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1 – 10 of over 1000
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2002

Joel M. DiCicco

This paper suggests that the proliferation of highly sophisticated corporate tax shelters has been a major reason for the decline of corporate income tax as a percentage…

Abstract

This paper suggests that the proliferation of highly sophisticated corporate tax shelters has been a major reason for the decline of corporate income tax as a percentage of GDP and of total Federal receipts. Many of these shelters have extended beyond solid tax planning and into the realm of subversion. The controversy surrounding possible remedies for these abuses is just as lively as the debates surrounding the tax shelters themselves. This article explores the nature of a variety of tax shelters in an effort to illustrate the insidious nature of the corporate tax shelter problem and then discusses solutions, both legislative and nonlegislative, designed to curb these abuses.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

Article
Publication date: 20 January 2020

Mahdi Salehi and Shantia Salami

This study aims to investigate the impact tax shelters and cost of debt in Iran. It also aims determine methods to identify tax-aggressive policies through corporate

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the impact tax shelters and cost of debt in Iran. It also aims determine methods to identify tax-aggressive policies through corporate structure and corporate policies, as well as various solutions to handle these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, the data of 155 listed companies on the Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) during the years of 2008-2015 will be considered. The number of observations includes 1,085 companies. Data was analyzed using logistic panel regression with R software.

Findings

The results of the hypotheses show that financial leverage use is not inversely related to companies’ tax-aggressive policies. There is no direct relationship between sales and financial leverage. Overall, there is no inverse relationship between tax shelters and total debt.

Originality/value

The results extend the empirical findings of Graham and Tucker and Wilson. The authors also investigated the relationship between tax shelters and financing (total debt). These findings are crucial to the state; although several studies with similar subjects have been conducted in different countries, the current study is the first of its type in Iran.

Details

Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0817

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Mahdi Salehi and Shantia Salimi

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between suspicious executives and tax shelters.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between suspicious executives and tax shelters.

Design/methodology/approach

Sample includes the 155 companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange during a period of seven years, from 2008 to 2015. Data were analyzed by using logistic panel regression with R software.

Findings

The results show that there is no association between the presence of suspicious executives and tax shelters or the firm value or both of them (tax shelters and the firm value).

Originality/value

The authors also investigated the implications of the firm value on suspicious executives. These findings are crucial to the state. However, several studies with similar subjects have been conducted in different countries. The current research is the first study in Iran.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 15 November 2018

Savannah (Yuanyuan) Guo, Sabrina Chi and Kirsten A. Cook

This study examines short selling as one external determinant of corporate tax avoidance. Prior research suggests that short sellers have information advantages over…

Abstract

This study examines short selling as one external determinant of corporate tax avoidance. Prior research suggests that short sellers have information advantages over retail investors, and high short-interest levels are a bearish signal of targeted stock prices. As a result, when short-interest levels are high, managers have been shown to take actions to minimize the negative effect of high short interest on firms’ stock prices. Tax-avoidance activities may convey a signal of bad news (i.e., high stock price crash risk). We predict that, when short-interest levels are high, managers possess incentives to reduce firm tax avoidance in order to reduce the associated stock price crash risk. Consistent with this prediction, we find that short interest is negatively associated with subsequent tax-avoidance levels. This effect is incremental to other factors identified by prior research. We conclude that short selling significantly constrains corporate tax avoidance.

Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2014

Alexis Downs and Beth Stetson

This chapter applies an “integrative” model to examine the impact and interaction of economic and moral/social factors in the corporate tax compliance context. More…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter applies an “integrative” model to examine the impact and interaction of economic and moral/social factors in the corporate tax compliance context. More specifically, it examines whether social norms moderate the effect of economic factors in this context.

Design/methodology

Fifty-five MBA students assumed corporate CFO roles and analyzed a proposed aggressive corporate tax shelter transaction (“tax shelter”). Participants indicated whether they would recommend the tax shelter and answered questions regarding the transaction and their corporate tax compliance views.

Findings

Hierarchical Regression results indicate that, in the corporate tax compliance context, decision makers’ norms (moral/social factors) moderate the effect of perceived expected value of aggressive tax transactions (economic factors). More specifically, results indicate that (1) perceived legality of aggressive corporate tax transactions significantly impacts willingness of corporate decision makers to recommend them, even when controlling for perceived economic effect of the transaction, and (2) due to moral/social factors, corporate decision makers often may not support aggressive tax treatments with material positive expected values.

Practical implications

Accordingly, (1) custom and social factors should be integrated into the corporate tax compliance decision-making framework, and (2) campaigns to strengthen corporate tax compliance should focus on the law’s text and intent as well as upon sanctions for noncompliance.

Details

Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-120-6

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 August 2018

Justin Chircop, Michele Fabrizi, Elisabetta Ipino and Antonio Parbonetti

This paper aims to investigate whether the level of social capital of the region in which a firm is headquartered affects its tax avoidance activities. Social capital can…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate whether the level of social capital of the region in which a firm is headquartered affects its tax avoidance activities. Social capital can be defined as the mutual trust in society and literature shows that firms headquartered in high social capital regions exhibit higher level of corporate social responsibility. Recent research suggests that some stakeholders consider tax avoidance as a socially irresponsible and illegitimate activity, whereas others deem corporate tax payments as detrimental to social welfare because they hurt economic development. Building on this debate, the relationship between social capital and tax avoidance is empirically investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 52,962 firm-year observations over the period 1990-2014 was used to empirically investigate the relationship between social capital and tax avoidance.

Findings

Consistent with the idea that managers consider corporate tax payments as a socially responsible action, evidence was found that firms headquartered in areas with high social capital engage significantly less in tax avoidance activities. It was also documented that the negative impact of social capital on tax avoidance is stronger in the presence of high religiosity, high corporate performance and lower sensitivity of CEO’s compensation to stock volatility.

Originality/value

This paper extends research on social capital and improves the understanding of the effect of the social environment on managerial decision. Importantly, by studying the relationship between social capital and tax avoidance, the authors add to the recent debate on companies’ perception of the desirability of tax avoidance activities from a social viewpoint.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 February 2010

Abel Ebeh Ezeoha and Ebele Ogamba

The purpose of this paper is to establish whether inefficiency in a tax system and the likely difficulty in resolving tax matters can reduce the appeal for tax shield as…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish whether inefficiency in a tax system and the likely difficulty in resolving tax matters can reduce the appeal for tax shield as incentive for debt financing, and by so doing exacerbate the cases of tax fraud.

Design/methodology/approach

A review approach/theoretical approach is adopted in the paper, where, in addition to reviewing literature on the relationship between tax incentives and corporate financing, the paper examines the structure of the Nigerian tax system, the gaps, and some pending tax cases involving foreign firms in Nigeria. Based on some theoretical judgments, efforts were made to link the rising cases of tax frauds to the dwindling appeal for tax shield as an incentive for the use of debt.

Findings

The study reveals that, as in the case of Nigeria, an environment of multiple tax system reduces incentives to pay tax or for voluntary compliance; that the exclusion of crucial non‐debt tax shelters such as depreciation, heightens pressure on the use of debt‐based tax shelters; and that controversies on deductibility make it difficult to distinguish between criminal and civil proceedings in tax cases.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is only theoretical. The number of cases captured is very limited. However, the issue of tax frauds among corporate entities in the country remains very popular.

Originality/value

The paper is the first to examine the likelihood of an inefficient tax environment to reduce the appeal of tax shield as an incentive to debt financing.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 52 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 16 March 2022

Bill B. Francis, Xian Sun, Chia-Hsiang Weng and Qiang Wu

The aim of this paper is to examine how managerial ability affects corporate tax aggressiveness.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to examine how managerial ability affects corporate tax aggressiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

The study follows the work of Demerjian, Lev, and McVay (2012) and quantifies managerial ability by calculating how efficiently managers generate revenues from given economic resources using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. The study uses a wide range of measures of tax aggressiveness. Firm fixed-effects regressions and a difference-in-differences approach using information regarding CEO turnover to control for endogeneity are used.

Findings

The study finds a negative relationship between managerial ability and corporate tax aggressiveness. Further tests show that this negative relationship is more pronounced for firms with higher investment opportunities or firms with more reputational concerns.

Originality/value

Given the significant costs associated with tax aggressiveness and the negative effect it can have on managerial reputation if discovered, the results suggest that more able managers invest less effort in aggressive tax avoidance activities. This study furthers the understanding of how managerial personal traits affect corporate decision-making.

Details

China Accounting and Finance Review, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1029-807X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 April 2016

Yuanhui Li, Ying Luo, Jiali Wang and Check-Teck Foo

This paper aims to investigate the economic consequence of the tax reductive strategy on stock price. The authors’ theory, empirically reinforced, suggests managerial tax

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the economic consequence of the tax reductive strategy on stock price. The authors’ theory, empirically reinforced, suggests managerial tax aggressiveness endangers the corporation through a heightened risk in stock price crashing. Information opacity worsens the situation by reinforcing the relationship. Policymakers should emphasize two aspects: market openness and tighter institutional monitoring. The evidence shown in this paper demonstrates that these two weaken the tax aggressiveness impact on risk of a crashing stock price.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample in this paper consists of 9,702 observations from listed firms from 2008 to 2013 in China. The tax rate is manually collected and all the other original data used in this study are sourced from Wind and China Capital Market and Accounting Research databases. Both logistic regression and ordinary least squares regression methods are used to test the hypothesis in this paper.

Findings

One key insight is in tax aggressiveness to be strongly correlated with a greater risk of future stock price crashing. The authors also found information opacity to exert a positive moderating effect. That is, the higher the information opacity, the stronger and more positive the correlation between tax aggression and stock price crash risk. However, the market process and an institutional investor have opposite, negative impacts. An open market environment reduces their correlativeness. Similarly, stronger institutional vigilance leads to an attenuation of such a co-relationship.

Practical implications

The findings of this paper have wide policy implications for management and control by authorities of listed corporations. Aggressiveness in management of corporate taxes accentuates the risks borne by stockholders. If so, internally within the corporation, such aggression shown by management, if not proscribed, could be subject to scrutiny, possibly by an independent committee. Externally, this may be countered by the authority in emphasizing three key factors: openness in information sharing, the market environment and tighter institutional monitoring.

Originality/value

This study provides a consequential theory of aggressive management of tax, rigorously analyzed and strongly, empirically supported. Overall, aggressiveness in tax management is related with assumption of higher risks in the crashing of stock price. The relationship is enhanced through information opacity, but reduced via market environment and institutional monitoring.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2014

James A. Chyz and Scott D. White

This paper takes a unique approach to provide additional insight into the agency view of tax avoidance. We directly investigate the association between the presence of…

Abstract

This paper takes a unique approach to provide additional insight into the agency view of tax avoidance. We directly investigate the association between the presence of agency conflicts and corporate tax avoidance. Using a measure of CEO centrality, developed by Bebchuk, Cremers, and Peyer (2011), we identify settings in which agency conflicts are likely to be high. In contrast to prior literature, our primary tests do not rely on the inferences of market participants regarding tax avoidance. We find that CEO centrality is positively and significantly associated with tax avoidance. Additionally, we analyze the mediating role of monitoring by institutional investors in our setting. We find that the relation between tax avoidance and the existence of agency conflicts is strongest for firms with low levels of CEO monitoring. We also add to prior literature by investigating the implications of our setting on future accounting performance and future firm value.

Details

Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-120-6

Keywords

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