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1 – 10 of over 2000
Book part
Publication date: 16 October 2013

Michael A. Katovich

In this chapter I attempt to merge Athens’ conception of domination as a complex interactionist concept with Goffman’s notion of demeanor and deference as lynchpins of…

Abstract

In this chapter I attempt to merge Athens’ conception of domination as a complex interactionist concept with Goffman’s notion of demeanor and deference as lynchpins of dramaturgical analysis. I ground the merger in an analysis of metaphorical duel between a superordinate and subordinate in the TV show Mad Men. The examination of this metaphorical dual also implies a connection between a radical interactionism as defined by Athens and a radical dramaturgy informed by Athens’ conception of domination. In particular, I propose an examination of civil domination within institutionalized settings in which use of shared pasts and concomitant acts of demeanor and deference enhance the construction of domination between superordinates and subordinates. The fictional representation of a metaphorical duel in the television show Mad Men depicts a struggle for control in which the superordinate demands that a willful subordinate sign a contract which will bind the subordinate to a particular place for an extended period of time. The examination of events leading to signing reveals a complex weave of social acts that combines the force of domination with the artistry of demeanor and deference.

Details

Radical Interactionism on the Rise
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-785-6

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

Valerie D. Dye

In WTO proceedings The Dispute Settlement Body has generally adopted a standard of review that is less than deferential even in the Anti‐Dumping agreement which envisages…

Abstract

Purpose

In WTO proceedings The Dispute Settlement Body has generally adopted a standard of review that is less than deferential even in the Anti‐Dumping agreement which envisages a deferential standard of review. What should be the applicable standard of review in WTO proceedings? The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis of the concept of “deference as respect” as developed by David Dyzenhaus and discuss its application to the WTO. This paper argues that the WTO should apply a standard of “deference as respect” in the interest of preserving economic sovereignty and the legitimacy of the WTO.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper involves the analysis of relevant case law and also the analysis and application of the concept of “deference as respect” in WTO proceedings. It also uses a comparative methodology in that it highlights the application of domestic legal principles at the international level.

Findings

The main finding is that within the WTO there is need to balance the requirements of trade liberalisation which eschews protectionism and the requirements of sovereignty and legitimacy. This balance can partly be achieved when a standard of review akin to “deference as respect” is applied.

Originality/value

This paper is different from previous writings on WTO standard of review in that it applies the concept of “deference as respect”. This analysis and application will provide academics and members of the DSB with a new way of assessing the standard of review in the WTO.

Details

Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2019

Apiradee Wongkitrungrueng, Krittinee Nuttavuthisit, Teodora Szabo-Douat and Sankar Sen

The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of customer deference to service providers in service encounters, and articulate its chief antecedents, experiences and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of customer deference to service providers in service encounters, and articulate its chief antecedents, experiences and consequences.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected in Thailand, using critical incident technique. A total of 253 subjects share their experiences of being “deferential” (i.e. “kreng-jai” in Thailand) during everyday service encounters.

Findings

The findings indicate that in cultures in which the cultural norm (i.e. kreng-jai) is to be considerate of others, customers often become deferential of the service provider during service encounters, especially when customers perceive that the service provider’s well-being is compromised. However, customer deference involves aversive feelings which lead customers to devise coping strategies and avoid future contact with a company.

Research limitations/implications

Using a specific cultural norm, the findings challenge prior finding that people from collectivist culture are more likely to tolerate and be satisfied with service encounters, and document the role of previously unexamined customer-related factors in driving satisfaction in ordinary service encounters.

Practical implications

The findings recommend service providers to preempt customers’ deference by establishing and communicating the role and acceptable behaviors, managing physical distance with customers, and monitoring customer non-verbal behavior and facial expressions to detect the customers’ true feelings.

Originality/value

No prior research has comprehensively examined the phenomenon whereby consumers seek to benefit service providers at the expense of their own well-being. This study demonstrates that customer deference degrades customer satisfaction even in ordinary service encounters.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Pingqing Liu and Junxi Shi

The purpose of this paper is to illuminate the mechanism which can explain and predict subordinates’ deferential behaviour in China.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illuminate the mechanism which can explain and predict subordinates’ deferential behaviour in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using mail surveys. The study used two sources of data (supervisor and subordinate) obtained via two separate sets of surveys. In total, 600 questionnaires were distributed to subordinate–supervisor dyads employed in a variety of organizations, and 441 dyad-level questionnaires were collected.

Findings

The paper revealed that supervisors’ political mentoring (PM) moderated the strength of the mediated relationships between a supervisor’s trust in the subordinate and the subordinate’s deference to supervisor via supervisor–subordinate guanxi. Furthermore, the direct interaction effect of a supervisor’s trust and PM influenced the subordinate’s deference to supervisor only when the level of PM was low.

Originality/value

This study clarifies the mechanism by which supervisor’s specific behaviours affect subordinate’s deference to supervisor, and explores how supervisor–subordinate dyad creates a reciprocal relationship. The research indicates the unique effect of supervisor’s PM in Chinese organizations, and reinforces the importance of considering supervisor’s trust in the subordinate.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Book part
Publication date: 14 July 2014

Alessandro Lomi and Vanina J. Torló

The distinction between network theories and theories of networks is particularly salient in studying social status because social status is both a consequence and an…

Abstract

The distinction between network theories and theories of networks is particularly salient in studying social status because social status is both a consequence and an antecedent of network ties. Status is a consequence of network ties because it is conferred by interdependent acts of deference connecting a sender and a recipient. Status is also an antecedent of network ties because it affects individual preferences for social interaction which produce distinct forms of preferential attachment. A new generation of stochastic actor oriented models (SAOM) for social networks is now available that may help to integrate network theories and theories of networks.

Details

Contemporary Perspectives on Organizational Social Networks
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-751-1

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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2022

Dirk De Clercq and Renato Pereira

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between employees’ deference to leaders’ authority and their upward ingratiatory behavior, which may be…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between employees’ deference to leaders’ authority and their upward ingratiatory behavior, which may be invigorated by two personal resources (dispositional greed and social cynicism) and two organizational resources (informational justice and forgiveness climate).

Design/methodology/approach

In this study survey data were collected among employees who work in the banking sector.

Findings

Strict adherence to leaders’ authority stimulates upward ingratiatory behavior, especially when employees (1) have a natural tendency to want more, (2) are cynical about people in power, (3) believe they have access to pertinent organizational information and (4) perceive their organization as forgiving of mistakes.

Practical implications

For human resource (HR) managers, this study points to the risk that employees’ willingness to comply blindly with the wishes of organizational leaders can escalate into excessive, inefficient levels of flattery. Several personal and organizational conditions make this risk particularly likely to materialize.

Originality/value

This study extends prior human resource management (HRM) research by revealing the conditional effects of an unexplored determinant of upward ingratiatory behavior, namely, an individual desire to obey organizational authorities unconditionally.

Book part
Publication date: 20 January 2022

Matthew S. Bothner, Frédéric Godart, Noah Askin and Wonjae Lee

Status constitutes a core research concept across the social sciences. However, its definition is still contested, and questions persist about its consequences. We begin…

Abstract

Status constitutes a core research concept across the social sciences. However, its definition is still contested, and questions persist about its consequences. We begin with a flexible, provisional definition: status is a relational asset possessed by social actors insofar as they are highly regarded by highly regarded others. Using this definition as a backdrop, we develop a fourfold typology based on how status is used as an asset and from where it is derived. The typology allows us to explore the implications of considering status as either a quality signal or a good and of viewing status-conferring ties as either deference-based or dominance-based. We then consider the implications of our framework for the generation of novelty. Although status has been connected to many social and economic outcomes, because of competing predictions in the literature – the generation of novelty has been linked to all regions of the status distribution – we sketch intuitions for future research on the status–novelty linkage. We also work toward greater conceptual clarity by comparing and contrasting status with selected related concepts: quality, reputation, and legitimacy. We conclude with considerations for future research, including cautionary remarks regarding network-analytic measurement in light of the definition we propose.

Details

The Generation, Recognition and Legitimation of Novelty
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-998-0

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Book part
Publication date: 27 October 2021

Emily Maloney and Lynn Smith-Lovin

Purpose: We examine how one's occupational class affects emotional experience. To do this, we look at both general affective outcomes (job satisfaction, respect at work…

Abstract

Purpose: We examine how one's occupational class affects emotional experience. To do this, we look at both general affective outcomes (job satisfaction, respect at work, and life happiness) and the experience of specific positive emotions (overjoyed, proud, and excited) during the week.

Methodology/Approach: Using affect control theory simulations, we find the characteristic emotions of four occupational classes, derived from Maloney's (2020) block model analysis: everyday specialists, service-to-society occupations, the disagreeably powerful, and the actively revered. Using these characteristic emotions, we make predictions about how likely it is that individuals in these occupational classes will report workplace affective experiences: job satisfaction and respect at work, and broader affective experience: general happiness in the prior year. Lastly, we generate and test predictions about everyday emotional experience of positive emotions.

Findings: We find mixed results for our hypotheses. In general, our predictions regarding the actively revered as the highest status block in Maloney (2020) are supported for general happiness, job satisfaction, and daily emotional experience. However, we find higher probabilities of happiness and job satisfaction for the disagreeably powerful, a lower evaluation but higher power block, than were expected.

Research Limitations: The current analysis uses only 268 occupations out of the 650 occupational titles in the US Census three-digit occupational codes. An analysis that includes the entire occupational structure would be more definitive. Additionally, it would be preferable to have emotion-dependent variables that were specifically tied to work, rather than broader emotional experience, to have a cleaner test of our hypotheses about occupational identities.

Practical and Social Implications: Prior research has shown how the emotional experiences associated with different identity labels can explain mental health outcomes, workplace anger, and broader patterns of inequality (Foy, Freeland, Miles, Rogers, & Smith-Lovin, 2014; Kroska & Harkness, 2008, 2016; Lively & Powell, 2016). Understanding how occupational class elicits certain types of emotions in everyday interactions may help scholars explain differences in health and overall life satisfaction across occupations that are not explained by material resource differentiation.

Details

Advances in Group Processes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-677-3

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Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2007

Judith A. Green and K. Kelly McKerrow

This chapter presents a critical analysis of administration and its dysfunctional relationship to teaching and learning. Researchers conducted an ethnographic study over…

Abstract

This chapter presents a critical analysis of administration and its dysfunctional relationship to teaching and learning. Researchers conducted an ethnographic study over the course of 2 years. The reflective narrative (Nielsen, 1995) is of an iteration of Smith and Geoffrey's (1968) insider–outsider technique revealed systemic dysfunction, professional deference, and disregard. It provides the framework from which to view the dysfunctional behavior of both teachers and administrators. The critical analysis provides a research to practice component, which informs the preparation of future administrators through the revelation of the study's administrative challenges and expectations in the field of education.

Details

Teaching Leaders to Lead Teachers
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1461-4

Article
Publication date: 3 August 2010

Maria Sääksjärvi and Kaj P.N. Morel

The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale for measuring consumer doubt toward new products.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale for measuring consumer doubt toward new products.

Design/methodology/approach

The scale was developed in several steps. A large pool of items to represent consumer doubt was generated. Experts reviewed the scale items for conciseness and clarity. An exploratory factor analysis to examine the unidimensionality, convergent validity, and discriminant validity of each construct was conducted. The model was then validated using partial least squares modeling. Finally, the scale and its form were validated, and potential response biases assessed. Data from three studies were used.

Findings

The results show that by focusing on reasons for deference, rather than acceptance, the scale yields new insight into innovation success and failure. The CDNP scale is a reliable and valid measurement instrument to assess consumer doubt toward new products.

Research limitations/implications

For researchers, the results show that only considering positive aspects on innovation adoption can lead to only a partial understanding of how innovation diffuses in the market.

Practical implications

By overcoming consumer doubt at early stages of innovation launch, companies could overcome problems related to innovation failure.

Originality/value

The literature on innovation adoption has almost exclusively focused on why innovations succeed by examining consumer acceptance of innovations. Yet, a potentially more serious issue that would need to be tackled is why innovations fail. This paper focuses on consumer doubt toward new products, i.e. a lack of conviction that a new product will fulfill its promises. Three studies show that the scale of consumer doubt is valid, and it provides new insights into innovation adoption.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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