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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1996

Mark B. Vandenbosch

The set of compositional approaches to product space development is expanded to include confirmatory methods. Specifically, describes and compares product space…

Abstract

The set of compositional approaches to product space development is expanded to include confirmatory methods. Specifically, describes and compares product space development (perceptual mapping) via confirmatory factor analysis and partial least squares with the aid of an empirical example. Both of these procedures are widely used in causal or structural equation modelling. Since they tend to be confirmatory extensions to factor analysis and principal components analysis, the approaches are also well suited to the development of product spaces. Confirmatory approaches have several advantages over exploratory approaches including the incorporation of prior knowledge, the elimination of rotational indeterminacy, and the use of a wide variety of measurement tools to assess the reliability and validity of model results.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1997

James L. Price

Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool…

Abstract

Addresses the standardization of the measurements and the labels for concepts commonly used in the study of work organizations. As a reference handbook and research tool, seeks to improve measurement in the study of work organizations and to facilitate the teaching of introductory courses in this subject. Focuses solely on work organizations, that is, social systems in which members work for money. Defines measurement and distinguishes four levels: nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. Selects specific measures on the basis of quality, diversity, simplicity and availability and evaluates each measure for its validity and reliability. Employs a set of 38 concepts ‐ ranging from “absenteeism” to “turnover” as the handbook’s frame of reference. Concludes by reviewing organizational measurement over the past 30 years and recommending future measurement reseach.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 18 no. 4/5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

Ross R. Vickers

Constructing and evaluating behavioral science models is a complex process. Decisions must be made about which variables to include, which variables are related to each…

Abstract

Constructing and evaluating behavioral science models is a complex process. Decisions must be made about which variables to include, which variables are related to each other, the functional forms of the relationships, and so on. The last 10 years have seen a substantial extension of the range of statistical tools available for use in the construction process. The progress in tool development has been accompanied by the publication of handbooks that introduce the methods in general terms (Arminger et al., 1995; Tinsley & Brown, 2000a). Each chapter in these handbooks cites a wide range of books and articles on specific analysis topics.

Details

The Science and Simulation of Human Performance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-296-2

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Article
Publication date: 18 November 2019

Mark E. Hopkins and Oksana L. Zavalina

A new approach to investigate serendipitous knowledge discovery (SKD) of health information is developed and tested to evaluate the information flow-serendipitous…

Abstract

Purpose

A new approach to investigate serendipitous knowledge discovery (SKD) of health information is developed and tested to evaluate the information flow-serendipitous knowledge discovery (IF-SKD) model. The purpose of this paper is to determine the degree to which IF-SKD reflects physicians’ information behaviour in a clinical setting and explore how the information system, Spark, designed to support physicians’ SKD, meets its goals.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed pre-experimental study design employs an adapted version of the McCay-Peet’s (2013) and McCay-Peet et al.’s (2015) serendipitous digital environment (SDE) questionnaire research tool to address the complexity associated with defining the way in which SKD is understood and applied in system design. To test the IF-SKD model, the new data analysis approach combining confirmatory factor analysis, data imputation and Monte Carlo simulations was developed.

Findings

The piloting of the proposed novel analysis approach demonstrated that small sample information behaviour survey data can be meaningfully examined using a confirmatory factor analysis technique.

Research limitations/implications

This method allows to improve the reliability in measuring SKD and the generalisability of findings.

Originality/value

This paper makes an original contribution to developing and refining methods and tools of research into information-system-supported serendipitous discovery of information by health providers.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 71 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 16 April 2018

Ismael Luiz dos Santos and Sidnei Vieira Marinho

This study aims to find evidence of a possible relationship between three constructs that are generally investigated separately: entrepreneurial orientation, understood as…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to find evidence of a possible relationship between three constructs that are generally investigated separately: entrepreneurial orientation, understood as entrepreneurship on the organizational level; marketing capability, seen as a highly competitive factor for the organization; and business performance, highlighted as a focus of the entire organization.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey-based quantitative approach was adopted with a cross-sectional temporal perspective. To arrive at results that can be compared, the study uses factor analysis and structural equations modeling techniques, with estimations of maximum likelihood for testing the quality of fit of the measures to the structural models, using SPSS 21 and AMOS 16 software. Data were collected at the 27th EXPOSUPER, which is a trade fair at which 35,000 visitors were present. The data collection instrument used is a questionnaire previously validated by Reis Neto et al. (2013a). The first section covers control variables chosen to profile the firms, the second contains entrepreneurial orientation variables, the third comprises marketing capability variables and the fourth section contains business performance variables, all using seven-point Likert response scales.

Findings

Tests of the entrepreneurial orientation measurement scale produced interesting results in this application within the retail supermarket industry. The results of exploratory factor analysis indicated that a scale with three dimensions was significant. The relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and marketing capability (H1) is positive, through the intermediate dimensions of innovation, proactiveness and risk-taking, used by firms’ management, contributing to their efforts to research and manage the market, to develop products and services and to offer better prices. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis showed that four of the scale’s dimensions of the marketing capability were significant: market research, market management, new product development and pricing. Comparison of these results with those of Reis Neto et al. (2013a) reveals a difference, as although their result, achieved using structural equations modeling, also had four factors; the promotion dimension was the most significant and absorbed the other variables. Despite these differences, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equations modeling demonstrated that this construct met the minimum conditions for adequacy, where (H2), formulated to test the relationship between the marketing capability construct, was confirmed. The final construct analyzed in this study was business performance, initially suggested by González-Benito et al. (2009), and also used by Reis Neto et al. (2013a). They used the dimensions profitability, market value and market response, and in the present study, after exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and structural equations modeling, the results were identical to those authors results, in that (H3), formulated with the objective of testing the relationship between the entrepreneurial orientation construct and business performance, was confirmed, and although this was not the most robust of the relationships postulated in the three hypotheses, but was of lower significance.

Research limitations/implications

Although this study has achieved its objective, one of the study’s limitations relates to the data collection instrument, which was subject to failures in terms of the number of variables to be analyzed in each dimension. This led to elimination of certain dimensions during the analyses. Another limitation is related to the method used in the study. When questionnaires are used as data collection instruments, respondents often may not understand the true meaning of questions, which could lead them to choose any option, thereby stripping the results of credibility. In view of this limitation, it is suggested that future researchers conduct qualitative studies, using the case study method, which could offer greater clarity and increase understanding of the results related to these subjects. Even considering that this study has certain limitations and restrictions affecting generalization, it is hoped that it raises new questions, interests and inspirations, improving and complementing understanding of this strong social and economic sector.

Originality/value

It is identify the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and marketing capability, since to date there is no evidence from studies confirming the existence of such a relationship. This statement was based on the results of a bibliographic survey conducted using the ProKnow-C, knowledge development process-constructivist methodology, in which, this originality was positive and significant, offering new studies from this point of view.

Details

Innovation & Management Review, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-8961

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Philip Hyland

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the reader to the nature of confirmatory bifactor modelling. Confirmatory bifactor modelling is a factor analytic procedure that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the reader to the nature of confirmatory bifactor modelling. Confirmatory bifactor modelling is a factor analytic procedure that allows researchers to model unidimensionality and multidimensionality simultaneously. This method has important applications in the field of criminal psychology.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper begins by introducing the topic of factor analysis and explains how confirmatory bifactor modelling is similar yet distinct to the more familiar factor analytical procedures in the psychological literature.

Findings

Through practical examples this paper explains the value of this analytical technique to researchers in criminal psychology. Examples from the existing criminal psychological literature are used to illustrate the way in which bifactor analysis allows important theoretical questions to be addressed.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the strengths and limitations associated with traditional “restricted” confirmatory bifactor models and introduces the notion of the “unrestricted” bifactor model. The unrestricted bifactor model allows greater flexibility for addressing interesting research questions. The paper concludes by providing the reader with an annotated Mplus syntax file for how to perform confirmatory bifactor modelling.

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Book part
Publication date: 11 June 2009

Anca E. Cretu and Roderick J. Brodie

Companies in all industries are searching for new sources of competitive advantage since the competition in their marketplace is becoming increasingly intensive. The…

Abstract

Companies in all industries are searching for new sources of competitive advantage since the competition in their marketplace is becoming increasingly intensive. The resource-based view of the firm explains the sources of sustainable competitive advantages. From a resource-based view perspective, relational based assets (i.e., the assets resulting from firm contacts in the marketplace) enable competitive advantage. The relational based assets examined in this work are brand image and corporate reputation, as components of brand equity, and customer value. This paper explores how they create value. Despite the relatively large amount of literature describing the benefits of firms in having strong brand equity and delivering customer value, no research validated the linkage of brand equity components, brand image, and corporate reputation, simultaneously in the customer value–customer loyalty chain. This work presents a model of testing these relationships in consumer goods, in a business-to-business context. The results demonstrate the differential roles of brand image and corporate reputation on perceived quality, customer value, and customer loyalty. Brand image influences the perception of quality of the products and the additional services, whereas corporate reputation actions beyond brand image, estimating the customer value and customer loyalty. The effects of corporate reputation are also validated on different samples. The results demonstrate the importance of managing brand equity facets, brand image, and corporate reputation since their differential impacts on perceived quality, customer value, and customer loyalty. The results also demonstrate that companies should not limit to invest only in brand image. Maintaining and enhancing corporate reputation can have a stronger impact on customer value and customer loyalty, and can create differential competitive advantage.

Details

Business-To-Business Brand Management: Theory, Research and Executivecase Study Exercises
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-671-3

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Article
Publication date: 30 July 2010

Yang Li and Yang Lin

The purpose of this paper, taking banking as the research object, is to build up a psychology covenant model for service enterprises and customers and to seek the form of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper, taking banking as the research object, is to build up a psychology covenant model for service enterprises and customers and to seek the form of the construction dimension in the psychology covenant between the service enterprise and the customer.

Design/methodology/approach

SPSS16.0 was used for the exploratory factor analysis and AMOS7.0 for the confirmatory factor analysis.

Findings

The psychological contract between service enterprises and customers is composed of two‐dimensional structures: the transactional psychological contract and the relational psychological contract.

Research limitations/implications

The biggest limitation of this paper is the research region being limited to banking. Future research can extend to other industries.

Originality/value

The result has the theoretic reference to the tactic establishment for customer relationship management in China's service industry against the background of a transfer economy.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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Book part
Publication date: 14 July 2010

Teresa Stephenson

This research develops a scale to measure taxpayers’ motivation to hire tax preparers. Prior research has examined this topic with simple checklists or open-ended…

Abstract

This research develops a scale to measure taxpayers’ motivation to hire tax preparers. Prior research has examined this topic with simple checklists or open-ended questions. The importance of the taxpayer–preparer relationship suggests more research is needed, and a valid scale would increase the generalizability of findings. Initially 76 items were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis. The data indicate four separate constructs: legal compliance, time savings, money savings, protection from/avoidance of the IRS. After the initial analysis, 27 items remained, a second round of data was collected, and confirmatory factor analysis and coefficient alpha allowed further reduction to 14 items. The final constructs remain the same. This scale is a methodological contribution for use by tax researchers that will assist in increasing the generalizability of findings regarding taxpayers’ motivations to hire tax preparers.

Details

Advances in Taxation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-140-5

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2010

Evangelos L. Psomas and Christos V. Fotopoulos

The paper seeks to focus on the concept of total quality management (TQM) in a specific sector: the food sector. The purpose of this paper is to factorize the TQM concept…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to focus on the concept of total quality management (TQM) in a specific sector: the food sector. The purpose of this paper is to factorize the TQM concept by analyzing the TQM practices implemented and the results achieved from implementing such practices. It also aims to determine the means by which the quality management results are optimized.

Design/methodology/approach

A research project was carried out in 92 Greek food companies that were certified to ISO 9001:2000 and ELOT 1416 standard (hazard analysis critical control points, HACCP system certification). The data collection method used in this study was that of the questionnaire. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were applied to assess the reliability and validity of the latent constructs/factors (unobserved variables) of the TQM practices implemented and the respective results. The latent constructs/factors that had significant impact on the results achieved were determined through multiple linear regression analyses.

Findings

The analysis revealed four latent constructs/factors regarding the TQM practices and three latent constructs/factors regarding the results achieved through implementing such practices. According to the findings, a company's quality improvement is equally influenced by the adoption of quality practices by the top management as well as process and data quality management. A company's quality improvement was found to be the factor that primarily contributes to customer satisfaction, while the customer focus is proved to be of secondary significance. Finally, the findings showed that market benefits are derived from customer satisfaction and a company's internal quality improvement.

Research limitations/implications

The small sample size of the food companies participating in this study, the observed variables that were removed from the analysis for the benefit of the measurement model validity (convergent and discriminant) and finally the subjective character of the data collected are the limitations of the present study. However, these limitations suggest future research orientations.

Practical implications

The determination of reliable and valid latent constructs/factors of the TQM practices implemented may help food companies to focus their efforts in specific directions, in order to build and implement a robust TQM model. Furthermore, detecting reliable and valid latent constructs/factors of the results achieved through TQM practices implementation may motivate the food companies to strengthen their efforts in broadening their management system towards the TQM philosophy and business excellence. This may help food companies withstand the current business downturn.

Originality/value

The paper describes in a reliable and valid manner a framework that consists of the main pillars of the TQM practices implemented and the results achieved in a specific sector: the food sector.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 59 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

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