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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 18 June 2020

Jan F. Klein, Yuchi Zhang, Tomas Falk, Jaakko Aspara and Xueming Luo

In the age of digital media, customers have access to vast digital information sources, within and outside a company's direct control. Yet managers lack a metric to…

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Abstract

Purpose

In the age of digital media, customers have access to vast digital information sources, within and outside a company's direct control. Yet managers lack a metric to capture customers' cross-media exposure and its ramifications for individual customer journeys. To solve this issue, this article introduces media entropy as a new metric for assessing cross-media exposure on the individual customer level and illustrates its effect on consumers' purchase decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on information and signalling theory, this study proposes the entropy of company-controlled and peer-driven media sources as a measure of cross-media exposure. A probit model analyses individual-level customer journey data across more than 25,000 digital and traditional media touchpoints.

Findings

Cross-media exposure, measured as the entropy of information sources in a customer journey, drives purchase decisions. The positive effect is particularly pronounced for (1) digital (online) versus traditional (offline) media environments, (2) customers who currently do not own the brand and (3) brands that customers perceive as weak.

Practical implications

The proposed metric of cross-media exposure can help managers understand customers' information structures in pre-purchase phases. Assessing the consequences of customers' cross-media exposure is especially relevant for service companies that seek to support customers' information search efforts. Marketing agencies, consultancies and platform providers also need actionable customer journey metrics, particularly in early stages of the journey.

Originality/value

Service managers and marketers can integrate the media entropy metric into their marketing dashboards and use it to steer their investments in different media types. Researchers can include the metric in empirical models to explore customers' omni-channel journeys.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Wei Xu, Lingyu Liu and Wei Shang

Timely detection of emergency events and effective tracking of corresponding public opinions are critical in emergency management. As media are immediate sources of…

Abstract

Purpose

Timely detection of emergency events and effective tracking of corresponding public opinions are critical in emergency management. As media are immediate sources of information on emergencies, the purpose of this paper is to propose cross-media analytics to detect and track emergency events and provide decision support for government and emergency management departments.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, a novel emergency event detection and opinion mining method is proposed for emergency management using cross-media analytics. In the proposed approach, an event detection module is constructed to discover emergency events based on cross-media analytics, and after the detected event is confirmed as an emergency event, an opinion mining module is used to analyze public sentiments and then generate public sentiment time series for early warning via a semantic expansion technique.

Findings

Empirical results indicate that a specific emergency can be detected and that public opinion can be tracked effectively and efficiently using cross-media analytics. In addition, the proposed system can be used for decision support and real-time response for government and emergency management departments.

Research limitations/implications

This paper takes full advantage of cross-media information and proposes novel emergency event detection and opinion mining methods for emergency management using cross-media analytics. The empirical analysis results illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

Practical implications

The proposed method can be applied for detection of emergency events and tracking of public opinions for emergency decision support and governmental real-time response.

Originality/value

This research work contributes to the design of a decision support system for emergency event detection and opinion mining. In the proposed approaches, emergency events are detected by leveraging cross-media analytics, and public sentiments are measured using an auto-expansion of the domain dictionary in the field of emergency management to eliminate the misclassification of the general dictionary and to make the quantization more accurate.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 January 2013

Gary Graham and Anita Greenhill

This paper aims to understand the level of synergy between print and online activity and to assess the influence of print/online synergy on the log of circulation change.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand the level of synergy between print and online activity and to assess the influence of print/online synergy on the log of circulation change.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to meet this aim the authors conducted an empirical study of 100 regional newspapers supplying news media services in the UK. Two hypotheses grounded in a conceptual model were developed. The authors used Pearson correlation and (stepwise) regression analysis to test two hypotheses (H1 and H2).

Findings

H1 provides us with some interesting findings. The first is that higher priced newspapers attract more unique Internet users and mobile Internet access. Higher priced newspapers who have been in business longer and have established brands attract more online readers. Also, because these issues are more expensive there is more incentive to go online to read the papers for free. Note that this last explanation is consistent with the analysis provided for H2, the beta for price is negative. The negative coefficient indicates that the circulation change of higher priced papers has reduced more. Therefore circulation change impacts greater upon premium price newspapers for an elite rather than a broad readership. The regression results presented here indicate that established firms with premium pricing, providing multiple platform distribution and specialist digital editions with free online content, have circulations that are reducing less.Practical implications – While reducing the rate of circulation decline, current levels of online presence are not reversing it. There is a need for online presence to be focused on more targeted segments/niches of circulation such as “hyper‐local” news. This suggests a much clearer consideration must be made by newspapers with a premium price for an elite rather than a broad readership.

Social implications

News organizations now find themselves less socially relevant as consumers turn towards the Internet for alternative sources of “news”. News media firms are having to rebuild their brand identity and market positioning in the online marketplace. Higher priced newspapers have been in business longer and have established brand recognition for providing elite services. This is vital if they are to retain their community influence (as trusted sources of locally produced news, analysis and investigative reporting into public affairs). Commercial influence is determined by their social influence and the demise of newspapers would significantly threaten news plurality, democracy and public service journalism at the local community level.

Originality/value

The originality of this work concerns its specific focus on the influence of print/online synergy on the rate of circulation change. The news media industry is an under‐researched area of Internet scholarship. The study is significant on two counts: first, it estimates cross‐media synergies based on print and online interaction at an aggregated level; and second, it identifies different combinations of cross‐media exposure over individual media effects. It combines both print and online measures of circulation. Of most importance, the study is able to show that synergy is complementary and has had a positive effect on log circulation change by reducing it by a smaller number.

Book part
Publication date: 29 December 2016

Guanxiong Huang and Hairong Li

As an extension to Assael’s (2011) review on media synergy, this chapter examines the latest evolvement of media synergy research in the past 10 years by integrating…

Abstract

Purpose

As an extension to Assael’s (2011) review on media synergy, this chapter examines the latest evolvement of media synergy research in the past 10 years by integrating studies from a wide range of leading journals.

Methodology/approach

We searched a total of 17 major journals in advertising, communication, and marketing from 2005 to 2014 and identified a total of 42 articles on media synergy. These studies were reviewed to assess the current status of media synergy research.

Findings

Studies of inter-media interaction at the individual level provide mixed support for a media synergistic effect, and the occurrence of this effect demands certain boundary conditions. Research on multi-media engagement has been gaining momentum in the past few years and is a promising subject in media synergy research.

Research implications

We envision two growing approaches in future media synergy research: the neuroscientific approach and the data mining approach.

Originality/value

This chapter posits that media synergy research has evolved in the most recent years to a new phase, which is multi-media engagement. Hence, this chapter extends Assael’s work in terms of explicating media synergy in the context of social media engagement and identifying research gaps in current literature.

Details

Advertising in New Formats and Media
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-312-9

Keywords

Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 4 April 2019

Indrek Ibrus

This chapter presents the many premises of this book. It first discusses the book’s central questions and lays out the design of the large multi-national and multi-method…

Abstract

This chapter presents the many premises of this book. It first discusses the book’s central questions and lays out the design of the large multi-national and multi-method study, carried out across Northern Europe. It also places the book at the interdisciplinary space between contemporary innovation economics and cultural and social theory. It then discusses the complex set of social processes that have conditioned the phenomena that the book studies – how and why are the contemporary audiovisual media industries co-innovating and converging with other sectors including education, tourism and health care? Within this framework, it discusses the effects of the broader individualisation and mediatisation processes, of media convergence, of the emergence of cross-media or transmedia strategies, of the evolution of the service and experience economies and of the emergence of creative industries policy frameworks.

Details

Emergence of Cross-innovation Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-980-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 April 2022

Dan Li and Nicholas Masafumi Watanabe

This study aims to examine the cross-media effect of Super Bowl ads on online search behavior. Furthermore, the authors explored the role of ad likability in the effect.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the cross-media effect of Super Bowl ads on online search behavior. Furthermore, the authors explored the role of ad likability in the effect.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a quasi-experiment method to test the hypotheses. The subjects of investigation are the brands advertised during the past ten years of Super Bowl from 2011 to 2020 (n = 389). Search volume index data were collected through Google Trends. The authors used Ad Meter ratings to measure ad likability.

Findings

The findings indicate that Super Bowl advertisements stimulate consumers' likelihood to seek information about the advertised brands via search engines. The search volumes for brands hit a peak right after the Super Bowl advertising exposure. Additionally, ad likability influenced the increase in search volume. Consumers tend to search a brand online if they liked its Super Bowl ad.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the literature on Super Bowl advertising effectiveness by examining the impact of Super Bowl advertising on online search behavior and the role of ad likability in the relationship. Marketers will be able to utilize the increase in search volumes after the Super Bowl advertising exposure to further enhance brand engagement.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Jenni Romaniuk and Nicole Hartnett

This paper aims to investigate the relative influence of advertising and word of mouth (WOM) for new season TV programmes, both new and returning.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the relative influence of advertising and word of mouth (WOM) for new season TV programmes, both new and returning.

Design/methodology/approach

The study’s longitudinal research design tracks individuals before and after possible exposure to advertising and/or positive WOM (PWOM) to model the effects of both paid versus earned media on behaviour.

Findings

This study provides contrary evidence to previous research that suggests that WOM has more influence on consumers than advertising. By controlling for viewers’ benchmark probabilities of viewing the TV programme, the effect of receiving PWOM becomes insignificant, whereas the effect of TV advertising remains unchanged. Because WOM is commonly exchanged between people with shared interests, it reaches an audience that is already highly disposed to view the TV programme.

Research limitations/implications

The findings implicate that we need to reinvestigate the power of WOM to avoid misattribution of effects. This study is only study in one category, which means replication and extension to more categories are needed. The limitations of the study include the inability to control for creative differences in the execution of programme promotions or examine possible cross-media synergies for multimedia campaigns.

Practical implications

Findings have implications for how much to invest in WOM-generating activities. Findings also have wider implications for cross-media research and media-mix models, as different media may reach audiences with differing predispositions to act.

Originality/value

This is one of the rare individual-level, longitudinal studies that investigate the influence of WOM in comparison to advertising.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 51 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Sabrina Heike Kessler and Lars Guenther

Using the internet parallel to or after television (TV) consumption changes the way people receive news. The way information is framed by the media has been found to…

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Abstract

Purpose

Using the internet parallel to or after television (TV) consumption changes the way people receive news. The way information is framed by the media has been found to influence the behavior of news recipients. The purpose of this paper is to hypothesize that the exposure to TV media frames would affect a lay audience’s online information-seeking behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

In an experiment combining eye tracking and content analysis, participants (n=72) were exposed to one of three TV clips with different media frames (based on a full-sample content analysis) that focused on Alzheimer’s disease. After exposure, participants informed themselves about the issue online. Eye tracking allows to investigate whether individuals mainly scan information, or whether they compute information on a higher level of attention (use more thorough deliberate comparison of information and really reading information).

Findings

Three different frames of online content were identified. Framing was found to influence the individual online searching and reading of information on a descriptive level (entering search words and viewing website content) to some degree, but not on a procedural level (such as selecting online search results).

Research limitations/implications

This study makes a significant contribution to the literature embedding an established theoretical process like framing effects into the internet literature. Regarding the broader theoretical context, this study shed some light on cross-media framing effects on online behavior. Applying the psychological perspective of framing theory to explain and predict online searching behavior is beneficial for specific types of online search behavior. Main limitations are the not representative student sample and the forced task that participants had to inform themselves about Alzheimer’s disease online.

Practical implications

The results have practical implications for the creation of TV-related websites. There can be a positive, profitable synergy of TV and online websites. The websites can complement the TV programs with the focus on information needs of the recipients depending on the TV activated audience frames. Therefore, media managers would do well to plan the contents of their websites as internet-based resources that meet the activated information needs.

Originality/value

This study is among the first to investigate the framing effects of TV on the online information searching behavior of individuals. A deeper understanding of how media frames, especially from TV, are affecting online information seeking will allow researchers to better explain and predict online user behavior and information needs. But still, more research is needed.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 4 April 2019

Indrek Ibrus and Ulrike Rohn

The chapter discusses the characteristics of audiovisual (AV) media sectors in the Baltic Sea region. Therein it focuses on the specifics of media industries in small…

Abstract

The chapter discusses the characteristics of audiovisual (AV) media sectors in the Baltic Sea region. Therein it focuses on the specifics of media industries in small countries in the region as they are challenged in ways notably different from large countries with large domestic markets for media content. It discusses the differences between the AV media industries in the Nordic and Baltic countries and suggests that while in the first case long-term welfare society policies and conscious policy-driven system building have conditioned growth and international success then also in the second case innovation policy rationales have facilitated recent growth and dynamics. It then discusses the specific challenges, especially platformisation to small media industries in contemporary globalising media markets, and suggests that opportunities to resist these challenges may be in local inter-sectoral cooperation, that is, in building cross-innovation systems.

Details

Emergence of Cross-innovation Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-980-9

Keywords

Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 4 April 2019

Mikhail Fiadotau, Martin Sillaots and Indrek Ibrus

This chapter introduces the topic of cooperation and co-innovation between the audiovisual media and education sectors. It first discusses the emergence of educational…

Abstract

This chapter introduces the topic of cooperation and co-innovation between the audiovisual media and education sectors. It first discusses the emergence of educational film approximately a hundred years go – together with a new institutional framework, industry media, rulebooks, etc. It then discusses the ways public service media have addressed educational programming over the decades, including developing complex cross-media strategies and educational content databases more recently. The second half of the chapter is dedicated to the emergence of educational digital games, with their own institutional setups, production cultures, and training programmes. The chapter points, however, to a relative lack of cooperation between commercial game producers and educational institutions to date.

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