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Article

Helen Lockett, Geoffrey Waghorn, Rob Kydd and David Chant

The purpose of this paper is to explore the predictive validity of two measures of fidelity to the individual placement and support (IPS) approach to supported employment.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the predictive validity of two measures of fidelity to the individual placement and support (IPS) approach to supported employment.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted of IPS programs. In total, 30 studies provided information characterizing 69 cohorts and 8,392 participants. Predictive validity was assessed by a precision and negative prediction analysis and by multivariate analysis of deviance.

Findings

Fidelity scores on the IPS-15 scale of 60 or less accurately predicted poor outcomes, defined as 43 percent or less of participants commencing employment, in 100 percent of cohorts. Among cohorts with IPS-15 fidelity scores of 61-75, 63 percent attained good employment outcomes defined as 44 percent or more commencing employment. A similar pattern emerged from the precision analysis of the smaller sample of IPS-25 cohorts. Multivariate analysis of deviance for studies using the IPS-15 scale examined six cohort characteristics. Following adjustment for fidelity score, only fidelity score (χ2=15.31, df=1, p<0.001) and author group (χ2=35.01, df=17, p=0.01) representing an aspect of cohort heterogeneity, remained associated with commencing employment.

Research limitations/implications

This study provides evidence of moderate, yet important, predictive validity of the IPS-15 scale across diverse international and research contexts. The smaller sample of IPS-25 studies limited the analysis that could be conducted.

Practical implications

Program implementation leaders are encouraged to first focus on attaining good fidelity, then supplement fidelity monitoring with tracking the percentage of new clients who obtain a competitive job employment over a pre-defined period of time.

Originality/value

The evidence indicates that good fidelity may be necessary but not sufficient for good competitive employment outcomes.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

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Article

Janika Bachmann

The purpose of this paper is to examine how labour market changes impact the change in the aggregated household consumption, which is a topic that is under-researched in Japan.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how labour market changes impact the change in the aggregated household consumption, which is a topic that is under-researched in Japan.

Design/methodology/approach

The author uses a three-step approach. The first step is a descriptive overview of the trends for cohort, age and year. The second step is to test the variation attributable to age-period-cohort interactions using APC analysis. The third step is to check if identifiable linear trend exists between the consumption changes and the labour market changes.

Findings

The analysis shows that major labour market changes per se do not contribute to household consumption adjustment. Meanwhile, the labour market conditions at the time of joining the labour force may be more important in shaping consumption during working life period than labour market changes during employment.

Research limitations/implications

The cohorts are created based on birth years, which is a limitation imposed by the data availability rather than characteristics of the population group. The main reason behind the limited data points is the survey being conducted every five years and 2014 being the most recent year for which the data are available.

Originality/value

Research about cohort consumption in Japan is limited to the consumption composition changes or to the growing population of unmarried singles. This analysis will examine how labour market changes impact the change in the aggregated household consumption, which is a topic that is under-researched in Japan. In the analysis, the author uses the Python APC model and Python statsmodel OLS regression, providing the notebooks with code and full results in Appendices.

Details

Review of Behavioral Finance, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1940-5979

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Book part

Mélia Djabi and Sakura Shimada

The purpose of this article is to understand how academics in management deal with the concept of generation in the workplace. We begin by conducting an interdisciplinary…

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to understand how academics in management deal with the concept of generation in the workplace. We begin by conducting an interdisciplinary literature analysis, thereby elaborating a conceptual framework concerning generational diversity. This framework consists of four levels of analysis (society, career, organisation and occupation) and three dimensions (age, cohort and event/period). We then conduct a meta-analysis using this conceptual framework to analyse papers from the management field. The results from this analysis reveal the existence of a diversity of generational approaches, which focus on the dimensions of age and cohort on a societal level. Four factors seem to explain these results: the recent de-synchronisation of generational dimensions and levels, the novelty of theoretical models, the amplification of stereotypes by mass media and the methodologies employed by researchers. In sum, this article contributes to a more realistic view of generational diversity in the workplace for both academics and practitioners.

Details

Management and Diversity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-489-1

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Article

Elena Giarda

This paper aims to build on existing studies on the relationship between individual wages, age and experience, and provide new evidence on the determinants of wages in Italy.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to build on existing studies on the relationship between individual wages, age and experience, and provide new evidence on the determinants of wages in Italy.

Design/methodology/approach

Wage‐age profiles, which include cohort variables to capture generational differences in wages and are characterised by a changing‐over‐time structure, are estimated by fixed and random effects panel regressions. The analysis exploits a longitudinal dataset of administrative data on wages for the period 1985‐1999.

Findings

This paper shows that wage to age profiles for different cohorts of workers are not stable over time: although younger generations of Italian workers are benefiting from higher starting wages than older generations, they face the prospect of lower growth of future earnings. It also confirms the existence of a significant supply effect: the bigger the cohort relative to the active population, the smaller the cohort's gain in terms of wage levels. Finally, it captures the dependence of individual wages on aggregate labour market conditions: individual wages are shown to be negatively related to the unemployment rate and positively related to the union wage index.

Research limitations/implications

Although the paper does not propose a novel theoretical approach to individual wage analysis, it demonstrates the benefits of a more integrated empirical analysis of individual wages.

Practical implications

The empirical findings suggest that it would be possible and useful to integrate the changing age profiles of individual wages with the estimation and projections of Italian aggregate industry and service sector average wages.

Originality/value

The paper provides new evidence on the determinants of the dynamics of individual wages through the estimation of time‐varying wage to age profiles of workers in the Italian industry and service sectors.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article

Paulo Cesar Motta and Charles Schewe

The purpose of this paper is to show the generational cohort gap in values and consequent decision making existing between younger and older marketing managers in Brazil…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show the generational cohort gap in values and consequent decision making existing between younger and older marketing managers in Brazil. The study investigates how generational research can innovate in the analysis of marketing management decisions. The truly essential questions are, first, whether cohort analysis can help explain marketing decision contexts, and second, if older cohorts find the younger cohort of managers today confrontational.

Design/methodology/approach

The method used in this investigation involved three phases. The first phase explored the validity of the cohorts to explain values brought into the decision context by different cohort members. The second phase asked managers to verify the values that came from phase one. The third phase advanced two questions. The first question identified the most critical value associated with new cohorts today and its implications for the organization's decision making. The second question investigated marketing issues that may develop from the values of younger cohorts coming into the organization. Managers in different cohorts at middle and upper level management were interviewed in all three phases.

Findings

The results show very different values between four investigated cohorts. These values produce different considerations among the cohorts when making marketing decisions. The greatest differences were found between the youngest and oldest cohorts. The lack of the generational understanding within a corporation, or the misapplication of this same understanding, may precipitate age divisions.

Research limitations/implications

Data were gathered from small samples and the results should be considered exploratory and not conclusive.

Practical implications

Management has shown little investigation of cohort differences and their implications for management decision making. This study suggests attention should be prompt since there appears to be a growing schism between newer members of the workforce and their older managers. Younger Brazilian cohort members embrace a strong sense of individualism that they bring to their jobs. This flies in the face of the corporate collective that companies need to survive. Finally, there remains a warning that neither management history nor company's history should be forgotten since they both bear upon marketing decision making.

Originality/value

This paper investigates a perspective on marketing decision making in organizations that has never been addressed in the literature. The eye‐opening findings suggest the need for addressing an issue before it becomes a problem.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 46 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Article

Jock Bickert

Asserts that when faced with complex motives and behavior, humans tend to simplify and generalize in order to make sense of a bewildering set of complexities. Categorical…

Abstract

Asserts that when faced with complex motives and behavior, humans tend to simplify and generalize in order to make sense of a bewildering set of complexities. Categorical systems are standard tools for boiling down the diversity of human behavior into manageable pockets (market segments) that allow us to predict future behavior. Discusses the merits of this process and also the risks of oversimplification. Examines examples of successful direct marketing to market segments, in particular the Cohorts II system, and makes suggestions as to how best to identify and reach market segments. Concludes by addressing current trends (e.g., using the Internet as a marketing medium) and how these will affect market segmentation.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 14 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article

James M. Williamson

The paper examines the evolution of beginning farms’ income statement and balance sheet items over a 15-year period. The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into the…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper examines the evolution of beginning farms’ income statement and balance sheet items over a 15-year period. The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into the diversity of beginning farms from a financial point of view.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the USDA’s Agricultural Resource Management Survey (ARMS), the author constructs a synthetic panel of data consisting of age cohorts of beginning farmers and follow them over time. Baseline financial information for the farm income statement and balance sheet is examined in 1999 and again in 2014 for each cohort.

Findings

Overall, there is a marked contrast in the evolution in the income statement between beginning farmers who are under 45 years old and those over 45. The gross cash income of the youngest cohorts grows tremendously, as do their expenses, indicating rapid expansion in production on the part of the youngest cohorts. The change in the balance sheets of the cohorts also provides a glimpse into the changing roles of beginning famers over time. The youngest cohort of beginning farmers increase the current and non-current assets on their balance sheets by a substantial amount, more than doubling both. Furthermore, the youngest cohort is the only group to take on more current liabilities, indicating increased financing of the production expenses.

Practical implications

Differences in the evolution of financial profiles of beginning farms may predict differences in future output, and it could be a predictor of the farm’s operational goals or intentions, as well as predictor of future financial needs and challenges.

Originality/value

Knowing and understanding likely trajectories of beginning farmers may provide an opportunity to better tailor farm programs, outreach, and support to beginning farmers.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 77 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Modelling Our Future: Population Ageing, Health and Aged Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-808-7

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Article

Sarah Stewart-Brown, Mizaya Cader, Thomas Walker, Sabah Janjua, Emma Hanson and Anne-Marie Chilton

The purpose of this paper is to examine the evaluation of a universal, mental well-being and mindfulness programme in a UK graduate entry medical school.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the evaluation of a universal, mental well-being and mindfulness programme in a UK graduate entry medical school.

Design/methodology/approach

Mixed methods used in the paper were the measurement of mental well-being and mindfulness in two cohorts at three time points over 15 months; descriptive, regression and repeated measures analysis with post hoc pairwise comparisons; qualitative interviews with purposive sample of 13 students after one year analysed thematically; and spontaneous anonymous feedback on the course.

Findings

The course was a surprise to students, and reactions were mixed. Respect for its contents grew over the first year. Most students had actively implemented a well-being strategy by the end of the course, and an estimated quarter was practicing some mindful activity. In the context of an overall decline in well-being and limited engagement with mindfulness practice, increases in mindfulness were protective against this decline in both cohorts (p<001). A small minority of students thought that the course was a waste of time. Their attitudes influenced engagement by their peers. The mindfulness and well-being practices of the facilitators were evident to students and influenced perceived effects.

Research limitations/implications

The uncontrolled nature of this observational study and low response rates to the survey limit conclusions. Further research in other medical education settings is needed.

Practical implications

Results are encouraging, suggesting modest benefit in terms of changing attitudes and practices and a modest protective effect on the well-being of students who engaged.

Originality/value

This is the first study of a universal well-being and mindfulness programme in a UK medical school. Universal programmes are rare and evaluation studies are scarce.

Details

Health Education, vol. 118 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Keywords

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Article

Maximiliane Szinovacz

This study, based on data from the National Survey of Families and Households, confirms normative preference for nuclear households across all cohorts and racial/ethnic…

Abstract

This study, based on data from the National Survey of Families and Households, confirms normative preference for nuclear households across all cohorts and racial/ethnic groups throughout this century. However, a noteworthy minority (about 30%) did live with grandparents at some time during their childhood. Living with grandparents as well as having a grandparent live in one's parental household were somewhat more prevalent during the 30's and 40's, indicating that extended households may have been formed in response to the Depression and especially World War II. There also is a significant effect of nuclear family structure: living arrangements with grandparents predominate among those who did not live with both parents at some time during their childhood. The data also suggest that it is important to differentiate between grandparental living arrangements that are oriented toward the care of the grandchildren and those arrangements that imply care for the grandparent: the former arrangement predominates among Blacks, whereas the latter is more common among Whites. During the past decade there has been increased interest in extended family living arrangements and particularly in households including grandparents and/or grandchildren. This interest reflects several demographic trends during the latter part of this century, especially increases in divorce and in parental problems (drugs, AIDS) that preclude parents from taking care of their own children as well as increases in longevity and in the survival of frail elderly, many of whom come to live with their adult children. Census data offer information on the prevalence of extended family arrangements at any one point in time, but they are insufficient to estimate a person's lifetime “risk” of living with grandparents and provide only limited information on the duration of such living arrangements. Data from the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) include information not only on whether individuals ever lived with their grandparents but also on the type and the duration of such arrangements. Based on this data set, this article assesses trends in living arrangements with grandparents, and variations in these trends by race and childhood family structure.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 16 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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