The field of cognitive-behavioural therapy contains many different theoretical models of psychopathology, with each discipline ascribing greater emphasis to a particular…
The field of cognitive-behavioural therapy contains many different theoretical models of psychopathology, with each discipline ascribing greater emphasis to a particular cognitive process or organisation of beliefs. This paper seeks to propose a method of integrating the two most widely practiced and researched schools of CBT; Beck ' s cognitive therapy (CT) and Ellis ' s rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT).
Although there exist a large degree of similarity between the two therapeutic approaches, the two models do differ in relation to their respective hypothesises regarding the core psychological variable in psychopathology. Cognitive theory hypothesises that negative representational beliefs are of central importance whereas rational emotive behaviour theory hypothesises that negative evaluative demands lie at the core of psychological disturbance. This paper evaluates these competing predictions on the basis of the available empirical literature.
The empirical literature provides greater support for the organisation and interrelations of the irrational beliefs proposed by REBT theory over CT theory, however the research data clearly indicate the importance of the cognitive variables stressed by CT theory in the pathogenesis of psychological distress. Based on the available evidence an integrated CBT model which incorporates elements of both CT and REBT theory is presented. It is proposed that this integrated model can serve as the stepping-stone toward a larger, single, coherent CBT model of psychopathology.
Few empirical studies have directly compared the competing predictions of CT and REBT theory. If future research supports the findings presented in this paper, the proposed model can serve as a template for the development of a unified, general-CBT theory of psychopathology.
The integrated model presented in this paper can serve as a guiding theoretical model for therapeutic practice which takes into account therapeutic methods from both CT and REBT.
This paper proposes the first theoretical model which incorporates the competing theoretical conceptualizations of psychological distress from the two main schools of CBT.
Traditional clinical psychological practices have often been adapted for the context of executive coaching. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in particular is the most scientifically supported psychological modality. CBT like other practices has been used in coaching as cognitive behavioral coaching but rarely discussed more explicitly for the executive population. Here, we offer a specific adaptation – cognitive behavioral executive coaching (CBEC) – and suggest that it presents a flexible structure that can meet the multiple agendas that are framed for executive coaching. Additionally, the core features of CBT and CBEC in particular satisfy the major needs of executives in coaching arrangements. We conclude by demonstrating a CBEC process model for coaching the high-performing executive.
The following case study describes the assessment, formulation and treatment of a man with mild learning disabilities and a history of violent behaviour. Following several…
The following case study describes the assessment, formulation and treatment of a man with mild learning disabilities and a history of violent behaviour. Following several years of offence‐related work, identification of chronic low self‐esteem provided an alternative approach to addressing the risk of violence by treatment based on the cognitive model of low self‐esteem. Global self‐esteem and fear of negative evaluation were assessed at baseline, middle and end of treatment and at one‐month follow‐up. Although scores improved over the course of 23 sessions and were maintained at one‐month follow‐up, the change was minimal and unlikely to be clinically significant. However, the client reported benefits from therapy and there were observable positive behaviour changes. Discharge was facilitated from secure services to supported living in the community. The results from this case study show that, with adaptation, cognitive behavioural therapy for low self‐esteem may successfully be applied to people with mild learning disabilities. Therapy to address issues underlying offending behaviour is often required in addition to offending behaviour programmes in order to reduce risk of re‐offending.
This case study describes an attempt to use cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to treat anger problems in a young man with mild learning disabilities. The skills…
This case study describes an attempt to use cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to treat anger problems in a young man with mild learning disabilities. The skills necessary to engage in CBT were assessed in addition to an assessment of support available, motivation to engage in therapy and belief in ability to make changes. Despite this assessment environmental factors undermined the therapy, which was not completed. Some of the difficulties and dilemmas involved in delivering CBT in ‘ordinary’ community services are discussed, concluding with learning points for consideration by other practitioners.
This paper summarises the main areas of therapeutic developments in recent years in the field of learning disability. There has been a growing interest in alternative ways…
This paper summarises the main areas of therapeutic developments in recent years in the field of learning disability. There has been a growing interest in alternative ways of helping learning‐disabled people live with themselves and the world in a socially acceptable way. Most such approaches are person‐centred, even if provided in a group setting. The range and types of therapies are illustrated and the advances in humanistic approaches highlighted. Cognitive, psychodynamic and creative therapies have been added to behaviour therapy, with good results, indicating the potential of learning‐disabled people to benefit from the same sorts of therapy as other people.
A forensic service in Pueblo, Colorado, USA has successfully introduced a dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) model of cognitive behavioural therapy which has been an integral part of the therapeutic programme since the mid‐1990s. The introduction of DBT to a forensic patient population has resulted in improvement of service user involvement with therapy, a possible solution to addressing staff burn‐out and a potential mode of treatment to encompass a range of diagnostic categories.DBT is a psychological intervention to help change an individual's distorted cognitions and assist the development of coping strategies. The emphasis of DBT in this instance is upon treating life‐threatening behaviour exhibited by patients in a forensic setting. A quasi‐experimental study comparing DBT with treatment as usual, conducted over a 20‐month period, helped this service to validate the therapy as an appropriate form of treatment for this patient population.
Phobias and panic disorder are commonly treated within primary care settings. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a recommended treatment for these disorders but access…
Phobias and panic disorder are commonly treated within primary care settings. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a recommended treatment for these disorders but access is limited due to too few therapists, expense and patients' reluctance to enter therapy. Computerised CBT (CCBT) is a self‐help option designed to offer patients the potential benefits of CBT with less therapist involvement. The review described here sought to identify studies evaluating the effectiveness of CCBT for phobias and panic disorders.
People with learning disabilities have traditionally been denied access to a range of psychological therapies. Similarly, offenders with learning disabilities…
People with learning disabilities have traditionally been denied access to a range of psychological therapies. Similarly, offenders with learning disabilities, particularly in prison settings, have largely been unable to access treatment strategies that are provided for offenders who do not have such disabilities. As a consequence these individuals are denied the opportunity to address their criminogenic needs and/or attend to their psychological welfare. This paper provides a brief exploration of the reasons and evidence for such practice, alongside the evidence that people with learning disabilities can successfully engage in psychotherapy. It is concluded that there is no evidence that would support the exclusion of people with disabilities from treatment options.
The term catastrophizing was coined by Ellis (1962) and commented on by Beck (1979). Since that time, much research has been done on the topic and a recent review article postulated that catastrophizing served as a transdiagnostic mechanism across the psychiatric disorders (Gellatly and Beck, 2016). In rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), there is a greater emphasis placed on the underlying irrational beliefs than the surface-level automatic thoughts; therefore, REBT therapists tend to focus on Awfulizing as opposed to catastrophizing. While these terms sound similar, it is unclear what theoretical overlap and distinction exists between the concepts. The paper aims to discuss these issues.
This paper is a review and synthesis of the extant literature, drawing from both theorists and empirical studies, to map out the similar and unique aspects of each cognition.
Awfulizing and catastrophizing are distinct concepts with differing effects on cognitive, affective and behavioral responses; these findings extend beyond theoretical models and are supported by empirical literature.
This review has direct implications for practitioners of the cognitive and behavioral therapies, including REBT, and those seeking an integration of the cognitive therapies.