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Book part
Publication date: 26 January 2011

Antoon De Baets

The question of how we know when censorship occurred has several sides. Problems of evidence of censorship do not only arise from practical obstacles, but also from its…

Abstract

The question of how we know when censorship occurred has several sides. Problems of evidence of censorship do not only arise from practical obstacles, but also from its very nature as a knowledge-related phenomenon. Scarcity and abundance of information about censorship may be determined by the extent of the censors’ success or by uneven research efforts. These factors often make it complicated to demarcate censorship from similar restrictions and to identify patterns and trends in the relationship between power and freedom. The present chapter looks into this epistemological problem by mapping the set of concepts governing and surrounding censorship in the particular field of history. It draws up a mini-dictionary with definitions of 26 key concepts related to, larger than, and different from the censorship of history. As these definitions are interrelated, the set in its entirety forms a taxonomy.

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Government Secrecy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-390-4

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Book part
Publication date: 26 January 2011

Hillel Nossek and Yehiel Limor

Although the state of Israel is a democracy, military censorship has been in use since its establishment in 1948 and is still imposed. The chapter analyzes the theoretical…

Abstract

Although the state of Israel is a democracy, military censorship has been in use since its establishment in 1948 and is still imposed. The chapter analyzes the theoretical and practical grounds for military censorship in Israel based on an agreement between relevant parties: the government, the army, the media, and the public. Analysis of Israeli military censorship reveals that military censorship is not necessarily the enemy of the media and the public's right to know. On the contrary and paradoxically, we show that in Israel's case, military censorship not only performs its task of preventing the publication of information that threatens the national security, at times it sustains the country's freedom of the press, freedom of information, and the public's right to know.

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Government Secrecy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-390-4

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Book part
Publication date: 23 April 2021

Anthony Löwstedt

Purpose – It may be time to reformulate the rejection of censorship. Freedom is not the only opposite of, strategic resource against, or antidote to, censorship

Abstract

Purpose – It may be time to reformulate the rejection of censorship. Freedom is not the only opposite of, strategic resource against, or antidote to, censorship. Methodology/Approach – This chapter argues against censorship with a Kantian-normative approach (the deontological position of the categorical imperative), using conceptual analysis, constructivism, and international legal scholarship, from the standpoint of a humanity-wide duty to safeguard and promote cultural diversity and biodiversity. Increasingly visible weaknesses of the argument against censorship from the utilitarian standpoint of freedom, a negative argument, can be avoided in this way. Findings – Especially the neoliberal approach to freedom has no provisions against corporate and only little against copyright censorship, which are both becoming increasingly acute. Diversity, on the other hand, both biological and cultural, is argued to be instrumentally good, and intrinsically good, but the latter only if balanced by equality of basic rights. Originality/Value – The resulting moral and legal imperatives are to support, safeguard, and promote diversity, and thus to minimize both censorship in culture and selection/elimination in nature, but only to minimize them, simply because they cannot themselves be eliminated. It is impossible to eliminate elimination. This becomes clear when one considers self- and soft censorship. At least in the wide sense, censorship is inevitable – but sustainable development is impossible without strict minimization of censorship.

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Media and Law: Between Free Speech and Censorship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-729-9

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Article
Publication date: 11 August 2020

Chen-Yu Lin, Yun-Siou Chen and Yan-Shouh Chen

The purpose of this paper is to explore censorship on popular music in Taiwan and how the practices have influenced the consumption and production of music in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore censorship on popular music in Taiwan and how the practices have influenced the consumption and production of music in the post-martial law period.

Design/methodology/approach

Through adopting grounded theory with snowball sampling and ethnographic methods, this paper will interview music audiences and musicians as well as analyze recent censorship cases to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the topic.

Findings

Institutional and corporate self-censorship has a noteworthy influence on popular music in post-marital law Taiwan. Cross-strait relations still are a key tension that triggers censorship but the form has been shifting.

Originality/value

This study draws on both the complexity of censorship by case studies and the audience's perception of music in everyday life.

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Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Zhi-Jin Zhong, Tongchen Wang and Minting Huang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of internet censorship, which is represented by the Great Fire Wall, on Chinese internet users’ self-censorship.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of internet censorship, which is represented by the Great Fire Wall, on Chinese internet users’ self-censorship.

Design/methodology/approach

A 3×2 factorial experiment (n=315) is designed. Different patterns of censorship (soft censorship, compared censorship, and hard censorship) and the justification of internet regulation are involved in the experiment as two factors. The dependent variable is self-censorship which is measured through the willingness to speak about sensitive issues and the behavior of refusing to sign petitions with true names.

Findings

The results show that perceived internet censorship significantly decreases the willingness to talk about sensitive issues and the likelihood of signing petitions with true names. The justification of censorship significantly decreases self-censorship on the behaviors of petition signing. Although there are different patterns of internet censorship that Chinese netizens may encounter, they do not differ from each other in causing different levels of self-censorship.

Research limitations/implications

The subjects are college students who were born in the early 1990s, and the characteristics of this generation may influence the results of the experiment. The measurement of self-censorship could be refined.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the body of literature about internet regulation because it identifies a causal relationship between the government’s internet censorship system and ordinary people’s reaction to the regulation in an authoritarian regime. Unpacking different patterns of censorship and different dimensions of self-censorship depicts the complexity of censoring and being censored.

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Internet Research, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2014

Ina Fourie, Constance Bitso and Theo J.D. Bothma

The purpose of this paper is to raise awareness of the importance for library and information services (LIS) to take the responsibility to find a manageable way to…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to raise awareness of the importance for library and information services (LIS) to take the responsibility to find a manageable way to regularly monitor internet censorship in their countries, and to suggest a framework for such monitoring and to encourage manageable on-going small scale research projects.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper follows on contract research for the IFLA Committee on Freedom of Access to Information and Freedom of Expression on country specific trends in internet censorship. Based on an extensive literature survey (not fully reflected here) and data mining, a framework is suggested for regular monitoring of country specific negative and positive trends in internet censorship. The framework addresses search strategies and information resources; setting up alerting services; noting resources for data mining; a detailed break-down and systematic monitoring of negative and positive trends; the need for reflection on implications, assessment of need(s) for concern (or not) and generation of suggestions for actions; sharing findings with the LIS community and wider society; and raising sensitivity for internet censorship as well as advocacy and lobbying against internet censorship. Apart from monitoring internet censorship, the framework is intended to encourage manageable on-going small scale research.

Findings

A framework of internet censorship monitoring can support the regular, systematic and comprehensive monitoring of known as well as emerging negative and positive trends in a country, and can promote timely expressions of concerns and appropriate actions by LIS. It can support sensitivity to the dangers of internet censorship and raise LIS’ levels of self-efficacy in dealing with internet censorship and doing manageable, small scale research in this regard.

Originality/value

Although a number of publications have appeared on internet censorship these do not offer a framework for monitoring internet censorship and encouraging manageable on-going small scale research in this regard.

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Library Hi Tech, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Sangho Byeon, Sungeun Chung and Borae Jin

This paper aims to investigate whether citizens censor their own expressions regarding large corporations in social networking sites (SNS) and how self-censorship is…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate whether citizens censor their own expressions regarding large corporations in social networking sites (SNS) and how self-censorship is associated with the perceived power of, knowledge about and media exposure about large corporations.

Design/methodology/approach

A nationwide survey was conducted in South Korea (N = 455). The data were analyzed with structural equation modeling.

Findings

As exposure to news about large corporations increased, the degree of self-censorship regarding large corporations increased. This effect of media exposure on self-censorship was mediated by the amount of knowledge about large corporations and the perceived power of large corporations.

Research limitations/implications

Although this study focused on the SNS context, the results of this study cannot provide the features of the self-censorship process that are distinct in SNS compared to other contexts. Although a causal model was provided based on theoretical reasoning, the nature of the data is correlational. Thus, one should be cautious when interpreting the results.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that, while establishing privacy protection policies with regard to the SNS, policy makers need to consider how to prevent invasion of privacy and misuse of personal data by large corporations, interest groups and the unspecified public.

Originality/value

This study extends the literature related to self-censorship by identifying the effects of economic power and the psychological factors involved in self-censorship.

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Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1987

Juergen Backhaus

Context and Relevance Censorship conjures images of despotic governments strangulating the expression of political convictions. Censorship is the violation of a basic…

Abstract

Context and Relevance Censorship conjures images of despotic governments strangulating the expression of political convictions. Censorship is the violation of a basic human right. But censorship appears in many forms, and the most effective approach may not be the most imposing. Hence, I look at censorship as a general case in which the flow of information is regulated in the interest of the censor. By “optimal” censoring, I understand a policy that suits the interests of the censor best in the long run.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 14 no. 7/8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2002

Scott David Williams

Creative processes halt when those who generate creative ideas self‐censor them. Self‐censorship may become a greater concern in performance management as organizations of…

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Abstract

Creative processes halt when those who generate creative ideas self‐censor them. Self‐censorship may become a greater concern in performance management as organizations of the future are likely to face growing pressures to be creative, innovative, and adaptive. Self‐censorship was addressed in early research on managing the performance of brainstorming groups, and may have broad implications for creative performance in many facets of today’s organizations. This paper re‐examines the research on self‐censorship in view of recent management and social psychology research in an effort to better understand how the self‐esteem motive and a lack of self‐concept clarity cause self‐censorship. Person‐focused and feedback‐focused strategies to reduce self‐censorship are described, and directions for future research are suggested.

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Personnel Review, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Book part
Publication date: 23 April 2021

Devika Sethi

Purpose – Public debates about censorship laws largely focus on their desirability and the limits set on free speech. From a historical perspective, however, the logic and…

Abstract

Purpose – Public debates about censorship laws largely focus on their desirability and the limits set on free speech. From a historical perspective, however, the logic and contradictions inherent in these laws’ implementation, as well as their evasion, also merit attention. This chapter places at the heart of its investigation the General Communist Notification (1932) in British India which prohibited specific kinds of Communist publications from import and circulation, even more so in a context of mass anti-colonial nationalism. Methodology/Approach – Using government and intelligence agencies’ archival records, intercepted documents of the Communist Party of India, legislative debates and memoirs, this chapter illustrates the censorship of Communist literature in India at two levels: one, it sketches a broad picture of the mode and extent of the censorship of Communist literature in late colonial India (c. 1925–1947). Two, by excavating debates and processes around the treatment to be accorded to books of two British Communist writers, John Strachey and R. P. Dutt, it reveals the constraints and dilemmas of censorship of Communist literature. While doing so, it brings both Indian and British voices to the fore. Findings – This investigation provides valuable insights into the operation of laws related to specific genres of publications, provides an assessment of the success of censorship measures, and highlights the repercussions of their failure. Originality/Value – By illustrating the limited success of censorship measures, as well as the dilemmas of censors and debates among them, this chapter urges for a more nuanced and multidimensional understanding of the operation of censorship, particularly in politically fraught contexts.

Details

Media and Law: Between Free Speech and Censorship
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-729-9

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 3000