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Book part
Publication date: 26 April 2011

Janice Huber, M. Shaun Murphy and D. Jean Clandinin

Our awakening to the curriculum being made by children and families in home and community places grows out of a theoretical background that informs our current inquiry…

Abstract

Our awakening to the curriculum being made by children and families in home and community places grows out of a theoretical background that informs our current inquiry into the tensions experienced by children, families, and teachers as they compose diverse lives on school landscapes, contexts increasingly structured by achievement testing. Our understanding of curriculum is grounded in Clandinin and Connelly's (Clandinin, 1986; Connelly & Clandinin, 1988) earlier attention to curriculum making as the expression of a teacher's personal practical knowledge. They described this knowledge as “that body of convictions and meanings, conscious or unconscious, that have arisen from experience (intimate, social, and traditional) and that are expressed in a person's practices” (Clandinin & Connelly, 1995, p. 7). Dewey's (1938) notions of continuity, situation, and experience, shaped Clandinin and Connelly's (1992) understanding of the “teacher not so much as a maker of curriculum but as a part of it and to imagine a place for contexts, culture (Dewey's notion of interaction), and temporality (both past and future contained in Dewey's notion of continuity)” (p. 365). By bringing together their understandings of teachers’ knowledge as personal practical knowledge with Dewey's notion of experience and Schwab's (1969) four curriculum commonplaces – teacher, learner, subject matter, and milieu – Clandinin and Connelly (1992) suggested that curriculumbe viewed as an account of teachers’ and children's lives together in schools and classrooms … .[In this view of curriculum making] the teacher is seen as an integral part of the curricular process … in which teacher, learners, subject matter, and milieu are in dynamic interaction. (p. 392)

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Places of Curriculum Making
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-828-2

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Book part
Publication date: 21 May 2019

John N. Moye

Chapter 1 builds a shared understanding of the definition and role of curriculum in learning. The attributes of a curriculum are presented and described with the research…

Abstract

Chapter Summary

Chapter 1 builds a shared understanding of the definition and role of curriculum in learning. The attributes of a curriculum are presented and described with the research literature. The role and function of these attributes in the design of an effective learning experience are examined in detail.

As there are multiple meanings of the word “curriculum” in use, it is necessary to define this term as used in this work. This definition is not meant to suggest that this is the “one,” “true,” or “only” way to conceive of the term, but instead to suggest a useful and practical conceptual framework for curriculum as a multidimensional, dynamic, and causal component of the instructional system. This definition provides the conceptual framework for curriculum as used in this work.

The term derived from a Latin word (currere) denotes “a race course” (Etymology Online, 2018). Educators in the sixteenth century borrowed this denotation for what is now higher education to increase “order” in the learning processes and enhance learning (Hamilton, 2013). The term now describes the collection of learning experiences in a prescribed instructional unit of study, leading to a defined outcome.

The purpose and function of the curriculum in the learning process are to organize, order, and structure the learning process to facilitate learning. In this system of design, three global dimensions are differentiated to promote and enhance the learning of all individuals who pursue it. These global dimensions determine a learner’s ability to engage with, learn from, and demonstrate authentically the intended learning articulated in the curriculum.

The attributes of an effective curriculum are extracted from the educational literature and converted into criteria with which to evaluate a completed curriculum. These criteria include externally valid content, coherence, alignment, interconnectedness, complexity, and the inclusion of opportunities to demonstrate the expected outcomes. Additionally, the structure of the course groupings is evaluated by the criteria of structure, integration, sequence, and consistency. Each of these standards is discussed and explained as it applies to the design of effective curricula.

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Learning Differentiated Curriculum Design in Higher Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-117-4

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Article
Publication date: 2 August 2013

Robin Wolven

PurposeCurriculum development is a vital component in the educational process. Its scope is exceptionally broad, and it involves nearly everyone who is involved with…

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1695

Abstract

PurposeCurriculum development is a vital component in the educational process. Its scope is exceptionally broad, and it involves nearly everyone who is involved with teaching and learning, including teachers and librarians. Curriculum development resources offer guidance for lesson plan preparation that meets the educational standards set by each state. Resources for curriculum development for both teachers and librarians are abundant, with resources being offered both electronically and in print, freely available and for purchase. The purpose of this paper is to provide a selection of resources offered for teachers and those offered for librarians, electronically, in print, freely available, and for purchase. Design/methodology/approachCurriculum development resources were chosen based on the selection criteria included in the article, including: authority, accuracy, scope, appropriateness, and treatment. There were many resources for both teachers and librarians available, but only a few were selected. Those selected met the selection criteria and were outstanding and beneficial resources for curriculum development. Findings ‐ Resources for curriculum development for both teachers and librarians are abundant, with resources being offered both electronically and in print, freely available and for purchase. There are many resources for both teachers and librarians; however, teacher resources outnumber those for librarians. Perhaps in the upcoming years, as information literacy instruction becomes part of more institutions, further resources will be made available. Originality/value ‐ The function of curriculum development is to research, plan, and prepare the content and methods that will be taught during instruction to achieve the desired outcomes. State curriculum standards currently play a major role in schools and how the curriculum is developed. Curriculum development resources provide the necessary resources for teachers and librarians to plan and prepare curricula that can meet the standards set by each state.

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Reference Reviews, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0950-4125

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Daniel Etse and Coral Ingley

The purpose of this study is to determine the degree of attention to and the nature of sustainability issues in the curriculum of the Higher National Diploma (HND…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to determine the degree of attention to and the nature of sustainability issues in the curriculum of the Higher National Diploma (HND) Purchasing and Supply Management programme of Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

Documentary research is the approach used to analyse the curriculum document for the programme of study.

Findings

Findings of this study reveal a low presence of sustainability in the curriculum, and most of the sustainability sub-topics address issues of social justice, while economic sustainability issues feature the least.

Practical implications

Deliberate and greater efforts should be made to integrate sustainability in the curriculum; all three dimensions of sustainability need to be well represented in the teaching and learning experiences; and there should be training and sensitisation of all relevant stakeholders in issues of sustainability.

Originality/value

This study provides an analysis of a higher education curriculum in terms of attention given to sustainability and the nature of sustainability issues addressed therein. It sets the research agenda for the study of curricula of other programmes for sustainability, as research literature on higher education curricula for sustainability in Africa, especially Ghana, is scarce (GUNi et al., 2011).

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International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1999

Margaret J. Scratchley

In 1993 the Ministry of Education in New Zealand identified health education, jointly with physical education, as one of the seven essential learning areas of the…

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680

Abstract

In 1993 the Ministry of Education in New Zealand identified health education, jointly with physical education, as one of the seven essential learning areas of the country’s national curriculum. This article takes a critical look at some of the emerging issues during the construction and implementation of the new curriculum. Consultation is one of the vital ingredients for successful curriculum construction. It might reasonably be assumed that the views and opinions of children and young people would be sought, and that their issues and concerns might be taken into account during the process. Indications are that this does not happen; this article addresses the question of whose knowledge and what knowledge counts. The new curriculum identifies health with physical education as a single learning area. The author considers that it would be more suitable to position health with social studies, as the two subject areas have more complementary similarities between goals, processes and content.

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Health Education, vol. 99 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1994

Yin Cheong Cheng

Aims to develop an organizational model for understanding and managingeffective curriculum change in school. Assumes that curriculum changeand teacher competence…

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3206

Abstract

Aims to develop an organizational model for understanding and managing effective curriculum change in school. Assumes that curriculum change and teacher competence development occur in a three‐level context of school organization: the individual level, the group/ programme level, and the whole school level. There exists mutual development and reinforcement between curriculum and teacher competence and also a hierarchy of influence across three levels. Congruence between curriculum change and teacher development and across levels is important for effectiveness of teaching and learning. Congruence represents conceptual consistency and operational consistency, reflecting the strength of school culture. Provides a comprehensive conceptual framework to plan and manage curriculum change and teacher competence development.

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International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 September 2021

Walead Etri

This qualitative research set out to understand what teachers’ assessments were of the context of teaching as it relates to the curriculum, and what they consider…

Abstract

Purpose

This qualitative research set out to understand what teachers’ assessments were of the context of teaching as it relates to the curriculum, and what they consider appropriate for an optimal teaching and learning experience in a university English language teaching (ELT) context.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative data were deemed required to understand the effects and understanding teachers had of the ELT curriculum as it played out in their teaching context. Focus group interviews and observations were the main method for data generation.

Findings

The context has a bearing on the ongoing development of teachers’ intercultural sensitivity (IS) frames and how they address IS over time in their context of teaching as it pertains to curriculum.

Originality/value

This is an original research paper which gives insight to knowledge about the relationship between ELT, curriculum and culture.

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Higher Education Evaluation and Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-5789

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2021

Richi Simon

This paper aims to understand the social work curriculum as perceived by the learners of the master’s degree programme. The study compares the perception as held by…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand the social work curriculum as perceived by the learners of the master’s degree programme. The study compares the perception as held by students’ originating from the same and different faculties regarding the curricular aspects of social work education in India.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a qualitative approach. It is a case study-based paper whereby the participants were selected using multi-phase sampling, universities were selected using purposive sampling and 106 students were selected using quota sampling. Semi-structured online interviews were taken using an interview guide and transcribed. Inter-coder reliability was tested using Cohen’s kappa. The paper used grounded theory to analyse data.

Findings

The study suggests a significant difference in the perception of curriculum between those originating from the same discipline and other faculty. It was found that the learners perceive the curriculum to be obsolete in addressing contemporary concerns and needs serious reframing.

Research limitations/implications

As the study uses the case study method, it has been limited to four universities of Madhya Pradesh state of India to analyse the cases effectively. Further, only the domain of social work has been explored in the study. Thus, the results may lack generalizability. Further studies can also be conducted to test the propositions suggested. Even similar studies can be carried out with other disciplines. Also, the study being cross-sectional leaves scope for future comparative and longitudinal studies.

Practical implications

The paper presents some interesting perceptions of the student community, which can be used for redesigning and revising the social work curriculum. Such appraisals if done by every educational institute can bring significant reforms in the present education system of India and make it at par with the global standards and responsive to the contemporary needs of the society. Further, with such training, social workers can be true change agents.

Social implications

The study can play a significant role in the redesigning of social work education in India. Thus, directly or indirectly benefit the entire society.

Originality/value

The paper addresses the concern to include the current student community in curriculum design to ensure quality curriculum.

Details

On the Horizon , vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1074-8121

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Kate Daubney

This paper introduces a new approach to embedding employability by extracting from higher education curriculum the knowledge, attributes, skills and experience that…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper introduces a new approach to embedding employability by extracting from higher education curriculum the knowledge, attributes, skills and experience that employers value. The Extracted Employability concept enables academics to surface the innate employability value of what they already teach across all curriculums, disciplines and programmes, enabling students to prepare better for work and make more effective career decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

Manual textual analysis of all UK Quality Assurance Agency Subject Benchmark Statements surfaced a database of common descriptors for defining and articulating the innate employability value of higher education curriculum, enriching language in attributes and transferable skills.

Findings

Extracted Employability enables academics to articulate the employability value of their existing curriculum without sacrificing rigour or integrity, which is particularly of concern in research-led universities. Piloting the concept, a database of attributes and transferable skills enabled academics to surface significantly greater value for students from curriculum in the language employers recognise, addressing the perceived “skills gap”.

Practical implications

Students, particularly studying subjects not professionally-aligned, will find it easier to connect the extracted employability value of their curriculum with what employers are looking for. Academics can use richer language of skills for creating learning outcomes that also have employability value.

Social implications

Surfacing employability through curriculum makes it structurally unavoidable for all students to engage with, supporting social mobility and enabling students to realise more effectively the value of their higher education in work.

Originality/value

Research and practice on employability has derived from a position outside academic curriculum established by Knight and Yorke (2003), but this approach redefines employability from within academic curriculum.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2021

Emma Mecham, Eric J. Newell, Shannon Rhodes, Laura J. Reina and Darren Parry

Using integrated, constructivist and inquiry-based curricular experiences to expand student understanding of historical thinking and exposure to Native perspectives on…

Abstract

Purpose

Using integrated, constructivist and inquiry-based curricular experiences to expand student understanding of historical thinking and exposure to Native perspectives on Utah history, this paper aims to analyze the thinking and practice of teaching the Utah fourth grade social studies curriculum. As a team of researchers, teachers and administrators, the authors brought differing perspectives and experience to this shared project of curriculum design. The understanding was enhanced as the authors reflected on authors' own practitioner research and worked together as Native and non-Native community partners to revise the ways one group of fourth grade students experienced the curriculum, with plans to continue improving the thinking and implementation on an ongoing basis. While significant barriers to elementary social studies education exist in the current era of high-stakes testing, curriculum narrowing and continuing narratives of colonization in both the broad national context and our own localized context, the authors found that social studies curriculum can be a space for decolonization and growth for students and teachers alike when carefully planned, constructed and implemented.

Design/methodology/approach

This article represents an effort by a team of teachers, administrators and researchers: D, a councilman and historian dedicated to sharing the history of the Northwestern Band of the Shoshone Nation; S, an eleventh-year teacher, teaching fourth grade at Mary Bethune Elementary School (MBES); E, the director of experiential learning and technology at MBES; L, the MBES vice principal and EL, a faculty member in the adjacent college of education. Working in these complementary roles, each authors recognized an opportunity to build a more robust set of curricular experiences for teaching the state standards for fourth grade social studies, with particular attention to a more inclusive set of narratives of Utah's history at the authors' shared site, Mary Bethune Elementary School, a K-6 public charter school that operates in partnership with the College of Education in a growing college town (population 51,000) in the Intermountain west. The complexity of Utah history embedded within the landscape that surrounds MBES has not always been a fully developed part of our fourth grade curriculum. Recognizing this, the authors came together to develop a more robust age-appropriate curricular experience for students that highlights the complexity of the individual and cultural narratives. In addition to smaller segments of classroom instruction devoted to the Utah Core fourth grade standards (Utah Education Network, 2019) that focus particularly on the history of Utah, the authors focused the curriculum improvement efforts on four specific lengthy spans of instruction.

Findings

These fourth-grade students read, contextualized and interpreted the primary source documents they encountered as historians; they both appreciated and challenged the authors' perspectives. It is our belief that students are more likely to continue to think like historians as they operate as “critical consumers” (Moore and Clark, 2004, p. 22) of other historical narratives. This ability to think and act with attention to multiple viewpoints and perspectives, power and counter stories develops more empathetic humans. While the authors prize the ability of students to succeed in intellectually rigorous tasks and learn content material, in the end this trait is the most important goal for teaching students history.

Research limitations/implications

The authors recognize operating within primarily non-Native spaces and discourses about social studies; with curricular efforts, there are a variety of ways the authors could do harm. Along the way, the authors recognized places for future improvement, critically examining the authors' work. As the authors look to future planning, there are several issues identified as the next spaces that the authors wish to focus on improving the Utah Studies curriculum experience of fourth graders at MBES. This is an area for further exploration.

Practical implications

This precise set of primary sources, field experiences and assessments will not be the right fit for other classrooms with differences in resources, space and time. The authors hope it will serve as an example of how teachers can create curriculum that addresses the failings of status quo social studies instruction with regard to Indigenous peoples. The students were not the only beneficiaries of change from this curriculum development and implementation; as a team the authors also benefited. The experience solidified our self-perception as decision makers for our classroom. The authors' ability to extend past the packaged curriculum of textbooks and worksheets made it easily available to engage students as historical inquirers into the multiple perspectives and complex contexts of decolonizing-counter narratives built the authors' confidence that such work can be successful across the curriculum.

Social implications

The authors believe this is a more potent antidote to the colonizing-Eurocentric narratives of history that they will undoubtedly be exposed to in other spaces and times than simply teaching them a singular history from an Indigenous perspective; if students are able to contextualize, interpret, and question the accounts they encounter, they will be more likely to “challenge dominant historical and cultural narratives that are endemic in society” (Stoddard et al., 2014, p. 35). This too can make them more thoughtful consumers of today's news, whether that news is about Navajo voting rights in southeastern Utah or oil and gas development in South Dakota.

Originality/value

Working against the colonizing narratives present in media, textbooks and local folklore is necessary if the authors are to undermine the invisibility of Native experiences in most social studies curriculum (Journell, 2009) and the stereotyping and discrimination that Native American students experience as a result (Stowe, 2017, p. 243). This detailed look at how the authors developed and implemented standards-based curriculum with that intent adds to the “little research [that] exists on teacher-created curricula and discourse” (Masta and Rosa, p. 148).

Details

Social Studies Research and Practice, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1933-5415

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