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Our awakening to the curriculum being made by children and families in home and community places grows out of a theoretical background that informs our current inquiry…
Our awakening to the curriculum being made by children and families in home and community places grows out of a theoretical background that informs our current inquiry into the tensions experienced by children, families, and teachers as they compose diverse lives on school landscapes, contexts increasingly structured by achievement testing. Our understanding of curriculum is grounded in Clandinin and Connelly's (Clandinin, 1986; Connelly & Clandinin, 1988) earlier attention to curriculum making as the expression of a teacher's personal practical knowledge. They described this knowledge as “that body of convictions and meanings, conscious or unconscious, that have arisen from experience (intimate, social, and traditional) and that are expressed in a person's practices” (Clandinin & Connelly, 1995, p. 7). Dewey's (1938) notions of continuity, situation, and experience, shaped Clandinin and Connelly's (1992) understanding of the “teacher not so much as a maker of curriculum but as a part of it and to imagine a place for contexts, culture (Dewey's notion of interaction), and temporality (both past and future contained in Dewey's notion of continuity)” (p. 365). By bringing together their understandings of teachers’ knowledge as personal practical knowledge with Dewey's notion of experience and Schwab's (1969) four curriculum commonplaces – teacher, learner, subject matter, and milieu – Clandinin and Connelly (1992) suggested that curriculumbe viewed as an account of teachers’ and children's lives together in schools and classrooms … .[In this view of curriculum making] the teacher is seen as an integral part of the curricular process … in which teacher, learners, subject matter, and milieu are in dynamic interaction. (p. 392)
Chapter 1 builds a shared understanding of the definition and role of curriculum in learning. The attributes of a curriculum are presented and described with the research literature. The role and function of these attributes in the design of an effective learning experience are examined in detail.
As there are multiple meanings of the word “curriculum” in use, it is necessary to define this term as used in this work. This definition is not meant to suggest that this is the “one,” “true,” or “only” way to conceive of the term, but instead to suggest a useful and practical conceptual framework for curriculum as a multidimensional, dynamic, and causal component of the instructional system. This definition provides the conceptual framework for curriculum as used in this work.
The term derived from a Latin word (currere) denotes “a race course” (Etymology Online, 2018). Educators in the sixteenth century borrowed this denotation for what is now higher education to increase “order” in the learning processes and enhance learning (Hamilton, 2013). The term now describes the collection of learning experiences in a prescribed instructional unit of study, leading to a defined outcome.
The purpose and function of the curriculum in the learning process are to organize, order, and structure the learning process to facilitate learning. In this system of design, three global dimensions are differentiated to promote and enhance the learning of all individuals who pursue it. These global dimensions determine a learner’s ability to engage with, learn from, and demonstrate authentically the intended learning articulated in the curriculum.
The attributes of an effective curriculum are extracted from the educational literature and converted into criteria with which to evaluate a completed curriculum. These criteria include externally valid content, coherence, alignment, interconnectedness, complexity, and the inclusion of opportunities to demonstrate the expected outcomes. Additionally, the structure of the course groupings is evaluated by the criteria of structure, integration, sequence, and consistency. Each of these standards is discussed and explained as it applies to the design of effective curricula.
The purpose of this paper is to examine how teachers engaged in curriculum deliberation through lesson study (LS) and how different types of teacher knowledge were…
The purpose of this paper is to examine how teachers engaged in curriculum deliberation through lesson study (LS) and how different types of teacher knowledge were elicited, co-constructed and transformed in integrated ways across LS stages. It also clarifies how different school-level orientations influence the nature, depth and scope of the deliberation.
The study adopted an interpretive qualitative case study approach involving two schools, employing participant observations of LS cycles and post-LS teacher interviews. Thematic analysis and analytical coding were conducted.
The two cases revealed core features of curriculum deliberation trajectories enabled by LS: problem identification, planning to unlock the educative potential of content and reflection on enactment for improvement. The types of teacher knowledge that informed deliberation on English language learning were uncovered to reveal LS teams' initial comprehension, collective reasoning and actions, and new knowledge derived. Pedagogical content knowledge was prominently drawn on in unlocking curriculum potential and transformed with the knowledge of student learning gained from the live lesson observations. The school-level orientations were found to influence the extent to which teachers can interrogate existing practices and co-construct knowledge.
The study offers a nuanced understanding of curriculum thinking in LS teams, which is enabled by processes that construct the dialogic space for coordinating curriculum commonplaces to transform content into pedagogical representations to cultivate students' future capacities. It highlights the importance of viewing sustainable LS from an interconnected perspective that calls attention to the social contexts of deliberation.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the views of educators regarding the constructs of the history curriculum to determine whether history education is usually used…
The purpose of this study is to analyze the views of educators regarding the constructs of the history curriculum to determine whether history education is usually used for polarization and negative identity enactment or for positive purposes such as tolerance, peace and social justice.
This study used a qualitative approach, using focus group discussions as a means of data collection. The data were coded deductively based on the preconceived constructs of the Korostelina (2013) model.
This study found that history education in Pakistan is generally used for national identity formation, which forces manipulation of historical facts and accounts. This study identifies apprehensions that upon knowing the true historical accounts in the later stages of life, students may react adversely to the formed narratives, which may cause further polarization.
This study has significant implications for future researchers, curriculum developers, educators and policy actors.
This study is notable for providing a holistic investigation into the usefulness of history curricula in the context of peacebuilding. In nations where intolerance is prominent, such as Pakistan, the history curriculum can serve to transform people’s perceptions of history. This study offers insights into making the history curriculum more meaningful by offering insights and a way forward to help break down binaries and promote peace and harmony.
Purpose ‐ Curriculum development is a vital component in the educational process. Its scope is exceptionally broad, and it involves nearly everyone who is involved with…
Purpose ‐ Curriculum development is a vital component in the educational process. Its scope is exceptionally broad, and it involves nearly everyone who is involved with teaching and learning, including teachers and librarians. Curriculum development resources offer guidance for lesson plan preparation that meets the educational standards set by each state. Resources for curriculum development for both teachers and librarians are abundant, with resources being offered both electronically and in print, freely available and for purchase. The purpose of this paper is to provide a selection of resources offered for teachers and those offered for librarians, electronically, in print, freely available, and for purchase. Design/methodology/approach ‐ Curriculum development resources were chosen based on the selection criteria included in the article, including: authority, accuracy, scope, appropriateness, and treatment. There were many resources for both teachers and librarians available, but only a few were selected. Those selected met the selection criteria and were outstanding and beneficial resources for curriculum development. Findings ‐ Resources for curriculum development for both teachers and librarians are abundant, with resources being offered both electronically and in print, freely available and for purchase. There are many resources for both teachers and librarians; however, teacher resources outnumber those for librarians. Perhaps in the upcoming years, as information literacy instruction becomes part of more institutions, further resources will be made available. Originality/value ‐ The function of curriculum development is to research, plan, and prepare the content and methods that will be taught during instruction to achieve the desired outcomes. State curriculum standards currently play a major role in schools and how the curriculum is developed. Curriculum development resources provide the necessary resources for teachers and librarians to plan and prepare curricula that can meet the standards set by each state.
The purpose of this study is to determine the degree of attention to and the nature of sustainability issues in the curriculum of the Higher National Diploma (HND…
The purpose of this study is to determine the degree of attention to and the nature of sustainability issues in the curriculum of the Higher National Diploma (HND) Purchasing and Supply Management programme of Ghana.
Documentary research is the approach used to analyse the curriculum document for the programme of study.
Findings of this study reveal a low presence of sustainability in the curriculum, and most of the sustainability sub-topics address issues of social justice, while economic sustainability issues feature the least.
Deliberate and greater efforts should be made to integrate sustainability in the curriculum; all three dimensions of sustainability need to be well represented in the teaching and learning experiences; and there should be training and sensitisation of all relevant stakeholders in issues of sustainability.
This study provides an analysis of a higher education curriculum in terms of attention given to sustainability and the nature of sustainability issues addressed therein. It sets the research agenda for the study of curricula of other programmes for sustainability, as research literature on higher education curricula for sustainability in Africa, especially Ghana, is scarce (GUNi et al., 2011).
In 1993 the Ministry of Education in New Zealand identified health education, jointly with physical education, as one of the seven essential learning areas of the country’s national curriculum. This article takes a critical look at some of the emerging issues during the construction and implementation of the new curriculum. Consultation is one of the vital ingredients for successful curriculum construction. It might reasonably be assumed that the views and opinions of children and young people would be sought, and that their issues and concerns might be taken into account during the process. Indications are that this does not happen; this article addresses the question of whose knowledge and what knowledge counts. The new curriculum identifies health with physical education as a single learning area. The author considers that it would be more suitable to position health with social studies, as the two subject areas have more complementary similarities between goals, processes and content.
Aims to develop an organizational model for understanding and managingeffective curriculum change in school. Assumes that curriculum changeand teacher competence…
Aims to develop an organizational model for understanding and managing effective curriculum change in school. Assumes that curriculum change and teacher competence development occur in a three‐level context of school organization: the individual level, the group/ programme level, and the whole school level. There exists mutual development and reinforcement between curriculum and teacher competence and also a hierarchy of influence across three levels. Congruence between curriculum change and teacher development and across levels is important for effectiveness of teaching and learning. Congruence represents conceptual consistency and operational consistency, reflecting the strength of school culture. Provides a comprehensive conceptual framework to plan and manage curriculum change and teacher competence development.
The importance of academic curriculum in higher education cannot be overemphasised. This explains the scrutiny to which the various models employed for the development of…
The importance of academic curriculum in higher education cannot be overemphasised. This explains the scrutiny to which the various models employed for the development of higher education programmes curriculum are subjected. In spite of the numerous scrutiny, higher education curriculum development is still infested with downsides. Solutions to these problems have been proffered by the strategy employed by Curriculum Development and Implementation Branch, Manitoba Department of Education in the development of the curriculum for Canadian Art Education in Manitoba.
The inability to incorporate social responsibility into curriculum of higher education programmes has been a major setback in the actualisation of social responsibility in higher education in Nigeria. The tertiary institutions therefore need to look beyond just issuing degrees and diplomas but inculcate in their students the need to think beyond individual interest to societal interest. Based on this backdrop, this chapter explores the strategies employed by the Manitoba Department of Education in the curriculum development and how these strategies can be implemented in Nigeria for the inclusion of social responsibility into the curriculum of higher education. It focuses on identifying the variables integral to the construction of curricula of higher education programmes in the south-west geopolitical zone Nigeria.
Introduction: Public administration has always been at the forefront of promoting sound and ethical values in society. The myriad of events that are shaping our world…
Introduction: Public administration has always been at the forefront of promoting sound and ethical values in society. The myriad of events that are shaping our world, such as global warming, deforestation, poverty and economic instability, calls for a shift from government to governance. This change demands a collaborative type of governance on the quest to implement sustainability. Collaborative governance can be initiated by its workforce, who are the individuals closest to the structures of public administration and can act as agents of change in this mission. Thus, personnel need to be equipped with the required knowledge, attitudes and skills, about and for, sustainable development. This can be addressed through education for sustainable development (ESD), a lifelong tool which requires adaption to national requirements, but most importantly to societal needs.
Aim: This research focusses on a longitudinal case study from the Maltese islands, the smallest state of the European Union. Since enacting the Sustainable Development Act in 2012, through which sustainable development has been mainstreamed in the Maltese public sector, never was the need felt to educate public officers for sustainable development. Hence, this research aims at shedding light on the curriculum design process of an education module called ‘Public Administration and Sustainability’ as part of a Bachelor of Art’s programme at the University of Malta.
Method: Framing an educational module in a tertiary institution requires tact in aligning the syllabus, not only to the pedagogical requirements, but also to the place of work. In this exploratory study, two research questions, each linked with a set of original hypotheses are tackled through a pool of data obtained from a variety of methodological tools employed, by analysing two important variables – the curriculum and the student. The former is reviewed through a content analysis exercise whereas feedback from the latter is scrutinised through a questionnaire.
Findings: Data triangulation demonstrates that the curriculum design of the educational module promotes a holistic learning experience, since it integrates effectively the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains of the Bloom’s Taxonomy. Furthermore, the different student cohorts share common positive views about this module.
Originality of Study: Previous studies indicate that there is a lacuna in research regarding curriculum design and review, especially regarding sustainable development. This research is significant as it attempts at filling this void by scrutinising closely curriculum design in higher ESD.
Implications: Drawing upon the results, a number of recommendations are provided, among them is ‘The Multiplier Transformation Triad Model’, which portrays the institutional, educational and individual transformations needed to promote sustainability. Moreover, this research might provide more insights about governments’ commitment towards sustainability but should also serve useful to researchers or practitioners in various fields such as public administration, governance, sustainability and even higher education.