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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2022

Song Thanh Quynh Le and Van Nam Huynh

Task complexity is one of the significant factors that influences and is used for forecasting employee performance and determining labor cost. However, the complexity

Abstract

Purpose

Task complexity is one of the significant factors that influences and is used for forecasting employee performance and determining labor cost. However, the complexity level of tasks is unstructured, dynamic and complicated to perform. This paper develops a new method for evaluating the complexity level of tasks in the production process to support production managers to control their manufacturing systems in terms of flexibility, reliability to production planning and labor cost.

Design/methodology/approach

The complexity level of tasks will be analyzed based on the structuralist concept. Using the structure of task, the factors that significantly affect the task complexity in an assembly line will be defined, and the complexity level of the task will be evaluated by measuring the number of task components. Using the proportional 2-tuples linguistic values, the difference between the complexity levels of tasks can be compared and described clearly.

Findings

Based on the structure of the task, three contributory factors including input factors, process-operation factors and output factors that significantly affect the task complexity in an assembly line are identified in the present study. The complexity level of the task is quantified through analyzing the details of the three factors according to two criteria and six sub-criteria within the textile case study.

Originality/value

The proposed approach provides a new insight about the factors that have an effect on the complexity of tasks in production and remedies some of limitations of previous methods. The combination of experts' experience and scientific knowledge will improve the accuracy in determining the complexity level of tasks.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 October 2022

Gizem Bilgin, Huseyin Erol, Guzide Atasoy, Irem Dikmen and M. Talat Birgonul

Megaprojects are known as complex projects that involve high levels of uncertainty. This interpretive study explores and portrays perceived complexity in mega construction…

Abstract

Purpose

Megaprojects are known as complex projects that involve high levels of uncertainty. This interpretive study explores and portrays perceived complexity in mega construction projects by lived experiences of project managers.

Design/methodology/approach

This study utilises a ground theory approach to analyse data gathered from semi-structured interviews with 18 professionals involved in 11 megaprojects.

Findings

Complexity in mega construction projects is defined as a project property that stems from the interaction of project features, uncertain variables/conditions, and managerial actions forming a pattern, which emerges over time, based on the reflections of construction practitioners.

Originality/value

This study defines complexity based on the reflections of the practitioners in the construction industry and uniquely identifies complexity patterns that may have implications for project management, particularly risk management.

Details

International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 15 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8378

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 October 2022

Hafez Shurrab and Patrik Jonsson

Changes frequently made to material delivery schedules (MDSs) accumulate upstream in the supply chain (SC), causing a bullwhip effect. This article seeks to elucidate how…

Abstract

Purpose

Changes frequently made to material delivery schedules (MDSs) accumulate upstream in the supply chain (SC), causing a bullwhip effect. This article seeks to elucidate how dynamic complexity generates MDS instability at OEMs in the automotive industry.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory multiple-case study methodology involved in-depth semistructured interviews with informants at three automotive original equipment manufacturers (OEMs).

Findings

Dynamic complexity destabilizes MDSs primarily via internal horizontal interactions between product and process complexities and demand and SC complexities. A network of complexity interactions causes and moderates such instability through complexity absorption and generation and complexity importation and exportation.

Research limitations/implications

The multiple-case study contributes to empirical knowledge about the dynamics of MDS instability. Deductive research to validate the identified relationships remains for Future research.

Practical implications

In revealing antecedents of complexity’s effect on MDS instability, the findings imply the need to develop strategies, programs, and policies dedicated to improving capacity scalability, supplier flexibility, and the flexibility of material order fulfillment.

Originality/value

Building on complexity literature, the authors operationalize complexity transfer and develop a framework for analyzing dynamic complexity in SCs, focusing on complexity interactions. The identification and categorization of interactions provide a granular view of the dynamic complexity that generates MDS instability. The identified and proposed importance of readiness of the SC to absorb complexity challenges the literature focus on external factors for explaining complexity outcomes. The results can be used to operationalize such dynamic interactions by introducing new variables and networks of relationships. Moreover, the work showcases how a complexity perspective could be used to discern the root causes of a complex phenomenon driven by non-linear relationships.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 October 2022

Jayakrishnan Jayapal, Senthilkumaran Kumaraguru and Sudhir Varadarajan

This paper aims to propose a view similarity-based shape complexity metric to guide part selection for additive manufacturing (AM) and advance the goals of design for AM…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a view similarity-based shape complexity metric to guide part selection for additive manufacturing (AM) and advance the goals of design for AM. The metric helps to improve the selection process by objectively screening a large number of parts and identifying the parts most suited for AM and enabling experts to prioritize parts from a smaller set based on relevant subjective/contextual factors.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology involves calculating a part’s shape complexity based on the concept of view similarity, that is, the similarity of different views of the outer shape and internal cross-sectional geometry. The combined shape complexity metric (weighted sum of the external shape and internal structure complexity) has been used to rank various three dimensional (3D) models. The metric has been tested for its sensitivity to various input parameters and thresholds are suggested for effective results. The proposed metric’s applicability for part selection has also been investigated and compared with the existing metric-based part selection.

Findings

The proposed shape complexity metric can distinguish the parts of different shapes, sizes and parts with minor design variations. The method is also efficient regarding the amount of data and computation required to facilitate the part selection. The proposed method can detect differences in the mass properties of a 3D model without evaluating the modified parameters. The proposed metric is effective in initial screening of a large number of parts in new product development and for redesign using AM.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed metric is sensitive to input parameters, such as the number of viewpoints, design orientation, image resolution and different lattice structures. To address this issue, this study suggests thresholds for each input parameter for optimum results.

Originality/value

This paper evaluates shape complexity using view similarity to rank parts for prototyping or redesigning with AM.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2009

Daniel Mahler and Adheer Bahulkar

For many firms the problems of manufacturing, marketing and distributing a complex product line persist, and it is driving up costs in an economy where cutting costs is

1403

Abstract

Purpose

For many firms the problems of manufacturing, marketing and distributing a complex product line persist, and it is driving up costs in an economy where cutting costs is essential to survival. This paper aims to promote the innovative concept of “Smart Complexity.”

Design/methodology/approach

This paper explains how a firm can adopt this new complexity management concept. It is an approach that challenges the notion that every new product variant drives growth.

Findings

Recently, a company that adopted this approach increased margins by 1 to 3 percent and set the foundation for ongoing improvements in profitability.

Practical implications

This four‐pronged approach to complexity management starts with consumer research to find the right level of variety. It adds richer SKU‐based data on costs across each step of a newly transparent value chain. It brings this data to a cross‐functional, integrated decision process. Finally, it implements process changes to ensure complexity is governed and managed over time.

Originality/value

The leadership lesson: desirable complexity drives consumer buying decisions. Undesirable complexity unduly complicates internal processes without making a whit of difference to the consumer. The new concept of Smart Complexity distinguishes between the two.

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

Hong Liu, Lu Ma and Panpan Huang

The purpose of this paper is to test the assertion that the relationship between corporation performance and organizational complexity follows an inverted U-shape curve…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the assertion that the relationship between corporation performance and organizational complexity follows an inverted U-shape curve, and a corporation gains the best performance when its organizational complexity fits its environmental complexity.

Design/methodology/approach

This research did not directly measure environmental complexity to verify the relationship between corporation performance and complex environment, but measured organizational complexity to subtly display the effect of the organizational complexity on the corporation performance while controlled the environmental complexity. To do so, a set of corporations that shared the similar environment was selected, and then these corporations’ performance and organizational complexity were calculated, the related hypotheses were tested empirically.

Findings

The paper proved the inverted U-shape relationship between organizational complexity and corporation performance, and also found that different corporation chooses different complex adaptive way, so the inverted U-shape relationship displays hierarchy.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should search out to calculate corporation’s environment complexity the fitness of organizational complexity for testing hypotheses.

Practical implications

The regularity of relationship between organizational complexity and corporation performance is helpful for managers to understand that a way to improve a corporation’s performance is to enhance the fitness of organizational complexity and environmental complexity.

Social implications

Organizational complexity may be competitive advantage, but excessive growth of it will be harmful.

Originality/value

Usually organizational complexity is thought of as a negative factor to corporation performance and tends to be constrained, but this research explored the role of organizational complexity to corporation performance and the findings helps managers to understand when to enhance organizational complexity and when to weaken it. The methodology of calculating the fitness of organizational complexity and environmental complexity by fixing environment is a contribution to complexity theory research.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Bob Anderson, Christian Hagen, Joe Reifel and Eric Stettler

Many companies in many industries find themselves dealing with an over abundance of custom‐designed products, services and IT functions. Such complexity becomes

1630

Abstract

Purpose

Many companies in many industries find themselves dealing with an over abundance of custom‐designed products, services and IT functions. Such complexity becomes unnecessary and value draining when companies fail to address the trade‐off between customization and complexity – between the costs associated with customization, the value derived from it, and the price that should be charged for it.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors show how to build an organization that routinely measures complexity and takes a continuous improvement approach to reducing it. This ensures that complexity is managed and customization that does not contribute to competitive advantage is eliminated.

Findings

Good complexity is necessary and adds value for the company and the customer. It is the kind required to customize products and services and help companies increase revenues, profits, and customer loyalty.

Practical implications

Ideally, the initial focus should be on identifying the complexity drivers across the organization and determining where modularization can reduce unnecessary complexity.

Originality/value

The company must obtain an in‐depth understanding of the tradeoffs between customization and complexity, and change its business processes and decision‐making to consider both internal challenges as well as its position in the marketplace. In the end, by weeding out the “bad” complexity, the company should see marked improvement in both its delivery capabilities and bottom‐line performance.

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 March 2014

Tom Berglund

The purpose of the paper is to find out which incentives are present for persons who are taking care of financial regulation in practice, and how these incentives impact…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the paper is to find out which incentives are present for persons who are taking care of financial regulation in practice, and how these incentives impact their attitudes towards complexity of financial regulation.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on recent contributions, reasons behind the increase in complexity observed in financial regulation are discussed. The role of actual incentives for the persons involved in setting up and enforcing regulation is detailed.

Findings

Incentives for persons that impact drafting and implementation of financial regulation produce a bias towards excessive complexity. Additional complexity reduces the risk for being exposed to aggressive journalism and pressure from populist politicians. Increasing complexity of regulation will also benefit large players since the costs are largely fixed.

Research limitations/implications

Careful studies measuring the costs of increased complexity in terms of increased resource requirements are needed.

Practical implications

To reduce the bias towards excess complexity, a body consisting of knowledgeable persons with high integrity is required with an explicit mandate of scrutinising regulation in order to reduce, or at least not increase, complexity. This body must be empowered with sufficient discretion to tackle cases that lack precedents.

Originality/value

The paper introduces an explicit discussion of existing incentives on the regulator side of financial markets to increase the understanding of the issues involved in the increased complexity that we observe in the rules that are implemented to guide behaviour in financial markets.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 February 2010

Eric G. Olson, Sara J. Moulton Reger and David S. Singer

The purpose of this paper is to present a structure for identifying complexity that is not needed in an enterprise, and describe a methodology for eliminating it. Whether

761

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a structure for identifying complexity that is not needed in an enterprise, and describe a methodology for eliminating it. Whether it is process complexity, product complexity, or organizational complexity, investments in managing higher levels of complexity often offer businesses significant value by enabling them to offer more and better products and services to a broader range of customers. However, along with higher levels of complexity has come an increased requirement to distinguish between that complexity which is needed and that which is needless.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper first presents a structure for categorizing different kinds of complexity, with a detailed focus on needless complexity that is categorized into four types. Next, specific factors are developed that can be used to identify needless complexity in an organization. Finally, a methodology is presented that organizations can utilize in order to eliminate needless complexity.

Findings

Needless complexity can be created where it never should have existed in the first place, and other times needless complexity exists as an historical relic left over from a time when it actually was needed. Using a structured approach, needless complexity can be identified and eliminated to yield significant business benefits.

Originality/value

This paper provides a framework for differentiating needless complexity from needed complexity, and assessing the landscape of needless complexity in an organization. It also provides an approach for identifying opportunities to reduce needless complexity using the needless complexity diagnostic.

Details

On the Horizon, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1074-8121

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1987

P.H. Waghodekar and S. Sahu

A new method for the measurement of the complexity of a facility layout problem is described which can be viewed as the degree of ease (unease) with which a given number…

Abstract

A new method for the measurement of the complexity of a facility layout problem is described which can be viewed as the degree of ease (unease) with which a given number of facilities can be optimally arranged. The existing approaches, namely, coefficient of variation and problem complexity rating, do not always produce consistent results. In the proposed approach, a cost matrix is converted into a similarity coefficient matrix and the standard deviation of the elemental values of a similarity coefficient matrix is used to determine layout complexity. The application of the proposed approach is illustrated through examples and the results are shown to be consistent and reasonably acceptable.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

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