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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2022

Özcan Karahan and Olcay Çolak

The direction of the causality relationship between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and economic growth is a highly controversial issue in the literature. There are two…

Abstract

Purpose

The direction of the causality relationship between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and economic growth is a highly controversial issue in the literature. There are two basic approaches advocating different causal directions between FDI and growth, which are called hypotheses of FDI-led Growth and Growth-led FDI. The aim of this study is to analyze the causality relationship between FDI and economic growth in RCEP countries and thus make a new contribution to the discussions in the relevant literature. In addition, the results of the study are expected to provide important implications for the policies to be designed for economic growth based on FDI flows to RCEP countries. Thus, by examining the direction of causality between FDI and economic growth in RCEP countries, we aim to provide a new contribution to related literature and make some implications for the policy design process of economic growth in the RCEP area.

Design/methodology/approach

We empirically examined the direction of a causal link between FDI and economic growth in the context of Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RPEC) countries in order to test the hypothesis of FDI-led growth and Growth-led FDI. Accordingly, as our main variables of interest, we incorporated the inward foreign direct investment stock to gross domestic product ratio (FDI) and gross domestic product per capita (GDP). Hatemi-J (2012) asymmetric causality test has been employed in the investigation of the direction of causality between FDI and GDP over the period of 1980–2020. Thus, unlike most of the studies investigating the direction of causality between FDI and growth using the linear causality analysis method, our study performed a nonlinear causality analysis.

Findings

Empirical results reveal that the causal relationship between FDI and national income in RPEC countries is non-linear or asymmetric . The results of the symmetric causality test for both from FDI to national income and from national income to FDI are statistically insignificant for all countries. Therefore, this finding obtained from the study provided an important guide to the econometric methods to be used in other studies to be conducted in the same region in the future. Concerning the asymmetric causality relationship from FDI to growth, positive FDI shocks are an important cause of national income in most RCEP countries. However, the effect of negative FDI shocks on national income is quite weak compared to positive shocks. Regarding the asymmetric causality relationship from growth to FDI, positive national income shocks do not create a significant causal relationship with FDI. Similarly, the effects of negative national income shocks on FDI are statistically insignificant. Overall, asymmetric causality test results reveal that positive FDI shocks have an important causal impact on economic growth in most RCEP countries. Thus, the results of econometric analysis mostly support the argument that the FDI-led growth hypothesis rather than the Growth-led FDI hypothesis in RCEP countries. Accordingly, policy-makers in most of the RCEP countries should continue to provide more incentives and facilities to multinational companies in order to ensure constant economic growth.

Originality/value

Our study brings a significant difference in the econometric method used compared to most of the other studies in the literature. Existing empirical studies on the direction of causality between FDI and growth mostly use standard Granger-linear causality-type tests to detect the direction of causality among FDI and growth. Unlike most of the studies in the literature, our study adopted a different methodological approach, namely the Hatemi J test to detect the non-linear causality between FDI and economic growth in RCEP countries. Therefore, this paper made a new methodological contribution significantly to the literature focusing on the causal relationship between FDI and economic growth by using a non-linear causality method rather than a linear causality one.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 September 2022

Xiaojie Xu and Yun Zhang

With the rapid-growing house market in the past decade, the purpose of this paper is to study the important issue of house price information flows among 12 major cities in…

Abstract

Purpose

With the rapid-growing house market in the past decade, the purpose of this paper is to study the important issue of house price information flows among 12 major cities in China, including Shanghai, Beijing, Xiamen, Shenzhen, Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Ningbo, Nanjing, Zhuhai, Fuzhou, Suzhou and Dongguan, during the period of June 2010 to May 2019.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors approach this issue in both time and frequency domains, latter of which is facilitated through wavelet analysis and by exploring both linear and nonlinear causality under the vector autoregressive framework.

Findings

The main findings are threefold. First, in the long run of the time domain and for timescales beyond 16 months of the frequency domain, house prices of all cities significantly affect each other. For timescales up to 16 months, linear causality is weaker and is most often identified for the scale of four to eight months. Second, while nonlinear causality is seldom determined in the time domain and is never found for timescales up to four months, it is identified for scales beyond four months and particularly for those beyond 32 months. Third, nonlinear causality found in the frequency domain is partly explained by the volatility spillover effect.

Originality/value

Results here should be of use to policymakers in certain policy analysis.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 25 September 2020

Letife Özdemir

Purpose: Through globalization, financial markets have become more integrated and their tendency to act together has increased. The majority of the literature states that…

Abstract

Purpose: Through globalization, financial markets have become more integrated and their tendency to act together has increased. The majority of the literature states that there is a cointegration between developed and emerging markets. How do positive or negative shocks in developed markets affect emerging markets? And how do positive or negative shocks in emerging markets affect developed markets? For this reason, the aim of the study is to investigate the asymmetric causality relationship between developed and emerging markets with Hatemi-J asymmetric causality test.

Design/methodology/approach: In this study, the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) index was used to represent developed markets and the Morgan Stanley Capital International (MSCI) Emerging Market Index was used to represent emerging markets. The asymmetric causality relationship between the DJIA Index and the MSCI Emerging Market Index was investigated using monthly data between January 2009 and April 2019. In the first step of the study, the Johansen Cointegration Test was used to determine whether there is a cointegration between the markets. In the next step, the Hatemi-J asymmetric causality test was applied to see the asymmetric causality relationship between the markets.

Findings: There is a weak correlation between developed and emerging markets. This result is important for international investors who want to diversify their portfolios. As a result of the Johansen Cointegration Test, it was found that there is a long-term relationship between the MSCI Emerging Market Index and the DJIA Index. Therefore, investors who make long-term investment plans should not forget that these markets act together and take into account the causal relationship between them. According to the asymmetric causality test results, a unidirectional causality relationship from the MSCI Emerging Market Index to the DJIA Index was determined. This causality shows that negative shocks in the MSCI Emerging Market Index have positive effects on the DJIA Index.

Originality/value: This study contributes to the literature as it is one of the first studies to examine the asymmetrical relationship between developed and emerging markets. This study is also useful in predicting the short- and long-term relationship between markets. In addition, this study helps investors, portfolio managers, company managers, policymakers, etc., to understand the integration of financial markets.

Details

Uncertainty and Challenges in Contemporary Economic Behaviour
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-095-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 23 June 2016

Eric Renault and Daniela Scidá

Many Information Theoretic Measures have been proposed for a quantitative assessment of causality relationships. While Gouriéroux, Monfort, and Renault (1987) had…

Abstract

Many Information Theoretic Measures have been proposed for a quantitative assessment of causality relationships. While Gouriéroux, Monfort, and Renault (1987) had introduced the so-called “Kullback Causality Measures,” extending Geweke’s (1982) work in the context of Gaussian VAR processes, Schreiber (2000) has set a special focus on Granger causality and dubbed the same measure “transfer entropy.” Both papers measure causality in the context of Markov processes. One contribution of this paper is to set the focus on the interplay between measurement of (non)-markovianity and measurement of Granger causality. Both of them can be framed in terms of prediction: how much is the forecast accuracy deteriorated when forgetting some relevant conditioning information? In this paper we argue that this common feature between (non)-markovianity and Granger causality has led people to overestimate the amount of causality because what they consider as a causality measure may also convey a measure of the amount of (non)-markovianity. We set a special focus on the design of measures that properly disentangle these two components. Furthermore, this disentangling leads us to revisit the equivalence between the Sims and Granger concepts of noncausality and the log-likelihood ratio tests for each of them. We argue that Granger causality implies testing for non-nested hypotheses.

Abstract

Details

New Directions in Macromodelling
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-830-8

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2022

Koi Nyen Wong, Bee Wah Tan and Soo Khoon Goh

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has evolved into ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), which aims to pursue a single market and production base to transform…

Abstract

Purpose

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has evolved into ASEAN Economic Community (AEC), which aims to pursue a single market and production base to transform ASEAN into a dynamic, competitive and global region. ASEAN is inherently heterogeneous that potentially could promote further economic integration, fundamentally, through the interactions between intra-regional outward foreign direct investment (OFDI), export trade and economic growth. Hence, this paper attempts to explore the causal relationship between intra-ASEAN OFDI, intra-ASEAN exports and economic growth of ASEAN-10 countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper attempts to explore the causal relationship between intra-ASEAN OFDI, intra-ASEAN exports and economic growth of ASEAN-10 countries, using regional panel data based on Dumitrescu and Hurlin (2012) non-causality analysis, which allows us to take into account of the heterogeneity in terms of causal relationships.

Findings

The empirical study shows bidirectional causality between intra-ASEAN export and intra-ASEAN OFDI, a bidirectional causality between intra-ASEAN export trade and intra-ASEAN economic growth and a unidirectional causality running from the real GDP of ASEAN-10 countries to intra-ASEAN OFDI.

Research limitations/implications

The findings have implications for the extent of intra-ASEAN production fragmentation, policy formulations for furthering intra-regional OFDI, and trade to achieve the ASEAN integration agenda.

Originality/value

The main contribution of the current study is to use the panel causality analysis for an emerging dynamic region, specifically, the AEC. As far as we know, this is the first study ascertaining whether there is a causality relationship between intra-ASEAN OFDI, intra-ASEAN export trade and economic growth of ASEAN-10, which is a longstanding objective of ASEAN integration agenda.

Details

Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-4323

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 February 2022

Gülfen Tuna, Vedat Ender Tuna, Mirsariyya Aghalarova and Ahmet Bülent Atasoy

This study aims to reveal new information about the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for the time-varying causality.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to reveal new information about the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for the time-varying causality.

Design/methodology/approach

Economic growth and renewable and nonrenewable energy consumption data of the G7 countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK and the USA) for the 1980–2016 period were used in the study. The nonasymmetric causality test developed by Hacker and Hatemi-J (2006) and both traditional and time-varying forms of the asymmetric causality test by Hatemi-J (2012) were used as the study method.

Findings

While the study favors feedback hypothesis for renewable energy consumption in the nonasymmetric causality tests in the UK economy, it favors the same hypothesis for nonrenewable energy consumption in the US economy. However, according to the results reported by Hatemi-J (2012), the feedback hypothesis, which is supported for the UK, is supported only in positive shocks, yet not for each period of analysis. Similarly, feedback hypothesis, which is supported in the USA, is supported only in the negative shocks, yet not for each period of analysis.

Originality/value

This study examined that the asymmetric causality relationship between variables can be analyzed in time-varying form. Therefore, whether positive and negative shocks in renewable and nonrenewable energy consumption always provide useful information in estimations about economic growth is analyzed.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 March 2022

S. Belgin Akçay, Cagin Karul and Mert Akyuz

The purpose of this study is to examine whether there is a causal relationship between mortgage credit and house prices in Turkey.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine whether there is a causal relationship between mortgage credit and house prices in Turkey.

Design/methodology/approach

Granger causality test, Toda–Yamamoto causality test, Fourier Granger causality test and Fourier Toda–Yamamoto causality tests are applied.

Findings

The findings show that there is a strong one-way causality between mortgage credit and house prices and that the developments in credit markets are more decisive in the relationship between mortgage credit and house prices than the developments in the housing markets.

Practical implications

Considering a causal relationship between mortgage credit and house prices may contribute to more efficient use of the tools of both macroeconomic and microeconomic policies for the mortgage credit and housing markets in Turkey. Furthermore, by understanding the importance of the direction of causality between both dynamics, it may be possible to prevent and/or mitigate the negative effects of large house price movements on both Turkish housing and mortgage markets as well as on Turkish economy.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the contribution of this study is to examine for the first time whether the causal relationship between mortgage credit and house prices in Turkey is mutual as well as to apply four different causality tests and to compare their results for the first time.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 February 2022

Joseph Mawejje and Nicholas M. Odhiambo

This study investigates the dynamic causality linkages between fiscal deficits and selected macroeconomic indicators in a panel of five East African Community countries.

1015

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the dynamic causality linkages between fiscal deficits and selected macroeconomic indicators in a panel of five East African Community countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The research design is based on panel cointegration tests, panel cross-section dependence tests, panel error correction-based Granger causality tests and panel impulse response functions.

Findings

Results show that there is long-run feedback causality among fiscal deficits and each of the variables include gross domestic product (GDP) growth, current account balance, interest rates, inflation, grants and debt service. Short-run Granger causality dynamics indicate that there is feedback causality between fiscal deficits and GDP growth; no causality between fiscal deficits and inflation; no causality between fiscal deficits and current account; no causality between fiscal deficits and interest rates; feedback causality between fiscal deficits and grants; and no causality between fiscal deficits and debt service. Impulse response functions show positive and significant impacts of current account balance, inflation and grants; negative and significant impacts of real GDP growth and lending rates; and insignificant effects of debt service.

Research limitations/implications

While the study examines the dynamic causality between fiscal deficits and selected macroeconomic indicators in the East African Community, the analysis excludes South Sudan due to significant data limitations.

Practical implications

In light of the East African Community's aspirations to achieve convergence on key macroeconomic targets, including the fiscal deficit, this research provides novel insights on fiscal policy determinants and causality dynamics.

Social implications

The dynamic relationships between fiscal policy and macroeconomic variables may have social implications for welfare, equitable growth and distribution of resources.

Originality/value

With a focus on the East African Community, this paper contributes to the literature on the macroeconomic determinants of fiscal deficits in regional economic communities.

Details

Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science, vol. 27 no. 53
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2218-0648

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 17 February 2022

Şerif Canbay and Mustafa Kırca

The study aims to determine whether there is a bidirectional causality relationship between health expenditures and per capita income in Brazil, Russia, India, China…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to determine whether there is a bidirectional causality relationship between health expenditures and per capita income in Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa and Turkey (BRICS+T).

Design/methodology/approach

For that purpose, the 2000–2018 period data of the variables were tested with the Kónya (2006) panel causality test. Additionally, the causality relationships between public and private health expenditures and per capita income were also investigated in the study.

Findings

According to the analysis results, there is no statistically significant causality relationship from total health expenditures and public health expenditures to per capita income in the relevant countries. Besides, there is a unidirectional causality relationship from private health expenditures to per capita income only in Turkey. On the other hand, a unidirectional causality relationship from per capita income to total health expenditures in China, Russia, Turkey and South Africa and from per capita income to public health expenditures in India, Russia, Turkey and South Africa were determined. Consequently, a causality relationship from per capita income to private health expenditures was found out in Russia and Turkey.

Originality/value

The variables are tested for the first time for BRICS+T countries, vis-à-vis the period under consideration and the method used.

Details

Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science, vol. 27 no. 53
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2218-0648

Keywords

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