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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2014

Timothy Hart and Paul Zandbergen

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of user-defined parameters settings (e.g. interpolation method, grid cell size, and bandwidth) on the predictive…

3944

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of user-defined parameters settings (e.g. interpolation method, grid cell size, and bandwidth) on the predictive accuracy of crime hotspot maps produced from kernel density estimation (KDE).

Design/methodology/approach

The influence of variations in parameter settings on prospective KDE maps is examined across two types of interpersonal violence (e.g. aggravated assault and robbery) and two types of property crime (e.g. commercial burglary and motor vehicle theft).

Findings

Results show that interpolation method has a considerable effect on predictive accuracy, grid cell size has little to no effect, and bandwidth as some effect.

Originality/value

The current study advances the knowledge and understanding of prospective hotspot crime mapping as it answers the calls by Chainey et al. (2008) and others to further investigate the methods used to predict crime.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2006

G.D. Breetzke

This purpose of this paper is to explore the developments which have precipitated the use and integration of geographical information systems (GIS) within the South…

2879

Abstract

Purpose

This purpose of this paper is to explore the developments which have precipitated the use and integration of geographical information systems (GIS) within the South African Police Services (SAPS).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides a historical overview of GIS within South Africa, supplemented with the legislative origins of the integration of GIS within policing in South Africa. Various spatial analytic operations that GIS technology affords are highlighted to illustrate the potential that the technology offers to law enforcement agencies in South Africa.

Findings

A number of challenges face the full integration of GIS within the day‐to‐day policing operations of the SAPS. Several critical success factors are identified which need to be eminently satisfied before the widespread integration of GIS within the SAPS can be achieved.

Originality/value

GIS is envisaged as a tool to benefit the criminal justice community by playing an important role in the policing and crime prevention process. This paper identifies the major inhibitors to the potential offered by GIS to supplement policing within a South African context.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2020

Emily M. Homer and George E. Higgins

The purpose of this study is to use crime mapping techniques to examine geographic patterns of signed deferred and non-prosecution agreements across federal districts. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to use crime mapping techniques to examine geographic patterns of signed deferred and non-prosecution agreements across federal districts. The purpose is also to examine the variation in the number of agreements by the district since 1992.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses data from the Corporate Prosecution Registry to examine geographic patterns in federal corporate agreements since 1992 (n = 534). Choropleth mapping techniques were used to create national crime maps displaying the geographic locations of signed corporate agreements.

Findings

The results showed that, overall, prosecutors in the District of Columbia have signed the most federal corporate agreements although there is some variation over time.

Research limitations/implications

This study is unable to determine the causes of changes in the geographic placement or number of agreements signed. It is also unable to determine the precise geographic locations of crimes, but only the location of the District Court that elected to pursue a federal agreement with the organization.

Practical implications

The wide discretion prosecutors have in the agreement process has led to an overall lack of transparency concerning prosecutors’ decision-making when signing agreements with organizations. This study helps to make the number and geographic location of agreements more transparent.

Originality/value

This study uses crime mapping techniques to visually depict the locations of signed agreements allowing for visual comparisons and analyzes for an extended period of time.

Article
Publication date: 9 January 2017

Hiroki Nakamura and Fumitoshi Murae

The purpose of this paper is to focus on local safety map creation education activities for crime prevention and to quantitatively identify the relationships between the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on local safety map creation education activities for crime prevention and to quantitatively identify the relationships between the elements that determine the expected effects of local safety maps.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to clarify the effects following and the significant factors involved in creating local safety maps, questionnaire surveys were given to participants in map-creation activities held in Kitakyushu City, Japan. The results were analyzed with structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results showed that safety maps may improve an understanding of the characteristics of dangerous and safe places, but they may not enhance knowledge of places sufficiently for someone to ask for help if they are in danger or are likely to be a crime victim. Of the factors most important in both the creation and effectiveness of safety maps, intergenerational exchanges and communication rank the highest, as they relate to an understanding of safety and crime prevention, and to familiarity with the region.

Practical implications

In the future, we should establish a system and design for safety map creation in which intergenerational discussion and communication with various people, including university students, is possible.

Originality/value

Although the production of local safety maps has been said to improve participants’ abilities, it was unclear who gained abilities in the map-making process to the extent to which the participants could effectively produce the maps. This paper discovered the effects and the significant factors involved in map creation.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Kim Sadique

Current criminological theory and the Government's focus on ‘community safety’ and ‘crime and disorder reduction’ has led to the creation of a new discipline, or at least…

101

Abstract

Current criminological theory and the Government's focus on ‘community safety’ and ‘crime and disorder reduction’ has led to the creation of a new discipline, or at least a new paradigm, that of crime science. This article explores the theoretical basis and multi‐disciplinary nature of crime science and its usefulness in the reduction of alcohol and drug‐related crime.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 March 2007

Gisela Bichler and Stefanie Balchak

The purpose of this paper is to show that despite the critical importance of using accurate data when identifying geographic patterns and studying hotspots, few have…

1050

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show that despite the critical importance of using accurate data when identifying geographic patterns and studying hotspots, few have explored the data quality issues introduced by Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software applications. While software manufacturers provide some information about the address matching process, critical details are left out or are buried in technical, and sometimes proprietary, jargon. The purpose of this paper is to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper demonstrates, with three datasets of 100 cases each, how the assumptions built into popular GIS software produce systematically missing data during the data importing process commonly referred to as address matching.

Findings

Inclusion of directional indicators and zip codes are more important than previously thought. The results highlight the critical need to provide complete descriptions of research methodology. All geographic analyses must be accompanied with: information about the hit rate (percent of cases plotted), details about the software and process used to import tabular crime data, information about the software parameters set for the importation process (geocoding preferences), reference information about the street file used; and, an examination of the missing cases to identify some of the sampling error. When forecasting crime issues or identifying hot spots, analysts must be cognizant of the differential impact this bias will have on the generalizability of the results.

Originality/value

The paper explores previously neglected issues in data quality introduced by GIS software applications.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 December 2009

Stuart Kirby, Ian Billsborough and Lisa Steele

For local law enforcement agencies, the subject of illicit drugs can appear all‐pervasive. Any multifaceted problem situated in an intrusive media and political…

Abstract

For local law enforcement agencies, the subject of illicit drugs can appear all‐pervasive. Any multifaceted problem situated in an intrusive media and political environment raises difficult challenges concerning the allocation of resources. This article explores the process behind Lancashire Constabulary's decision to highlight Class A open drug markets as an operational priority, and looks at how a multi‐agency intelligence process, based on geographic mapping methodology (GIS), was initiated to direct enforcement and preventative activity.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2013

Timothy C. Hart and Paul A. Zandbergen

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of reference data, input address quality, and crime type on completeness and positional accuracy of street geocoded…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of reference data, input address quality, and crime type on completeness and positional accuracy of street geocoded crime events.

Design/methodology/approach

Existing data were analyzed using ArcGIS, including crime incident information, street network reference data, and address point and/or parcel reference data. Geocoding completeness was determined by the overall match rate. Positional accuracy was determined by comparing the Euclidian distance between street geocoded locations of crime events to the corresponding address point/parcel geocoded location.

Findings

Results indicate that match rates vary by reference data, input address quality, and crime type. Local street centerline files consistently produced match rates that were as good as – and in many cases superior to – other types of reference data, including commercial data. Greater variability in positional accuracy was observed across reference data when crime type and input address quality was considered, but results were consistent with positional accuracy analysis conducted using data from other disciplines.

Practical implications

Results provide researchers and practitioners with valuable guidance and insight into one of the most basic – albeit fundamental – procedures related to the spatio‐temporal analysis of crime, suggesting that reference data required to produce geocoded crime incidents successfully and of high quality does not necessarily mean a large financial investment on the part of law enforcement agencies or researchers interested in the geospatial analysis of crime.

Originality/value

Prior to this investigation, a comprehensive examination of the impact of data quality on geocoded crime events was absent from the literature.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 July 2019

Michael T. Rossler

Police technology fundamentally shapes the police role, and the adoption of technology is even linked to the success of police reforms. Police adoption of emerging…

Abstract

Police technology fundamentally shapes the police role, and the adoption of technology is even linked to the success of police reforms. Police adoption of emerging technological tools changes the way police interact with citizens. The change in police citizen interactions can then have serious implications for the social control that police have over citizens, the civil liberties citizens enjoy, police accountability, and the legitimacy that the police hold in contemporary American society.

While technology impacts these critical issues in policing, not all technology adopted by the police is likely to influence their relationship with the public. As such, this chapter closely examines the ways that several emerging technologies adopted by the police (i.e., body-worn cameras (BWC), aerial surveillance, visual surveillance, social media, mapping and crime prediction, and less lethal force technology) impact issues related to social control, accountability, and legitimacy. The current literature seems to indicate that some innovations such as BWCs enhance police accountability and legitimacy, and also expand social control. Other technologies such as aerial surveillance and conducted energy devices increase social control, and display a complicated or unclear influence over police legitimacy.

Details

Political Authority, Social Control and Public Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-049-9

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 December 2017

Daniel Briggs, Jorge Ramiro Pérez Suárez and Raquel Rebeca Cordero Verdugo

The purpose of this paper is to provide an honest and critical reflection with regard to the damage neoliberalised education systems have had on the “crime science” of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an honest and critical reflection with regard to the damage neoliberalised education systems have had on the “crime science” of criminology in Spain.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is a viewpoint based on our experience of teaching criminology and researching crime problems in Spain.

Findings

We argue that the neoliberalisation of education systems results in a “crime of science” in the sense that this produces rampant competition between university institutions which is amplified by the emergence of internal and external corporate enterprises who compete against each other in commodifying knowledge around crime which is largely focussed on a combination of statistical measurements and zonal mapping. This results in the reproduction of misleading conceptions about how crime occurs because the research is not grounded in offenders’ experiences and pays no attention to the political economy, power and corruption and the oscillating relationship between agent and social structure. This has negative implications for the development of critical knowledge which should equip we to reconceptualise how and why social problems occur.

Practical implications

These infractions have major implications on how we are able to report on crime problems.

Social implications

As researchers/students, the authors are only able “diagnose problems” and answer questions and lose the capacity to question the answers as well as question the way the authors question.

Originality/value

We do not think that many criminologists would be prepared to write these words (unless it was being published in a high-impact factor journal).

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

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