case organizations, the purpose of this paper is to identify two sources of contingency (i.e. construct and contextual contingency) for the relationship between knowledge heterogeneity and innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

The contingencies was explored by conducting a comparative case analyses with rich qualitative data extracted and interpreted from four case companies.

Findings

First, the construct contingency is examined by refining knowledge heterogeneity into three dimensions: domain, process, and context heterogeneity. Specifically, the author proposed that knowledge heterogeneity in domain is associated with innovation in an inverted U-shape, while heterogeneity in process and context dimensions both negatively influence innovation. Second, contextual contingency is studied. The author proposed that: trust positively moderates the relationship between knowledge heterogeneity and innovation; depending on the knowledge owner attributes, centralization positively or negatively moderates the relationship between heterogeneous knowledge and innovation; shared knowledge vision positively moderates the relationship between knowledge heterogeneity and innovation.

Originality/value

The influences of knowledge heterogeneity on innovation have yet been inconsistent. The present study set to reconcile such inconsistency with a solution of contingencies that intervene the heterogeneity-innovation relationship. These results offer useful references for future large-scaled, quantitative studies.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

Jie Gu, Xiaolun Wang and Tian Lu

The purpose of this paper is to explain the “good-to-good” app switching phenomenon that has not been specifically addressed in the prior switching literature. Drawing on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain the “good-to-good” app switching phenomenon that has not been specifically addressed in the prior switching literature. Drawing on the consumer learning theory, this study explores how external social word of mouth (WOM) and internal satisfaction influence app users’ switching intention through social learning route and analogical learning route. This study also examines the moderating effect of app heterogeneity.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was used to collect data. Two categories of mobile apps with different levels of within-category heterogeneity were targeted in survey questions. A total of 525 valid survey responses were collected.

Findings

Social WOM about a competing app increases users’ switching intention through both social norm influence and social information influence, resulting in a direct effect on switching intention and an indirect effect through the perceived attractiveness of a competing app. Users’ satisfaction with an adopted app positively influences the perceived attractiveness of an unadopted competing app, offering evidence for analogical learning in user switching. Meanwhile, users’ satisfaction imposes a direct negative effect on switching intention. A higher level of within-category heterogeneity strengthens (weakens) the positive effect of social WOM (satisfaction) on users’ perceived attractiveness of a competing app.

Originality/value

This study complements the existing switching literature by disentangling the “good-to-good” switching phenomenon in the mobile app market from the consumer learning perspective. This study extends the understanding of cross-category user switching by considering different levels of product heterogeneity.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Constantine Iliopoulos and Vladislav Valentinov

The purpose of this paper is to shed new light on the issue of preference heterogeneity in cooperatives.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to shed new light on the issue of preference heterogeneity in cooperatives.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the ideas of Habermas and Luhmann, this paper interprets preference heterogeneity of cooperative members in terms of the precarious relationship between the categories of “system” and “lifeworld.” The argument is buttressed with a case study of an agricultural cooperative recently founded in Central Greece.

Findings

The sensitivity of cooperatives to the lifeworld contexts of their members exacts the price in the form of the member preference heterogeneity problem. If this sensitivity is taken to be the constitutive characteristic of cooperatives, then the proposed argument hammers home their fundamental ambivalence, as they are necessarily fraught with the potential for internal conflict.

Research limitations/implications

The paper urges for a radical rethinking of Georg Draheim’s thesis of the “double nature” of cooperatives. “Double nature” is shown to aggravate the member preference heterogeneity problem.

Practical implications

The results of this study inform the cooperative leaders’ quest to strike a balance between the interests of their members and the demands of the external socio-economic environment.

Originality/value

This research contributes significantly to the literature on collective decision-making costs incurred by cooperatives. The failure of cooperatives to balance the sensitivity to members’ interests and to the external environment is exposed as the root cause of the divergence and heterogeneity of member preferences. This heterogeneity is shown to boost collective decision-making costs.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2015

Cristina Bernini and Andrea Guizzardi

The aims of the paper are to evaluate the relevance of environmental factors (seasonality, size and quality) on hotels’ performance and benchmarks; to measure the bias in…

Abstract

Purpose

The aims of the paper are to evaluate the relevance of environmental factors (seasonality, size and quality) on hotels’ performance and benchmarks; to measure the bias in efficiency resulting from a failure to control for these sources of heterogeneity; and to propose some managerial policies to handle for environmental heterogeneity.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample is constituted by 2,705 hotels operating in Emilia-Romagna (Italy). The metafrontier approach is used to identify the different production processes and measure technical efficiency scores.

Findings

Different production processes exist among accommodation firms due to environmental features; not considering heterogeneity in technological sets produces high levels of bias in the efficiency measurement, albeit the ranking of hotels tends to be fairly consistent; the star rating is the primary source of efficiency bias followed by seasonality, while size has a minor impact.

Research limitations/implications

Future research could be directed to analyse the relevance of environmental heterogeneity in other areas; study the dynamics; investigate agglomeration effects; and use other methodological tools.

Practical implications

The analysis proposes new managerial interventions: targeted strategies to different groups; creation of networks of enterprises, clustered mainly in respect to size for highly rated enterprises and seasonality for low-rated enterprises; and incentives to annual hotels and raise in the product quality.

Originality/value

This paper simultaneously considers several environmental factors affecting heterogeneity in hotel production processes; investigates the effect of heterogeneity on either the efficiency scores or the ranking of hotels; and focuses on micro, low-quality or seasonal hotels.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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