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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

N. Meltem Cakici and Paurav Shukla

Extant research shows that consumers regularly misclassify country-of-origin (COO) associated with brands. The purpose of this paper is to examine changes in behavioral…

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2741

Abstract

Purpose

Extant research shows that consumers regularly misclassify country-of-origin (COO) associated with brands. The purpose of this paper is to examine changes in behavioral intentions (i.e. purchase intentions for self and others and brand judgments) when consumers are made aware that they have misclassified the COO and then are informed of the brand’s correct origin. Drawing on cognitive dissonance theory, the authors also explore the moderating roles of consumer affinity, animosity, and product knowledge.

Design/methodology/approach

Two experiments test the direct and moderating effects of COO misclassification awareness on behavioral intentions.

Findings

The findings show detrimental effects of misclassification on behavioral intentions when consumers have high affinity with misclassified COO. Moreover, the experiments demonstrate a significantly greater decrease in behavioral intentions among experts than novices in the low-affinity condition and the reverse effect in the high-affinity condition.

Practical implications

The negative effects of COO misclassification on consumer behavioral intentions highlight the need for managers to proactively avoid misclassification. The findings should also aid managers in developing responsive marketing campaigns that consider consumer affinity, animosity, and level of product knowledge.

Originality/value

This research is the first to compare consumer behavioral responses before and after COO misclassification awareness. The study demonstrates that cognitive dissonance underpins the process of misclassification. It also contributes to COO literature by examining the interaction of consumer affinity and animosity with product knowledge and their influence on consumer behavior in the case of COO misclassification.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 22 November 2018

Gongxing Guo, Hongwei Tu and Bao Cheng

This study aims to clarify the relationship between two plausible conflicting attitudes in cross-cultural context-consumer affinity and consumer ethnocentrism (CET) and to…

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1242

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to clarify the relationship between two plausible conflicting attitudes in cross-cultural context-consumer affinity and consumer ethnocentrism (CET) and to explore their interactive effect on product trust and willingness-to-buy.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 392 usable responses were obtained. Previously validated scales of consumer affinity, CET, product trust and willingness-to-buy were used and showed good reliability. Hierarchical multiple regression and the bootstrapping method were conducted to test the hypotheses.

Findings

This study revealed that consumer affinity is positively associated with product trust, which in turn promotes consumers’ intention to buy products from the affinity country; CET moderates the relationship between consumer affinity and product trust; and CET also moderates the mediating effect of product trust on the relationship between consumer affinity and willingness-to-buy.

Research limitations/implications

First, this study helps to explain how consumer affinity boosts willingness-to-buy, and it reveals the type of consumers whose product trust is most notably influenced by their level of ethnocentrism. Second, this study examines the moderating effects of CET on the relationship between consumer affinity and product trust, which can help to identify the situations in which consumer affinity influences product trust most strongly. Third, this study examined the interactive effect of consumer affinity and CET on product trust and its subsequent effect on willingness-to-buy. The findings help to explain the CET’s critical role in the effect of consumer affinity by relating it to the literature of product trust and willingness-to-buy.

Practical implications

Given the crucial role that consumer affinity plays in improving consumers’ trust in and buying intention for a country’s products, governments, multinational enterprises and international marketers should strategically construct, maintain and magnify a positive national image to the world. This study’s results also clarify that consumer affinity does not conflict with CET; not only can they coexist but also they are positively related. The crucial implication is that CET is not always a barrier to purchasing foreign products.

Originality/value

Although research interest in consumer attitudinal conflict issues is increasing, the real relationship and interactive effects of plausible conflicting attitudes between consumer affinity and CET remain to be understood. This study bridges a gap between CET and willingness-to-buy by considering the boundary conditions of consumer attitudes toward a specific country (inherent in consumer affinity). Furthermore, this study is, to the best of the author’s knowledge, the first to link consumer affinity with willingness-to-buy through the mediating effect of product trust. These findings are helpful for understanding how consumer affinity positively effects willingness-to-buy.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 35 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2021

Sheng-Hshiung Tsaur, Fu-Sung Hsu and Hsiao-Wei Ching

The purposes of this study were to explore the moderating effect of consumer affinity on brand personality and consumers' intention to stay in a hotel, as well as on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purposes of this study were to explore the moderating effect of consumer affinity on brand personality and consumers' intention to stay in a hotel, as well as on self-congruity and consumers' intention to stay in a hotel.

Design/methodology/approach

This study collected data from 386 inbound tourists to Taiwan. Hierarchical regression analysis was applied to analyze the data.

Findings

The results showed that brand personality, self-congruity and consumer affinity have significant positive effects on consumers' intention to stay in a hotel, respectively. Moreover, consumer affinity has significant moderating effect on brand personality and intention to stay in a hotel, as well as on self-congruity and intention to stay in a hotel.

Practical implications

Consumer affinity is a construct that identifies national attributes, and it strengthens the relationships between brand personality or self-congruity and consumers' intention to stay in a hotel from the level of country-specific affect. The results of this study can provide hotel marketers with reference for marketing management.

Originality/value

Although past studies have examined the relationship between consumer affinity and purchase intention or behavior, the effect of consumer affinity construct on hotel consumers' intention to stay remains sparse in the hotel context. This study confirmed that consumer affinity has significant moderating effect on brand personality and intention to stay in a hotel, as well as on self-congruity and intention to stay in a hotel.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2020

Reza Fazli-Salehi, Ivonne M. Torres, Rozbeh Madadi and Miguel Ángel Zúñiga

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of country affinity, ethnocentrism and product quality judgment on self-brand connection regarding both domestic and…

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518

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of country affinity, ethnocentrism and product quality judgment on self-brand connection regarding both domestic and foreign brands.

Design/methodology/approach

The study involved an online experiment and was conducted using online questionnaires. Sampling was done among undergraduate students of a Southwestern university in the US. The data was analyzed using SEM with PLS.

Findings

The results showed, for foreign brands, consumer self-brand connection increased through the effect of country affinity and product quality judgment. For domestic brands, self-brand connection was influenced by ethnocentrism (and not country affinity or product quality judgment).

Research limitations/implications

This study only focused on one industry (i.e. Television industry), and the authors recommend future studies examine a broader range of industries. Moreover, other country related constructs such as national identity need to be examined in future studies.

Practical implications

Marketers focusing on global branding and international marketing can benefit from the findings of this paper by understanding the routes through which consumers build self-brand connections in foreign vs domestic settings. Additionally, marketers can, more effectively, invest their resources by focusing on the factors that can be influential (i.e. ethnocentrism for domestic brands vs country affinity and product judgment for foreign brands).

Originality/value

This study examines the effect of country affinity, ethnocentrism and product quality judgment for consumers' domestic country as well as a foreign country. Moreover, this study contributes toward the global branding literature by incorporating self-brand connection as a behavioral outcome.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Yoel Asseraf and Aviv Shoham

While globalization has made it easier to consume foreign products, consumption decisions are rarely straightforward. Both love and hate relationships between consumers

Abstract

Purpose

While globalization has made it easier to consume foreign products, consumption decisions are rarely straightforward. Both love and hate relationships between consumers and countries exist and can even coexist. This paper aims to gain a better understanding of how positive/negative and general/specific consumer attitudes impact foreign product judgment and ownership. An integrative model explores the predictive power of affinity, animosity, cosmopolitanism and ethnocentrism simultaneously. Specifically, the authors investigate a paradoxical “tug of war” which takes place inside consumer minds – the coexistence of affinity and animosity toward the same country.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a quantitative approach, the authors analyze data from 202 consumers and test it in intra-national and international contexts.

Findings

The results demonstrate the importance of an integrative model that takes into account opposing impacts on consumer behavior. Additionally, the data reveal that affinity and animosity are not bi-polar endpoints on a continuum. Finally, affinity outweighs animosity with respect to impacting product judgment and ownership.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted in Israel. Hence, replications in other multi-cultural countries are needed.

Practical implications

Marketers can use a segmentation matrix to target audiences based on the existing “attitudinal mix” in their focal markets. Marketers can use the affinity drivers identified here to overcome animosity.

Originality/value

The “tug of war” model advances the animosity model, as it implies that to use attitudinal data theoretically and practically, there is a need to account for a full spectrum of general and country-specific attitudes. Affinity was tested for the first time within national borders.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 50 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2008

Aster Mekonnen, Fiona Harris and Angus Laing

Cause‐related and affinity marketing are based on the assumption that linking a commercial organisation's product with a non‐profit organisation enhances the product's…

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3015

Abstract

Purpose

Cause‐related and affinity marketing are based on the assumption that linking a commercial organisation's product with a non‐profit organisation enhances the product's appeal and provides differentiation from rival offers. The purpose of this paper is to examine the efficacy of this premise.

Design/methodology/approach

In‐depth qualitative research was conducted to explore the construction of consumer value in affinity credit cards, followed by large‐scale quantitative research to assess the prevalence of the perceptions and behaviour patterns identified.

Findings

Linked products offer a range of individual and group benefits, both functional and symbolic. However, the value placed on these benefit categories varied according to the type of affinity group.

Research limitations/implications

Whilst encompassing a wide range of affinity categories, all of the affinity credit cards were issued by one financial services organisation. Variation is therefore possible between the benefits offered by other financial services organisations operating affinity schemes.

Practical implications

The findings demonstrate the need to identify the value perceived by different groups of consumers of affinity products and to tailor affinity products to the type of affinity organisation with which they are linked.

Originality/value

A key strength is the research's access to card holders from a wide spectrum of affinity categories. This has proved elusive in prior research. The paper challenges the assumption that linking a product to a non‐profit organisation enhances its appeal and provides a basis for differentiation. The efficacy of this premise depends on the type of cause or affinity group, with the value placed on benefit categories varying accordingly.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 42 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 27 November 2020

Sudipta Sen Gupta and Deepti Wadera

This paper aims to ascertain Indian consumers’ corporate social responsibility (CSR) perceptions; an affinity for stipulated causes and perceived fit between cause and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to ascertain Indian consumers’ corporate social responsibility (CSR) perceptions; an affinity for stipulated causes and perceived fit between cause and industry in the current mandatory CSR era in India.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data was collected through an online survey from 1,251 consumers via quota sampling and snowballing, across 36 Indian cities.

Findings

The findings indicate no skepticism, positive CSR support and company evaluation. Indian consumers have the greatest affinity for environmental protection. Segments of socially, environmentally and culturally conscious consumers were found. Under quasi-experimental conditions of CSR fit and cause-affinity, positive purchase intention is exhibited across fast-moving-consumer-goods sectors; in which case CSR perceptions cease to have a significant impact on purchase intention.

Research limitations/implications

This result contributes to understanding Indian consumers’ perspective in the mandatory CSR era and adds to the literature on strategic CSR and communication by segmenting consumers by cause affinity.

Practical implications

CSR practitioners could align with consumer-relevant causes that fit with their company’s core business, as controllable initiatives, instead of depending on positive, but less controllable, CSR perceptions of consumers. Implications of the findings on CSR policymaking by the government are also discussed.

Social implications

The mandatory CSR law has been viewed as a burden by corporate India. This research implies that it may be possible to look at it as an opportunity for strategic CSR, to create a win-win situation for both business and society.

Originality/value

One of the first studies on cause-affinity and CSR fit among Indian consumers using the government stipulated list of causes.

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Jiaqi Ma and Changju Kim

Drawing on the philosophy of retail service quality, this study aims to empirically investigate how salespeople’s personal interaction affects customers’ positive…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the philosophy of retail service quality, this study aims to empirically investigate how salespeople’s personal interaction affects customers’ positive word-of-mouth (WOM) intention through the lens of affective customer experience and consumers’ cross-cultural attitudes toward domestic or foreign products.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypothesis was tested with a two-step structural equation model using survey data obtained from 529 shopping center customers in China.

Findings

The positive impact of salespeople’s personal interaction on customers’ positive WOM intention is fully mediated by affective customer experience. In addition, consumer ethnocentrism strengthens the positive impact of salespeople’s personal interaction on affective customer experience, whereas this study fails to find the moderating effect of foreign product affinity.

Practical implications

To increase customers’ positive WOM intention, store managers need to encourage their frontline sales personnel to personally interact with customers to support customers’ problem-solving. Also, frontline salespeople should pay more attention to consumers’ cross-cultural attitudes such as consumer ethnocentrism when interacting with their customers.

Originality/value

By linking affective customer experience and consumers’ cross-cultural attitudes of ethnocentrism and affinity toward domestic or foreign products, this study further extends the knowledge of retail service quality on the relationship between salespeople’s personal interaction and customers’ positive WOM intention.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Book part
Publication date: 24 October 2015

Nayyer Naseem, Swati Verma and Attila Yaprak

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the interplay between selected consumer behavior constructs and their individual and joint influences on purchase intentions…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the interplay between selected consumer behavior constructs and their individual and joint influences on purchase intentions of global, local, and hybrid brands. This is a topic that is becoming increasingly important as the world moves toward global economic interdependence and increasingly more firms expand abroad.

Methodology/findings

As the paper is in its conceptual/modeling phase, its research design is not yet complete, nor does it offer any findings. Resting our work on attitude and identity theories, we derive hypotheses about the potential influence of consumer behavior constructs, that is, the levels of the consumer’s global consumption orientation, globalization attitude, consumer ethnocentrism, and consumer cosmopolitanism on global brand attitude and its influence on willingness to purchase global versus nonglobal brands. We also derive hypotheses about influences that might moderate this relationship; specifically the consumer’s affinity with the home country of the particular brand, and the perceived value embedded in the brand.

Research/practical/social implications

Our work will contribute to the expanding literature on global consumer culture and consumption patterns and will thus provide valuable insights for international marketing managers and for social policy.

Originality/value

Our work will examine the joint influences of several consumer behavior constructs on brand purchase behavior, in addition to the independent influences of these constructs. It will also explore the possible mediating influence of global brand attitude on purchase intentions and moderating effects, if any, of perceived value and consumer affinity on consumers’ choices of global over local and hybrid brands.

Details

International Marketing in the Fast Changing World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-233-7

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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2021

Hanqin Qiu, Dongzhi Chen, Jian-Wu Bi, Jiaying Lyu and Qinghui Li

This study aims to explore the dimensions and sub-factors of Airbnb hosts’ affinity-seeking strategies. It also aims to build a conceptual framework of hosts’ affinity

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the dimensions and sub-factors of Airbnb hosts’ affinity-seeking strategies. It also aims to build a conceptual framework of hosts’ affinity-seeking strategies and their impact on Airbnb guests’ feelings of affection toward their host and/or the homestay and their behavioral intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on 150,161 Inside Airbnb online reviews in three major US cities, this study uses semantic analysis to explore processes through which hosts’ affinity-seeking strategies are constructed.

Findings

A conceptual framework is proposed to identify two dimensions (warmth and competency) and their sub-factors (“presenting friendly attitudes,” “showing personality traits,” “providing service and help” and “promoting social interaction and sharing”) of Airbnb homestay hosts’ affinity-seeking strategies. The framework shows a positive relationship between these strategies and guests’ affection and behavior in response.

Practical implications

The research findings provide valuable insights to hosts for improving their affinity and strengthening their competitive advantages. They also offer guidance to destination management organizations on how to build a positive destination image.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to conceptualize Airbnb homestay hosts’ affinity-seeking strategies. It contributes to the literature by incorporating social cognition theory and service theory in the analysis of these strategies.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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