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Article
Publication date: 8 January 2020

Mohamed Ismail Sabry

Why are state business relations in Egypt characterized by widely acknowledged high levels of cronyism? The purpose of this paper is to investigate the institutional…

Abstract

Purpose

Why are state business relations in Egypt characterized by widely acknowledged high levels of cronyism? The purpose of this paper is to investigate the institutional factors explaining this research question with a focus on pre-2011 Egypt.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a general theoretical discussion, certain institutions were proposed as being responsible. A game theoretical model is then introduced. It explains why cronyism was the best strategy for various business players in contrast to aggregating and lobbying their efforts to obtain government available resources, whether these resources are energy subsidies, public banks’ credit or regulations. Then pre-2011 Egypt is discussed as a case study. This discussion is enriched by the available literature and empirical data.

Findings

Choosing cronyism was attributed to the presence of a weak and dependent private sector, where businesspeople are unable to aggregate their power; a relatively stronger government; poor governance performance; higher levels of regime legitimization practices, such as providing generous consumer subsidies; and economic growth caused by an increase in resources rather than by governance institutional improvement. A discussion of the available literature and empirical data on pre-2011 Egypt, going over the various proposed institutional factors, helped to support these arguments.

Research limitations/implications

Further empirical evidence is needed to support and modify the suggestions of this paper. More detailed indicators would have further helped this research. Moreover, more case studies, other than the case of pre-2011 Egypt, are also needed. It is hoped that this paper would encourage further research endeavors that would cover these limitations.

Practical implications

Governance institutional reform is needed to minimize cronyism, especially institutions such as voice and accountability, rule of law, regulatory quality and control of corruption.

Social implications

This paper can explain why high levels of cronyism are witnessed in many countries of the world, including the countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). The region shares many institutional factors with Egypt. Governments in the MENA region have various sources of power with regard to their dependent private sectors added to the general poor performance in various governance indicators in the region.

Originality/value

The deep analysis conducted in this paper for the causes of Cronyism in Egypt has not been done elsewhere. This is also true for the whole MENA region. The introduced theoretical model is the first trial of this sort and should be important for future works on this topic in the MENA region and developing countries.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 40 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1988

Kam‐Hon Lee and Thamis Wing‐Chun Lo

Brunner and Taoka did the first survey of American businesspeople's perceptions of marketing and negotiating in the People's Republic of China in 1975. Because of China's…

Abstract

Brunner and Taoka did the first survey of American businesspeople's perceptions of marketing and negotiating in the People's Republic of China in 1975. Because of China's open door policy and her determination to modernise, there have been many changes in US‐China business. Therefore, it is important to conduct an updated survey to furnish another reference point for American businesspeople who want to engage in China business. It was found that the most important observations made in the previous study were still true after ten years. However, there are several obvious changes. For example, PRC trade officials are no longer reluctant to reveal their positions or titles and there are problems of technical incompetence, language barriers, and foreign exchange shortage. There are clear management implications of these findings in mapping out appropriate contemporary marketing and negotiating strategies.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Caroline Shenaz Hossein

Academics examining the global South who engage in informal politics to understand social and political issues should be prepared to diversify their methods toolkit…

Abstract

Purpose

Academics examining the global South who engage in informal politics to understand social and political issues should be prepared to diversify their methods toolkit. Informal ties and politics are where one learns about social and economic exclusion. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Mixed qualitative methods – such as individual interviews, surveys, and focus groups – provide an understanding of the people’s perspective, enabling the researcher to truly know what is going on.

Findings

Fieldwork in the downtown communities of Kingston, Jamaica, has an element of danger because violence and politics are very much a part of the daily reality of the people being interviewed. In this paper, the author argues that studying how financial resources are allocated to low-income people and understanding why some groups purposefully self-exclude themselves from economic development programs require unorthodox field methods. The author thus uses political ethnography to understand the experience of marginalized Jamaican people.

Originality/value

Mixed qualitative methods and political ethnography assisted the author to understand the actual experience of marginalized people and politicized financial programs.

Details

Qualitative Research Journal, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1443-9883

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Janet K.M. Marta and Anusorn Singhapakdi

The purpose of this study is to examine differences in the ethical decision‐making processes of Thai and American businesspeople, considering perceived moral intensity…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine differences in the ethical decision‐making processes of Thai and American businesspeople, considering perceived moral intensity, corporate ethical values (CEV), and perceived importance of ethics.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey respondents were professional marketers in Thailand (n=605) and US (n=453). Results were analyzed using MANOVA and ANOVA. Scales have been used previously in the literature, so we report reliability.

Findings

American managers were more likely to perceive the unethical marketing behaviors to be more serious. American organizations were found to have higher CEV than Thai organizations. The results revealed no differences between the two groups of businesspeople, however, on their perceptions about the importance of ethics.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations inherent in this research include the initial development of the development of the measurements in the US and some notable demographic differences between the samples.

Practical implications

As investment becomes more globalized, it is imperative that mangers understand that differing ethical perceptions can be a critical factor in working together successfully, and are occasionally an absolute limitations to establishing operations in a particular country.

Originality/value

The study should be especially useful to people who manage businesses in these two countries, but many of the implications will be valuable to anyone in international business situations, in dealing with differences in ethical perception.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2013

Treena Gillespie Finney and R. Zachary Finney

The study aims to understand how university students' work experiences influence their perceptions of university ethics training. In the past, researchers have focused on…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to understand how university students' work experiences influence their perceptions of university ethics training. In the past, researchers have focused on the content of university ethics programs, but have ignored the influence of students' employment.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors surveyed 953 students at a medium-sized university in the Southeastern USA.

Findings

Students' views of work and experiences on the job predicted both their views of college ethics training and their ability to identify ethical issues from a set of scenarios. Students' perceptions of their degrees as valuable credentials and their feelings that ethical behavior is the “norm” in business were the strongest predictors in both instances.

Research limitations/implications

While the regression analyses were significant, they explained relatively little of the variance.

Practical implications

In designing programs to promote ethical behaviors among future managers, university personnel should bear in mind that students' experiences on the job help to determine the manner in which they view university ethics training.

Originality/value

To date, most researchers have not considered that the response to university ethics training is influenced – in part – by the fact that students are often employed.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2013

Romie F. Littrell, E. Serra Yurtkoru, Handan Kepir Sinangil, Beril Durmuş, Alev Katrinli, Remziye Gulem Atabay, Gonca Günay and Burcu Güneri Çangarli

In this study the authors endeavour to further develop and validate the Behavioural and Contingency theory of leadership.

Abstract

Purpose

In this study the authors endeavour to further develop and validate the Behavioural and Contingency theory of leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

In a field survey research study, the authors collect, analyse, compare, and discuss explicit leader behaviour preferences of employed businesspeople in Istanbul and Izmir, Turkey, rating their “ideal managerial leader” and their actual organisational manager.

Findings

In Istanbul and Izmir businesspeople tend to prefer leaders who focus on managing the business system over other considerations such as relationship management; task orientation is more important than relationship orientation. In the business environment, there appear to be little or no differences in preferences relating to gender; men and women have nearly identical preferences; age has some influence; generally, older businesspeople tend to have higher preference scores for a managerial leader who clearly defines his or her own role, and lets followers know what is expected, and pushes them to work harder and exceed past performance. Subordinates neither received nor expected Paternal leader behaviour. They expected and did receive moderately Authoritarian leader behaviour.

Originality/value

The large majority of studies of leadership focus on implicit leadership theory, describing characteristics and traits of leaders. This study employs explicit leader behaviour theory and operationalisations to identify subordinates’ ideal leader behaviour compared to actual organisational manager behaviour in Turkey.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Lotte Darsø

Arts‐based learning in business is a young field. Few businesspeople are aware of the opportunities to learn about it. This article takes an international look at the most

Abstract

Purpose

Arts‐based learning in business is a young field. Few businesspeople are aware of the opportunities to learn about it. This article takes an international look at the most prominent programs that bring together businesspeople, artists, and academics in various combinations.

Design/methodology/approach

Over the past several years, the author has interviewed people active in the field in the USA and Europe. This survey article brings together her findings.

Findings

There are many opportunities for learning. Some bring artists and businesspeople together; some combine academics, artists, and businesspeople; and within the academic community there are many opportunities for artists and academics.

Practical implications

Businesspeople will learn and take advantage of learning opportunities.

Originality/value

The author has not seen such a survey published elsewhere.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 16 March 2021

Christine Narramore

This chapter is an examination of what is meant by the term ‘Good Farmer’ and whether or not this is compatible with being a good businessperson. The term ‘Feckless…

Abstract

This chapter is an examination of what is meant by the term ‘Good Farmer’ and whether or not this is compatible with being a good businessperson. The term ‘Feckless Farmer’ is introduced to describe someone who is the opposite of a Good Farmer. And all of this is considered with reference to the farmers of the village of Ambridge in the West Midlands, with special emphasis on the practices of Brian Aldridge and his recent issues with contamination of his land and neighbouring watercourses. This work starts by defining key terms before moving on to consider the similarities and differences between farms and other types of businesses. The different philosophical paradigms that can underlie different definitions and practices of a Good Farmer are also explored. The ways that the economies of farms differ from most businesses will also be discussed. With some conclusions being drawn as to whether Mr Aldridge is a Good Farmer or a Feckless one, and if he deserved to be lauded as an award-winning businessperson.

Details

Flapjacks and Feudalism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-389-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1995

Masood A. Badri, Donald L. Davis and Donna F. Davis

Due to increasing global competition, the issue ofcountry‐of‐origin has received a great deal of attention recently.Examines country‐of‐origin image stereotyping by…

Abstract

Due to increasing global competition, the issue of country‐of‐origin has received a great deal of attention recently. Examines country‐of‐origin image stereotyping by businesspeople in the Gulf States of the Middle East. Assesses the attitude of businesspeople toward various products of seven countries: the USA, Japan, Germany, England, France, Italy and Taiwan, that are the most active in the Gulf States. To develop effective global marketing strategies, firms require decisionmaking support in the form of information about the perception of their products in the international markets. The study found that country‐of‐origin stereotyping is present in the Gulf States market. The study provided evidence that “Made in the USA, Japan, and Germany” clearly emerged as most favoured countries of origin. In addition, the image of English products trailed behind products from other European countries except Italy. Profile differences were analyzed statistically. Age, education, sex, and income level were variously related to consumers′ attitudes to products made in different countries.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 4 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2013

Romie Frederick Littrell and Evangelina Cruz Barba

The study aims to investigate the national cultural clusters myth, studying the relationships between individual cultural values and preferred leader behaviour of working…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to investigate the national cultural clusters myth, studying the relationships between individual cultural values and preferred leader behaviour of working businesspeople in “Latin American” samples from Santiago, Chile, and Guadalajara, Mexico. The set of research questions to be addressed are: Are the rankings of value dimensions by businesspeople different between “Latin American” Chile and Mexico? Are the rankings of preferred leader behaviour dimensions different between Chile and Mexico? Are the predictive relationships of leader behaviour preferences by value dimension priorities different between Chile and Mexico?

Design/methodology/approach

In an investigation of the relationships amongst preferred leader behaviour and individual value dimensions, the study employs field survey research using two experimental but well established and documented instruments, the Schwartz Values Survey and the Leader Behaviour Description Questionnaire. Comparisons between results from two samples from Chile and Mexico are carried out.

Findings

Two samples from large cities in Latin America, Santiago, Chile, and Guadalajara, Mexico, are compared using preferred leader behaviour dimensions and individual values and their relationship to one another. Significant sample and gender sub‐sample differences were observed for preferred leader behaviour, indicating that the perception of preferred leader behaviour priorities differed between businesspeople in Santiago and Guadalajara. Results indicate a general preference in both samples for a Parental Leader style, nurturing in Chile and stern in Mexico, and managerial leaders should be a source of enjoyment and pleasure in business; indications are that engaging in business is an enjoyable endeavour. Gender (sex) differences were observed between samples for preferred leader behaviour. Due to several demographic differences in job level and age in the samples, further work is required to verify the differences observed.

Research limitations/implications

Samples are from two cities, Santiago, Chile, and Guadalajara, Mexico, with an obvious requirement for studying additional regions in the country. Interpreting the findings is challenging and needs to be clarified though further focus group studies to assist in interpreting similarities and differences.

Practical implications

Practical applications of the outcomes of the study are that the results can be used to inform managerial leadership training and development and practice for expatriate and local managerial leaders working in the two cities.

Social implications

The authors’ literature review and data analyses have some social implications as they found contradictory and misleading discussions of the relative placement of Mexico, Chile, and other countries in South, Central, and North America using cultural value dimension studies that need to be rationalised in further research.

Originality/value

The study is of value to practitioners and researchers interested in managerial leadership in Latin American countries.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 32 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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