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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2007

Caroline Firstbrook

The aim of this paper is to discuss the trend towards cross‐border mergers and acquisitions (M&A) and review best practices for successful cross‐border M&A transactions

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to discuss the trend towards cross‐border mergers and acquisitions (M&A) and review best practices for successful cross‐border M&A transactions (and how they differ from executing national deals).

Design/methodology/approach

The objectives are achieved through a review of four best practices for successful planning, implementation and execution of cross‐border deals. Also, a March 2006 Accenture/Economist Intelligence Unit survey is used which highlights trends towards cross‐border deals and common pitfalls in the successful execution of deals – in particular the difficulties in addressing cultural issues and local due diligence.

Findings

The paper finds that executives believe in their M&A strategy but doubt their organizational ability to successfully implement and execute and to realize financial gains and cross‐border deals offer a different mix of opportunities and risks, which need to be understood and managed if the deals are to be successful. The key to success lies in understanding exactly what makes cross‐border deal making different, and in developing the skills needed to create value.

Practical implications

There are four key drivers of success in cross‐border M&A: start with a clear and compelling strategy – the most successful cross‐border acquirers begin with a clear view of both the role that cross‐border acquisitions will play in their strategy and the type of companies best equipped to fill that role; do your homework – the greatest risks in cross‐border transactions arise from the failure to understand the culture, regulatory structure or competitive environment – and sometimes all three considerations – in the target market; value your new people – regardless of the rationale for the acquisition, a key asset – many would argue the most important one – in a cross‐border acquisition is people; and execution, execution, execution – successful execution begins early – in some cases, long before the deal is done.

Originality/value

A recent survey (Accenture/Economist Intelligence Unit, March 2006) shows for the first time that among global M&A deals, cross‐border transactions now exceed domestic transactions – and this trend is likely to continue. Yet for many c‐level executives, the prospect of acquiring or merging with a company in an unfamiliar market is daunting – and cross‐border M&A is considered more difficult than executing on domestic deals. This paper is intended to give c‐level executives practical, hands‐on advice for conducting cross‐border M&A as well as publicizing survey results specifically on the cross‐border M&A trend.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2009

Monica Yang

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether isomorphism and mimetic, coercive, and normative mechanisms apply to cross‐border mergers and acquisitions initiated by…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether isomorphism and mimetic, coercive, and normative mechanisms apply to cross‐border mergers and acquisitions initiated by Chinese firms. Unlike prior studies, the paper aims to identify multiple bases for imitation of firm strategy and verify: whether the degree of conformity in the multiple bases of firm strategy increases over time; and how mimetic, coercive, and normative pressures affect the degree of conformity.

Design/methodology/approach

Hypotheses are tested on a sample of 1,004 cross‐border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) initiated by 671 Chinese firms from 1985 to 2006. The four decisions for imitation in cross‐border M&As are based on: the product relatedness between the acquiring and target firms; the location of the target firm; the ownership structure; and the size of the deal.

Findings

The results show that not all decisions on cross‐border M&As react to forces of conformity in the same way. Overtime, the overall degree of conformity in cross‐border M&As decreases. Factors that significantly affect the degree of conformity include the experiences of failure other firms in the industry, regulatory changes, and membership or entry into the World Trade Organization.

Originality/value

This paper re‐examines the concept of isomorphism and explores the conditions under which firms from emergent markets conform to others' decisions.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Monica Yang

The purpose of this paper is to adopt a multi-level approach to investigate what factors shape the content of emerging market firms’ foreign market entry decisions…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to adopt a multi-level approach to investigate what factors shape the content of emerging market firms’ foreign market entry decisions, particularly the ownership participation in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As). In addition, the author would like to know if companies from emerging markets that possess higher (or lower) ownership in cross-border M&As receive higher valuation in the market.

Design/methodology/approach

Using panel data of cross-border M&As by emerging market firms from 2000 to 2012, the author tests the hypothesized effects of the independent variables on the level of ownership participation; and uses a standard event study methodology to assess the market reaction of a particular cross-border M&A deal.

Findings

The author finds that a country-level factor (institutional distance), an industry-level factor (industry unrelatedness) and a firm-level factor (board concentration) have significant impact on ownership participation in cross-border M&As. The author also finds that investors do give high valuation to those emerging market firms that chose high ownership participation in cross-border M&As. However, the author did not finds the support for the relationship between ownership participation and cultural distance. Neither did the author finds the support for the relationship between ownership participation and board independence.

Originality/value

This study enhances the understanding of conditions under which the level of ownership participation in cross-border M&As would increase (decrease) and how the market reacts to high (low) ownership participation of cross-border M&As by emerging market firms.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 53 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2019

Lijun Dong, Xin Li, Frank McDonald and Jiaguo Xie

The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the significant lower completion rate of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) by firms from emerging economies (EEs) (China in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to the significant lower completion rate of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) by firms from emerging economies (EEs) (China in particular) compared with firms from advanced economies, and identify the country- and industry-level factors that affect the completion of cross-border M&As by Chinese firms.

Design/methodology/approach

This study explores the effects of economic, cultural and institutional distances and target firms in technology- and knowledge-intensive industries on the completion of cross-border M&As by Chinese firms. It also examines the interplay between distance factors and technology- and knowledge-intensive industries on cross-border M&A completion. This study adopts a quantitative approach and is based on a sample of 768 announced cross-border M&A deals by firms in China between 2000 and 2015.

Findings

The results indicate that economic distance increases the likelihood of the completion of cross-border M&As when the target is in a more developed economy than China, but decreases when the target is in a less developed economy. Cultural and institutional distances have a significant, negative impact on the completion of cross-border M&As. In addition, target technology-intensive industries have a significant direct negative effect on cross-border M&A completion and moderate the relationship between the distance factors and the likelihood of cross-border M&A completion.

Research limitations/implications

The results reveal factors that affect the completion of cross-border M&As by emerging market firms (EMFs). Further research, however, is needed to discover how distance factors affect how EMFs find, evaluate and negotiate international bids. To broaden the scope of the research, data for firms from other EEs would also be required.

Originality/value

The study expands the literature that considers the effects of major distances on cross-border M&A completion. In addition, the importance of defining and measuring distances in the context of cross-border M&As is highlighted. Finally, the study expands knowledge on how cross-border M&As affect the internationalization strategies of EMFs by conceptualizing and testing how target industries affect cross-border M&A completion.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2020

Yujuan Xi, Xiangyang Wang and Yunxia Zhu

This paper aims to explore the relationships between organizational unlearning and knowledge transfer in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) from a routine-based…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the relationships between organizational unlearning and knowledge transfer in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) from a routine-based view. The study also stresses the mediating role that knowledge integration capability plays in this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 178 samples were collected from Chinese multinational corporations that experienced cross-border M&As. In addition, the bootstrap method was used to test the mediating role of knowledge integration capability.

Findings

The empirical results indicate that knowledge integration capability is the crucial link between organizational unlearning and knowledge transfer. Specifically, this capability goes beyond the direct effect of organizational unlearning on knowledge transfer and points to the importance of enhancing knowledge integration capability. In turn, knowledge integration capability has a significant influence on knowledge transfer. The study finds that knowledge integration capability mediates the relationship between organizational unlearning and knowledge transfer.

Originality/value

This study adopts a routine-based view to develop a theoretical model for examining the relationship between organizational unlearning, knowledge integration capability and knowledge transfer in the context of cross-border M&As. This model provides new insights for a routine-based understanding of the important mediating role of knowledge integration capability for knowledge transfer and the effects of this role on the specific knowledge transfer, i.e. technological, marketing and managerial knowledge.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2019

Ching-Chiu Hsu, Jeong-Yang Park and Yong Kyu Lew

In cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As), acquirers often fail to achieve the expectations they held when they made the M&A deals. This paper aims to propose that…

Abstract

Purpose

In cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As), acquirers often fail to achieve the expectations they held when they made the M&A deals. This paper aims to propose that the risks of cross-border M&As can be mitigated by building and cultivating organizational resilience as a prime means of risk management.

Design/methodology/approach

The research examines risks associated with cross-border M&A and how such risks can be mitigated by developing resilience. It presents dual cases of acquisitions of the biggest branded mobile phone manufacturer in Taiwan.

Findings

The authors find that the acquirer faces multiple risks in cross-border M&A transactions, including financial, strategic and organizational, and process risks that arise from misalignment between the goal of the M&As and the post-acquisition performance of the target firms.

Originality/value

The research provides theoretical insights on organizational resilience and how it can mitigate the specific risks involved in cross-border M&As, thereby developing coherent organizational resilience processes.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 16 November 2015

Chang Li, Philip Chang, Shanming Li and Xinxiang Shi

Cross-border M & A is one of the most important ways of international capital flows, and scholars have paid a lot of attention to this area, but a general…

Abstract

Purpose

Cross-border M & A is one of the most important ways of international capital flows, and scholars have paid a lot of attention to this area, but a general explaining model has still not been generated. The purpose of this paper, based on Lambrecht (2004) and Bolton et al. (2013), is to build a general explaining model in this area and use the new model to explain some real world issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The model work in this paper is based on Lambrecht’s (2004) real option model, which is the classical modeling method in this area, and take the economic crisis method of Bolton et al. (2013) into consideration; the authors also use the relative market condition to illustrate the motivation and market timing of cross-border M & A in this paper to connected the bidders’ markets and targets’ markets together to build the general explaining model for cross-border M & A.

Findings

By analyzing the new model the authors build in this paper, the authors get three conclusions. Conclusion 1: when the bidders’ technologies are more advanced than the targets’, the bidders prefer market-seeking cross-border M & A, and the relatively higher the bidders’ technologies are, the stronger the preference is; when the bidders’ technologies are less advanced than the targets’, the bidders prefer technology-seeking cross-border M & A, and there exists an optimal relative technology ratio at which the bidders have the strongest motivation to exercise the technology-seeking type cross-border M & A. Conclusion 2: host country’s high economic growth helps attracting market-seeking cross-border M & A, conversely host country’s low economic growth helps attracting technology-seeking cross-border M & A. Conclusion 3: the bidders prefer to exercise the technology-seeking cross-border M & A when the home markets are stable or when economic crises happen in targets markets; and the bidders prefer not to exercise the market-seeking cross-border M & A when economic crises happen in home markets; and the relationship between the motivation for bidders to exercise market-seeking cross-border M & A and the possibility of the happening of economic crisis in home countries presents an inverse N-shape curve.

Originality/value

In this paper the authors first use the relative market condition to illustrate the motivation and market timing in the cross-border M & A research area and build a general model based on current literatures.

Details

China Finance Review International, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1398

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Article
Publication date: 3 September 2018

Ziva Rozen-Bakher

Due to the high failure rate of the M&A strategy, this paper aims to raise the question of whether the pre-M&A performances could predict integration success in…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to the high failure rate of the M&A strategy, this paper aims to raise the question of whether the pre-M&A performances could predict integration success in cross-border M&As with the aim of reducing the integration risk. Cross-border M&A is considered an important strategy for gaining access to foreign markets, but at the same time, cross-border M&As involve a high risk for failure, particularly due to the problematic integration stage in cross-border M&As.

Design/methodology/approach

The study presents a research model that includes six pre-M&A performances – the revenue and profitability of the acquirer and the target, the revenue ratio and profitability ratio – with the aim of analysing if the pre-M&A performances could predict integration success. The sample of the study includes 68 public firms that were engaged in cross-border M&As from 13 countries. The database of the study is based on 272 annual reports (10-K) of the public companies that are included in the sample.

Findings

The results show that the revenue and profitability of the acquirer and the target predict integration success. However, the revenue ratio predicts integration success, but not the profitability ratio. The results also show that a larger target leads to a complicated integration process that ends in a failure of the integration stage, while a larger acquirer could help to facilitate the integration stage. The study also indicates that buying a small target in relation to the acquirer decreases the risks of the integration stage. Moreover, the pre-performances of the acquirer more predict integration success compared to the pre-performances of the target.

Originality/value

The study suggests that buying an inefficient target creates opportunities for removing redundancies, while buying profitable target may hinder the possibilities for eliminating duplicate jobs and operations. This mixed effect highlights the challenges in implementing of M&A strategy in cross-border-M&As.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 26 April 2013

Xiaojun Du, He Liu, Lingjing Bao and Peng Huang

This paper aims to investigate the relationships between the strategic type of cross‐border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) and enterprise growth, and the moderating role…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the relationships between the strategic type of cross‐border mergers and acquisitions (M&As) and enterprise growth, and the moderating role of Chinese companies' organizational factors, including organizational structure, organizational experience, cultural distance and relative size.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors, as researchers, have mixed the strategic choice and post‐M&As integration into a comprehensive framework while building the theoretical model of “Strategic Type of Cross‐border M&As‐Organizational Factors‐Enterprise Growth” (ST‐OF‐EG). In this paper, they have empirically examined the model using hierarchical regression by analyzing 76 cross‐borders M&A events of overseas‐listed Chinese companies over the 2000‐2007 period.

Findings

The analysis shows that: related cross‐border M&As are better for enterprise growth than unrelated diversification cross‐border M&As; and among the organizational factors, studied organizational structure and organizational experience show a positive significance in terms of the relationship between the strategic type of cross‐border M&As and enterprise growth. The moderating role of cultural distance and relative size is non‐significant.

Research limitations/implications

In this paper, the moderating effect of cultural distance was found to be insignificant. However, further research is encouraged.

Practical implications

Chinese companies should pay attention to strategic choices before cross‐border M&As. They should expand abroad to markets step by step. They should merge the companies that have the higher relevance on a product, industry or market first. On the basis of specialization, Chinese companies should make themselves stronger and then develop from specialization to proper diversification, which is a robust path to achieve enterprise growth. Besides, Chinese companies should accumulate international experience as soon as possible and organizational structure should match the strategic choice.

Originality/value

This paper would be immensely helpful to Chinese companies to plan their cross‐border M&As strategy in a way that would enhance growth and core‐competence.

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Xiaobai Ma, Yiying Zhu and Wenyuan Cai

This paper aims to evaluate the value creation of cross-border acquisitions conducted by Chinese firms and determinants that result in the different performance. During…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate the value creation of cross-border acquisitions conducted by Chinese firms and determinants that result in the different performance. During the recent decades, the world has witnessed multinational enterprises (MNEs) from emerging economies undertaking aggressive cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M & As). This phenomenon raises great attention in the international business community, and also challenges the traditional understanding in the extant literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examine 272 cross-border M & As associated with 48 target countries during the period 1996-2012.

Findings

Evidences show that cross-border expansions on average point to negative performance in the short term. The authors also find that prior cross-border M & A experiences, ownership structure of the acquirer (state-owned vs private) and acquirer size positively affect the performance of the acquiring firm.

Originality/value

In addition to contributing to cross-border M & A literature, the findings also provide useful guidance to outward foreign direct investment by firms from emerging economies.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

Keywords

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