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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Chunwei Xian, Fang Sun and Yinghong Zhang

This study aims to investigate the moderating effect of equity-based compensation on the sources of book-tax differences. The authors investigate whether equity-based…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the moderating effect of equity-based compensation on the sources of book-tax differences. The authors investigate whether equity-based compensation affects the association between book-tax differences and tax planning, and the association between book-tax differences and earnings management.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a sample of 9,024 firm-year observations (913 firms) spanning the period 1992-2011, obtained from ExecuComp and Compustat. They estimate cross-sectional regressions of the proxy for tax planning, discretionary accruals and their interactions with equity-based compensation on book-tax differences.

Findings

The authors find that tax planning-related book-tax differences increase as the equity-based pay of executives does, and that earnings management-related book-tax differences decrease as the equity-based pay of executives increases. The results are robust across three alternative measures of tax planning.

Originality/value

Equity-based compensation plays an important role in managerial discretion on tax planning and earnings management. The findings suggest that, although equity incentives promote a high level of both tax planning and earnings management, they motivate managers to constrain the level of earnings management to avoid larger book-tax differences.

Details

Accounting Research Journal, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1030-9616

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2013

Der‐Fen Huang and Chao‐Lan Wang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between book‐tax differences and earnings quality for commercial banks in Taiwan. The paper focuses on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between book‐tax differences and earnings quality for commercial banks in Taiwan. The paper focuses on the banking industry because industry‐specific accrual models of accounting discretion in the loan loss provisions are available to develop powerful tests of earnings management related to book‐tax differences. In addition, the paper replicates the analysis of book‐tax differences that previous studies conducted on a heterogeneous sample of nonfinancial firms, to ascertain whether prior inferences also hold in the study's sample of banks in an emerging economy.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper estimates the magnitude of discretionary loan loss provisions as a proxy for earnings quality (positively correlated with earnings management; therefore, inversely correlated with earnings quality). Then, the study partitions the sample into three subsamples (large positive book‐tax differences, large negative book‐tax differences, and small book‐tax differences) to set the regression models.

Findings

This paper finds that bank‐years with large positive or negative temporary book‐tax differences have discretionary loan loss provisions that are greater than bank‐years with small temporary book‐tax differences. The paper also finds that bank‐years with large temporary book‐tax differences have one‐year‐ahead persistence of current earnings and accruals that are less than those with small temporary book‐tax differences. Additionally, the study does not find a significant relation between permanent book‐tax differences and earnings quality. Overall, the evidence is consistent with the supposition that large temporary book‐tax differences are associated with lower earnings quality.

Research limitations/implications

The study contributes to the literature on book‐tax differences and earnings quality in two ways. First, the paper provides evidence to ascertain prior inferences that the association between book‐tax differences and earnings quality also hold in the banking industry, it may generalize to the banking sector in other emerging countries. Second, the study utilizes a banking‐specific accrual model to construct more powerful tests of information in book‐tax differences for earnings quality. The study has an inherent limitation arising from small sample size of the banking industry in an emerging economy. Future tax accounting researchers should develop appropriate country‐specific measures of book‐tax differences.

Originality/value

The study focuses on the banking industry because industry‐specific accrual models of accounting discretion in the loan loss provisions are available to develop powerful tests of earnings management related to book‐tax differences. In addition, the study replicates the analysis of book‐tax differences that previous studies conducted on a heterogeneous sample of nonfinancial firms, to ascertain whether prior inferences also hold in the sample of banks in an emerging economy.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Rakia Riguen Koubaa and Anis Jarboui

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the direct and indirect links between book-tax differences (BTDs) and audit quality using accounting conservatism (proxy of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the direct and indirect links between book-tax differences (BTDs) and audit quality using accounting conservatism (proxy of earnings quality). Hence, this paper seeks to extend prior audit quality research.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a sample of Tunisian listed firms on the Tunis Stock Exchange and operating in the industrial and commercial sectors during 2005-2012. This investigation is motivated by structural equations system models that specify both a direct link and an indirect link that is mediated by information reflected in BTDs.

Findings

The results show that for the Tunisians companies, firms with large BTDs are associated with higher audit quality implies that such BTDs represent an observable proxy for earnings quality that affects auditor decisions. The authors find statistically an indirect link between abnormal BTDs and audit quality that is mediated by earnings quality. The current study also provides evidence that information reflected in BTDs can improve audit quality.

Practical implications

The findings may be of interest to the academic researchers, practitioners and regulators who are interested in discovering the informational value of BTDs in the audit process.

Originality/value

This paper extends the existing literature by examining the mediation effect of information reflected in BTDs on relationship between BTDs and audit quality.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2010

T.J. Atwood and Hong Xie

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the special items (SI) mispricing reported in Burgstahler et al. is distinct from the accruals (ACC) mispricing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the special items (SI) mispricing reported in Burgstahler et al. is distinct from the accruals (ACC) mispricing documented in Sloan.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper employs the control hedge‐portfolio test, non‐overlap hedge‐portfolio test, and regression analysis to determine whether the SI anomaly is distinct from the ACC anomaly. In addition, the Mishkin test is used to examine the impact of SI on the ACC anomaly.

Findings

This paper has four main findings. First, one‐year‐ahead abnormal returns to the special‐items‐based hedge portfolio are much diminished when holding ACC constant, whereas those to the ACC‐based hedge portfolio remain significantly positive when holding SI constant. Second, the special‐items‐based hedge portfolio loses much of its ability to earn future abnormal returns without the help of extreme ACC, whereas the ACC‐based hedge portfolio remains profitable without the help of extreme SI. Third, SI are no longer negatively associated with future abnormal returns after controlling for ACC, whereas ACC remain negatively associated with future abnormal returns after controlling for SI. Finally, SI affect the extent to which the market overprices ACC, with negative (positive) SI aggravating (alleviating) ACC overpricing.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to show that the SI anomaly is dependent on the ACC anomaly.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 15 November 2018

Savannah (Yuanyuan) Guo, Sabrina Chi and Kirsten A. Cook

This study examines short selling as one external determinant of corporate tax avoidance. Prior research suggests that short sellers have information advantages over…

Abstract

This study examines short selling as one external determinant of corporate tax avoidance. Prior research suggests that short sellers have information advantages over retail investors, and high short-interest levels are a bearish signal of targeted stock prices. As a result, when short-interest levels are high, managers have been shown to take actions to minimize the negative effect of high short interest on firms’ stock prices. Tax-avoidance activities may convey a signal of bad news (i.e., high stock price crash risk). We predict that, when short-interest levels are high, managers possess incentives to reduce firm tax avoidance in order to reduce the associated stock price crash risk. Consistent with this prediction, we find that short interest is negatively associated with subsequent tax-avoidance levels. This effect is incremental to other factors identified by prior research. We conclude that short selling significantly constrains corporate tax avoidance.

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Mingjun Zhou

This study aims to use research setting provided by the implementation of Financial Accounting Standards Board Interpretation 48 (FIN48) to help develop a further…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to use research setting provided by the implementation of Financial Accounting Standards Board Interpretation 48 (FIN48) to help develop a further understanding of large positive book–tax differences (LPBTD) and their relationship with earnings persistence. Extant literature indicates that the tax information provided in financial statements, such as large book–tax differences, is useful for detecting earnings management and signals less persistent future earnings. However, more information is needed about the causes of large book–tax differences and their abilities to signal the differences in earnings persistence (Blaylock et al., 2012).

Design/methodology/approach

In the first step, temporary book–tax differences are ranked by quintiles based on the approach in Hanlon’s (2005) study and the highest quintile in the sample observations are designated as large positive temporary book–tax differences (LPBTD). In the second step, differences in the persistence of earnings for high tax-planning firms as measured by UTB_NonETR are searched for. In further testing, an ordered logistic model and the Vuong (1989) test are applied to compare both the incremental and the relative ability of UTB_NonETR and Cash-ETR to explain the ranking order of temporary book–tax differences.

Findings

The negative relation between temporary differences and earnings persistence is moderated by the level of tax planning as measured by UTB_NonETRs. More specifically, the persistence of earnings appears to be higher for firm-years with large UTB_NonETRs. When comparing the relative power of UTB_NonETR with Cash-ETR, the results indicate that UTB_NonETR is incrementally useful for explaining the ranking orders of temporary book–tax differences. However, it appears that neither UTB_NonETR nor Cash-ETR is relatively more useful over another under the Vuong (1989) test.

Originality/value

First, the part of UTB, if recognized, that would not affect earnings (UTB_NonETR) is used as an empirical proxy and its usefulness is tested in the context of book–tax differences and the persistence of earnings. Second, new evidence is provided supporting the predictions, as in Ayers’ et al. (2010) and Blaylock et al.’s (2012) studies, that the level of tax planning will attenuate the negative association between large book–tax differences and earnings quality. Third, the findings can contribute to the post-implementation review of FIN48 (Financial Accounting Foundation, 2012) supporting the argument that FIN48 can provide decision-useful information for financial statement users.

Details

Review of Accounting and Finance, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-7702

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2009

Rohaya, Noor, Nor’Azam Mastuki and Barjoyai Bardai

This study investigates the gap between financial accounting income and taxable income (i.e. book‐tax difference) and the value relevance of corporate taxable income in…

Abstract

This study investigates the gap between financial accounting income and taxable income (i.e. book‐tax difference) and the value relevance of corporate taxable income in providing information on the quality of reported earnings for Malaysian listed firms during the tax years 2000 to 2004. The large gap between the financial accounting income and taxable income resulting from tax planning activities is reflected in firms’ effective tax rates (ETRs), a proxy for firms’ actual tax burdens. Thus, lower ETRs indicate high tax planning activities undertaken by the sample firms, and vice‐versa for firms with higher ETRs. This study uses a tax‐based earnings quality indicator, that is, the ratio of after‐tax taxable income to reported income (ATTI) to investigate the quality of corporate earnings. The study provides empirical evidence that firms report higher financial accounting income to shareholders and lower taxable income to tax authorities during the years 2000 to 2004. The significant and positive relation statistical results between firms’ after‐tax taxable income (ATTI) and market value of equity provided indicate the value relevance of taxable income as both an earnings quality indicator and a performance measure. Thus, the empirical results suggest investors appear to fully comprehend the quality‐related information in taxable income. This study concludes that first, tax planning activities contribute to a large gap between financial accounting income and taxable income; and second, taxable income contains useful information on the quality of reported earnings.

Details

Journal of Financial Reporting and Accounting, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1985-2517

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Article
Publication date: 28 May 2020

Astrid Rudyanto and Kashan Pirzada

The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating effect of sustainability reporting on the relationship between tax avoidance and firm value. This study also…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating effect of sustainability reporting on the relationship between tax avoidance and firm value. This study also examines the moderating effect of sustainability reporting in both environmentally sensitive firms and non-environmentally sensitive firms.

Design/methodology/approach

This research uses moderated panel regression with 596 observations and 734 observations for cash effective tax rate (ETR) and generally accepted accounting principles effective tax rate (GAAP ETR) of firms listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange between 2014 and 2016. Tax avoidance is measured by both cash ETR and GAAP ETR.

Findings

This paper shows that sustainability reporting moderates the relationship between tax avoidance (GAAP ETR) and firm value. The results show that GAAP ETR has a negative association with firm value in non-environmentally sensitive firms and a positive association with firm value in environmentally sensitive firms. Consequently, the sustainability report alters only the effect of GAAP ETR on firm value in non-environmentally sensitive firms. The results imply that, unlike environmentally sensitive firms, non-environmentally sensitive firms need sustainability reporting to reduce the reputational costs of tax avoidance.

Originality/value

How shareholders view tax avoidance remains unclear; research on this topic often fails to produce a uniform result. The present research fills this gap by using the existence of sustainability reporting as proof of companies’ ethical motivations to moderate the association of tax avoidance and firm value, which has not been discussed in previous research.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Abstract

I reexamine the conflicting results in Frank, Lynch, and Rego (2009) and Lennox, Lisowsky, and Pittman (2013). Frank et al. (2009) conclude that firms can manage book income upward and taxable income downward in the same period, implying a positive relation between aggressive book and tax reporting. Lennox et al. (2013) conclude the relation is negative and aggressive book reporting informs users that aggressive tax reporting is less likely. I identify four key differences in the research designs across the two studies, including measures of aggressive book reporting, measures of aggressive tax reporting, sample time periods, and empirical models. I systematically examine whether each of these differences is responsible for the conflicting results by altering the key difference while holding other factors as constant as possible. I find the relation between aggressive book and tax reporting is driven by the measure of aggressive book reporting, as the relation is positive for some subsets of firms and negative for others. Firms accused of financial statement fraud have a negative relation while nonfraud firms exhibit a positive relation. Using discretionary accruals, I also look for, but do not find a “pivot point” in the relation between aggressive book and tax reporting. I provide a better understanding of the relation between aggressive book and tax reporting by identifying research design choices that are responsible for prior results. I show that measures of both discretionary accruals and financial statement fraud are necessary to gain a more complete picture of the relation between aggressive book and tax reporting.

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2019

Tao Zeng

This paper aims to examine the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and tax avoidance as well as how CSR and country-level governance interplay in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and tax avoidance as well as how CSR and country-level governance interplay in affecting tax avoidance in an international setting.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is an empirical work using listed companies from 35 countries and relying on several proxies for corporate tax avoidance activities including the difference between the statutory tax rate and the annual effective tax rate, the book-tax difference and the residual book-tax difference.

Findings

This study finds strong evidence that CSR is positively related to tax avoidance. It also finds that in countries with weak country-level governance, firms with higher CSR scores engage in less tax avoidance, implying that CSR and country-level governance are substitutes.

Originality/value

This paper is the first study that examines the relationship between CSR and tax avoidance in an international setting with different legal and institutional environment.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

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