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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Akhter Ali, Dil Bahadur Rahut, Khondoker Abdul Mottaleb and Olaf Erenstein

This paper aims to assesses impacts of perceived weather changes (i.e. temperature, wind and rainfall) at the farm household level on income, poverty, wheat yield and use of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assesses impacts of perceived weather changes (i.e. temperature, wind and rainfall) at the farm household level on income, poverty, wheat yield and use of timber and non-timber forest products in Pakistan’s Himalayan region. Mountains are fragile ecosystems – particularly for farming and in the context of climate change. Yet for many such geographies, there is limited empirical understanding of the potential impacts of climate change.

Design/methodology/approach

It uses a comprehensive field survey of 500 farmers from the Gilgit-Baltistan territory (comprising seven districts Ghizer, Gilgit, Diamer, Astore, Skardu, Ghance and Hunza-Nagar). A multivariate probit model first assesses the factors associated with perceived weather changes by farm households and a propensity score matching (PSM) approach then estimates the impacts of the perceived changes in temperature, wind and rainfall.

Findings

The empirical results show that an overwhelming majority of the farmers experience climate change, which primarily has adverse impacts on household income, poverty levels and wheat yields and increases dependence on both timber and non-timber forest products.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the scanty literature on the climate change in the Himalayan region of Pakistan.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 May 2019

Khondoker Abdul Mottaleb, Dil Bahadur Rahut and Olaf Erenstein

Constraints associated with public agricultural extension services imply that farmers increasingly rely on input providers for agricultural innovations and knowledge. Yet such…

2638

Abstract

Purpose

Constraints associated with public agricultural extension services imply that farmers increasingly rely on input providers for agricultural innovations and knowledge. Yet such providers are typically commercial profit-making agents and may have an incentive to suggest relatively costly inputs and/or high rates. The purpose of this paper is to look into the case of Bangladesh and the role of fertilizer traders in terms of farmers’ decisions on which fertilizer to apply and at what rate. Using primary data, the authors examine farmers’ chemical fertilizer use and the associated rice production efficiency, based on different information sources (fertilizer traders, government extension agents or own/peer experience).

Design/methodology/approach

Using primary data, the present study estimates an ordered probit model and production functions separately based on whether or not a farmer relied on information from fertilizer traders or own experience and government extension agents, and examines the efficiency score of each type of farmer.

Findings

The findings demonstrate that the resource-poor farmers rely more on traders’ suggestions for fertilizer application than public extension – but the actual fertilizer information source has no significant effect on the production efficiency of the rice farmers. This study, therefore, does not find exploitative behavior of fertilizer traders. Thus, this study concludes that small rural traders in Bangladesh are working as agricultural extension agents and provide necessary fertilizer application information to resource-poor farmers.

Research limitations/implications

This is a case study based on Bangladesh – an emerging economy in South Asia. The findings of the study may not be generalized for other countries.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that confirms the role of agricultural input sellers as the extension agent in developing countries.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 12 April 2018

Jeetendra Prakash Aryal, M.L. Jat, Tek B. Sapkota, Arun Khatri-Chhetri, Menale Kassie, Dil Bahadur Rahut and Sofina Maharjan

The adoption of climate-smart agricultural practices (CSAPs) is important for sustaining Indian agriculture in the face of climate change. Despite considerable effort by both…

10910

Abstract

Purpose

The adoption of climate-smart agricultural practices (CSAPs) is important for sustaining Indian agriculture in the face of climate change. Despite considerable effort by both national and international agricultural organizations to promote CSAPs in India, adoption of these practices is low. This study aims to examine the elements that affect the likelihood and intensity of adoption of multiple CSAPs in Bihar, India.

Design/methodology/approach

The probability and intensity of adoption of CSAPs are analyzed using multivariate and ordered probit models, respectively.

Findings

The results show significant correlations between multiple CSAPs, indicating that their adoptions are interrelated, providing opportunities to exploit the complementarities. The results confirm that both the probability and intensity of adoption of CSAPs are affected by numerous factors, such as demographic characteristics, farm plot features, access to market, socio-economics, climate risks, access to extension services and training. Farmers who perceive high temperature as the major climate risk factor are more likely to adopt crop diversification and minimum tillage. Farmers are less likely to adopt site-specific nutrient management if faced with short winters; however, they are more likely to adopt minimum tillage in this case. Training on agricultural issues is found to have a positive impact on the likelihood and the intensity of CSAPs adoption.

Practical implications

The major policy recommendations coming from of our results are to strengthen local institutions (public extension services, etc.) and to provide more training on CSAPs.

Originality/value

By applying multivariate and ordered probit models, this paper provides some insights on the long-standing discussions on whether farmers adopt CSAPs in a piecemeal or in a composite way.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 December 2021

Tripti Agarwal, Prarthna Agarwal Goel, Hom Gartaula, Munmum Rai, Deepak Bijarniya, Dil Bahadur Rahut and M.L. Jat

Increasing trends of climatic risk pose challenges to the food security and livelihoods of smallholders in vulnerable regions, where farmers often face loss of the entire crop…

4315

Abstract

Purpose

Increasing trends of climatic risk pose challenges to the food security and livelihoods of smallholders in vulnerable regions, where farmers often face loss of the entire crop, pushing farmers (mostly men) out of agriculture in destitution, creating a situation of agricultural making agriculture highly feminization and compelling male farmers to out-migrate. Climate-smart agricultural practices (CSAPs) are promoted to cope with climatic risks. This study aims to assess how knowledge related to CSAPs, male out-migration, education and income contribute to the determinants of male out-migration and CSAPs adoption and how they respond to household food security.

Design/methodology/approach

Sex-disaggregated primary data were collected from adopter and non-adopter farm families. STATA 13.1 was used to perform principle component analysis to construct knowledge, yield and income indices.

Findings

Yield and income index of adopters was higher for men than women. The probability of out-migration reduced by 21% with adoption of CSAPs. An increase in female literacy by 1 unit reduces log of odds to migrate by 0.37. With every unit increase in knowledge index, increase in log-odds of CSAPs adoption was 1.57. Male:female knowledge gap was less among adopters. Non-adopters tended to reduce food consumption when faced with climatic risks significantly, and the probability of migration increased by 50% with a one-unit fall in the nutrition level, thus compelling women to work more in agriculture. Gender-equitable enhancement of CSAP knowledge is, therefore, key to safeguarding sustainable farming systems and improving livelihoods.

Social implications

The enhancement of gender equitable knowledge on CSAPs is key to safeguard sustainable farming systems and improved livelihoods.

Originality/value

This study is based on the robust data sets of 100 each of male and female from 100 households (n = 200) using well-designed and validated survey instrument. From 10 randomly selected climate-smart villages in Samastipur and Vaishali districts of Bihar, India, together with focus group discussions, the primary data were collected by interviewing both men and women from the same household.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Khondoker Abdul Mottaleb, Dil Bahadur Rahut, Gideon Kruseman and Olaf Erenstein

Population and income are growing rapidly in South Asia, spurring the demand for food in general, and the demand for higher-valued food items in particular. This poses particular…

1004

Abstract

Purpose

Population and income are growing rapidly in South Asia, spurring the demand for food in general, and the demand for higher-valued food items in particular. This poses particular food security challenges for densely populated and emerging countries, such as Bangladesh. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the increasing and changing cereal consumption pattern in developing countries using Bangladesh as a case.

Design/methodology/approach

Using Bangladesh’s Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2000, 2005a, b data, and applying a two-stage quadratic almost ideal system estimation procedure, the present study separately estimates the expenditure elasticities for rural and urban households for five food items: rice, wheat and rice and wheat products, pulses, fish and vegetables. Second, using the estimated elasticities, projected population and the per capita GDP growth rates, this study projects the consumption of the sampled food items by 2030.

Findings

This study demonstrates that in 2030 both rural and urban households in Bangladesh will consume more wheat, pulses and fish, but the urban households will consume less rice compared to the current levels of consumption in 2015.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study on developing countries that examines the evolving food items consumption separately by rural and urban households. Using Bangladesh as a case, this study warns that with rapid urbanization and income growth, developing countries need to supply more wheat, fish and pulses. The provision of the maximum usage of scarce resources, such as arable land, the development and dissemination of improved varieties and the best management practices must be ensured to boost domestic food production in developing countries to cater to the future evolving food consumption.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Khondoker Abdul Mottaleb, Dil Bahadur Rahut and Ashok K. Mishra

The purpose of this paper is to examine the rice consumption by rice grain types under the rising income scenario in Bangladesh. Generally, with an increase in income, households…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the rice consumption by rice grain types under the rising income scenario in Bangladesh. Generally, with an increase in income, households tend to consume more food items that are high-value, enriched foods and protein, such as meat and fish, by substituting for cereals. However, consumers also substitute when it comes to grain quality. For example, cereals, such as rice, are available in a range of qualities from the ordinary type (coarse-grain) to the premium type (fine grain). The authors postulate that as household incomes increase, households may consume more premium-type rice (or fine-grain rice), while overall consuming less rice or fewer carbohydrates.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the Bangladesh Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2000, 2005, and 2010, and applying multivariate probit and seemingly unrelated regression estimation procedures, this study quantifies the impact of income, household demographics, and urbanization on rice consumption by rice grain types (coarse-grain, medium-grain, and fine-grain types).

Findings

The results show that urban, wealthy households and, households headed by educated heads and spouses, are more likely to consume fine-grain rice than their counterparts.

Originality/value

After yield, grain type is the second most important factor for farmers when considering the adoption of a new variety. The price of rice and other cereals is highly associated with the grain type. This study concludes that plant breeding programs of major cereals, such as rice and wheat, should take into account the consumer grain-type preferences when developing new varieties.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 September 2018

Khondoker Abdul Mottaleb and Dil Bahadur Rahut

International commodity prices have escalated to an unprecedented level since 2008. Although commodity prices have declined recently, prices are still high compared to the…

Abstract

Purpose

International commodity prices have escalated to an unprecedented level since 2008. Although commodity prices have declined recently, prices are still high compared to the pre-2008 levels. Combining this market phenomenon with Bangladesh Government’s Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) data sets HIES 2005 and HIES 2010, and applying the seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) estimation process, the purpose of this paper is to examine paddy rice marketing, and the cereal and non-cereal food expenditure behavior of rural smallholders in Bangladesh under rising commodity prices.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses information collected by the Government of Bangladesh and applies two-step Heckman-type selection model estimation procedure, first to estimate total rice production by the rice production self-sufficiency status of the household. Second, the study estimates the paddy marketing behavior by the households by their rice self-sufficiency status under rising commodity price regime applying SUR estimation process combing with Heckman’s selection model estimation procedure.

Findings

Empirical findings demonstrate that there was no positive assertion between higher paddy rice prices and paddy rice marketing by the rural smallholders. Rather, under the rising commodity price regime, smallholders significantly reduced consumption expenditure on high food value-enriched non-cereal food items to adjust to the market shocks.

Research limitations/implications

This is a Bangladesh-based case study. Individual country-level case studies should be conducted in order to generalize the findings of the present study.

Originality/value

The present study warns that the market volatility may discourage farm households to market their cereals more due to uncertain future. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first attempt to explore the cereal marketing behavior of the farm households in Bangladesh under commodity price hikes by the rice production self-sufficiency status of the farm households.

Details

Journal of Agribusiness in Developing and Emerging Economies, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-0839

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 May 2019

Emily Amondo, Franklin Simtowe, Dil Bahadur Rahut and Olaf Erenstein

Productivity and production risks affect the use of agricultural production practices and inputs, particularly in developing countries. This paper aims to investigate the effects…

3695

Abstract

Purpose

Productivity and production risks affect the use of agricultural production practices and inputs, particularly in developing countries. This paper aims to investigate the effects of adopting drought-tolerant maize varieties (DTMVs) on farm productivity, yield variance and downside risk exposure of maize growing households of Zambia.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses household survey data collected from 11 maize producing districts of Eastern, Southern and Copperbelt provinces of Zambia using a structured questionnaire. The Antle’s flexible moment-based approach was used in specifying, estimating and testing a stochastic production function. The study further applied an endogenous switching regression model to control for both observable and unobservable sources of bias.

Findings

The study revealed that DTMV adoption increases maize yield by 15 per cent and reduces the risk of crop failure: reducing yield variance by 38 per cent and exposure to downside risk by 36 per cent.

Originality/value

This study establishes the benefits of DTMV adoption in Zambia with regards to productivity, yield stability and downside risk in the face of climate change. Results from this study underscore the need for more concerted efforts to scale-out DTMVs for both maize productivity enhancement and for risk mitigation against weather shocks.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 25 February 2021

Qian Sun, Xiaoyun Li and Dil Bahadur Rahut

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of urbanicity on rural–urban migrants' dietary diversity and nutrition intake and whether its effect differs across various…

5287

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of urbanicity on rural–urban migrants' dietary diversity and nutrition intake and whether its effect differs across various urban environments of migrants.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the individual- and time-invariant fixed effects (two-way FE) model and five-year panel data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS), this paper estimates a linear and nonlinear relationship between urbanicity and nutrition. The paper also explores the spatial heterogeneity between rural–urban migrants and rural–suburban migrants. Dietary diversity, total energy intake and the shares of energy obtained from protein and fat, respectively, are used to measure rural–urban migrants' nutrition on both quality and quantity aspects.

Findings

The study shows that rural–urban migrants have experienced access to more diverse, convenient and prepared foods, and the food variety consumed is positively associated with community urbanicity. Energy intake is positively and significantly affected by community urbanicity, and it also varies with per capita household income. The obvious inverse U-shaped relationship reveals that improving community urbanicity promotes an increase in the shares of energy obtained from protein and fat at a decreasing rate, until reaching the urbanicity index threshold of 66.69 and 54.26, respectively.

Originality/value

This paper focuses on the nutritional status of rural–urban migrants, an important pillar for China's development, which is often neglected in the research. It examines the urbanicity and the nutrition of migrants in China, which provides a new perspective to understand the dietary and nutritional intake among migrants in the economic and social development. Moreover, the urbanicity index performs better at measuring urban feathers rather than the traditional rural/urban dichotomous classification.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 24 January 2023

Gokul P. Paudel, Hom Gartaula, Dil Bahadur Rahut, Scott E. Justice, Timothy J. Krupnik and Andrew J. McDonald

This study examines the adoption drivers of scale-appropriate mechanization in Nepal's maize-based farming systems. The authors also assess the contribution of scale-appropriate…

2739

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the adoption drivers of scale-appropriate mechanization in Nepal's maize-based farming systems. The authors also assess the contribution of scale-appropriate mechanization to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of zero hunger (SDG2) and no poverty (SDG1).

Design/methodology/approach

Propensity score matching and doubly robust inverse probability-weighted regression adjusted methods were applied to estimate the effects of mini-tiller adoption. These methods control the biases that arise from observed heterogeneities between mini-tillers users and nonusers.

Findings

The study findings show that farm size, labor shortages, draft animal scarcity, market proximity, household assets and household heads' educational level influence the adoption of mechanization in Nepal. Mechanized farms exhibited enhanced maize productivity, profits and household food self-sufficiency. Reduced depth and severity of poverty were also observed. Nevertheless, these effects were not uniform; very small farms (≤0.41 ha) facing acute labor shortages benefited the most.

Research limitations/implications

The study results suggest that policymakers in developing nations like Nepal may wish to expand their emphasis on scale-appropriate mechanization to improve farm productivity and household food security, reduce poverty and contribute to the SDGs.

Originality/value

This first-of-its-kind study establishes the causal effects between scale-appropriate farm mechanization and SDG1 (no poverty) and SDG2 (zero hunger) in a developing nation.

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