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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2016

Bill Dimovski, Luisa Lombardi, Christopher Ratcliffe and Barry John Cooper

There is a large literature advocating the importance of a greater proportion of women directors on boards of publicly listed firms. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

There is a large literature advocating the importance of a greater proportion of women directors on boards of publicly listed firms. The purpose of this paper is to examine the numbers and proportions of women directors, including women executive directors, on listed Australian Real Estate Management and Development (REMD) companies to identify how prevalent women directors are on such boards.

Design/methodology/approach

The study examines the numbers and proportions of women directors for 35 REMDs in 2011 and compares this to the broad board composition data on 1,715 Australian Stock Exchange listed entities. Statistically significant findings are evident due to the identified low proportions.

Findings

The study finds that of all the Financials Sub Industry sector groups, REMDs have the lowest proportion of female directors on theirs boards – eight women on each of 35 company boards compared to 159 men on these 35 boards at 2011. Of the eight, there were only two women executive directors on boards compared to 50 men. Statistically, it appears that having women directors on REMD boards is not considered important. Even at December 2014, there are only ten women on seven company boards and only one remaining executive director of an REMD company.

Practical implications

Given that female board representation is positively related to accounting returns and that there is a growing voice for legislation to impose mandatory proportions of women directors on boards around the world, it may be in the interests of REMD boards to consider appointing more women more quickly.

Originality/value

The study is the first to examine the numbers and proportions of women directors amongst REMD companies to identify the paucity of such women directors.

Details

Property Management, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 22 May 2007

Graham Beaver, Adrian Davies and Paul Joyce

This paper critically reviews the role and function of the corporate board and finds that boards of directors that have a leadership role in corporate strategic planning…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper critically reviews the role and function of the corporate board and finds that boards of directors that have a leadership role in corporate strategic planning go beyond merely caring for shareholder interests and take a proactive role in the success of the business. They do this by setting the strategic direction and evaluating company performance.Findings

However, the cultural and organisational conditions for the development of leadership boards are not well understood. The roles of executive and non‐executive directors need to be clearly defined in order that such boards can be effective and assert control over strategy and performance. Executive directors can only be effective when they clearly differentiate their role of providing direction from their daily role of working with managers in the company.Research limitations/implications

Recent research has begun to push back the ignorance surrounding the development of leadership boards. This is examined in order to define the barriers standing in the way of more empowered directors. It is then used to identify the actions and approaches that can be used by directors to develop their involvement in and influence over, corporate strategic planning.Originality/valueThe paper contains a critical discussion of boards that places the issue in their contemporary policy context. This leads to the conclusion that the organisation of partnership between board and management is important and that business success increasingly rests on openness and trust supported by creative and challenging dialogue. Practical suggestions for the revision of company law are provided.

Details

Business Strategy Series, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-5637

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1994

Ronald J. Burke

Highlights the historical set‐up of Canadian boards of directors, whyand how women were first appointed to corporate boards. Examines factorsrelated to women serving on…

Abstract

Highlights the historical set‐up of Canadian boards of directors, why and how women were first appointed to corporate boards. Examines factors related to women serving on corporate boards, detailing advantages and barriers to the appointments. Reports on a survey of Canadian Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) which considers factors related to the appointment of women to corporate boards. Results indicated the CEOs′ opinions on, for example, how important a variety of qualifications is to the appointment of female directors; the women with difficulties in finding women with these qualifications; preferred candidate profiles; issues which would benefit from a female perspective; effects of women on boards and companies; and the question of why there are not more women directors. Finally, with the survey as a background, looks at why there are so few women on the boards of directors of Canadian private sector organizations; and the future prospects of women as board members.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2002

Richard A. Bernardi, David F. Bean and Kristen M. Weippert

This research examines the differences in presentation of boards of directors in annual reports. Our sample consists of 472 corporations from the Fortune 500; 130 (342) of

Abstract

This research examines the differences in presentation of boards of directors in annual reports. Our sample consists of 472 corporations from the Fortune 500; 130 (342) of these corporations included (did not include) pictures of their boards of directors. The proportion of female directors was 11.0 percent for firms that did not include pictures of their boards and 14.5 percent for firms that included pictures of their boards in their annual reports. The difference in the gender mix of these two groups is significant (p = 0.0002). This indicates that firms with a higher percentage of women on their boards signal this fact to stockholders, investors, and other constituents by including pictures of their boards in their annual reports.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2016

John Nowland

This article provides a brief overview of the literature on board of director performance, highlighting the difficulties in attempting to directly measure the performance…

Abstract

This article provides a brief overview of the literature on board of director performance, highlighting the difficulties in attempting to directly measure the performance of boards of directors and how various studies have tackled this challenge. As an illustration, I show that two current measures of board of director performance, board meeting activity and director attendance, suggest that the boards of Asian firms do not compare favorably to the boards of firms from developed markets. Suggestions for future research on the performance of corporate boards are provided, as well as implications for board of director practices in Asia.

Details

Asian Journal of Accounting Research, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2459-9700

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Book part
Publication date: 26 June 2013

Yee-Ching Lilian Chan

This study looks at board governance in Ontario hospitals.

Abstract

Purpose

This study looks at board governance in Ontario hospitals.

Methodology/approach

We conducted a research of the hospitals’ websites and a survey of board directors to study the board structure and examine governance practice in Ontario hospitals.

Findings

The findings suggest that the board structure and process in Ontario hospitals are in compliance with Accreditation Canada’s Governance Standards, and such administrative controls are appropriate. Ontario hospital boards, in general, have fulfilled their key functions of governance in terms of working as an effective board; developing a clear direction; supporting the organization to achieve its mandate; maintaining positive relationships with external stakeholders; and being accountable and achieving sustainable results. Building knowledge through information is an area where improvement is needed.

Research implications

Ontario hospitals have implemented appropriate administrative controls in terms of board composition and committee structure. The results of a survey of 99 board directors from over 25 hospitals suggest that directors, in general, have a good understanding of their governance role and relationship with senior management as well as the government. The findings are also supportive of good governance practice where executives manage and nonexecutive directors monitor the performance of the executives. According to the respondents, Ontario’s hospital boards are actively involved in setting the mission, strategic goals and objectives of their organizations, and they take appropriate steps to ensure that risk management, client safety, and quality improvements are incorporated in their governance and strategic planning process. In order to discharge their fiduciary duty effectively, respondents would like to have more information from different sources. This is an area where management accounting professionals can become involved such that relevant information from a variety of sources, especially external sources, are provided to board directors for decision making.

Practical implications

Ontario’s hospital sector has undertaken initiatives through research and publications to promote good governance practice. Such leadership is critical to ensure that directors have the competence and skills to discharge their duties and responsibilities diligently. Hospital boards should focus on renewal while ensuring that board directors are equipped for the challenging task of governing through professional development and continuing education.

Limitations and future research

Limitations related to the use of questionnaire applies to this research study. Self-selection bias and low response rate limit the generalizability of the findings. Future research can examine the behavior of directors in the boardroom and the impact of governance variables on hospital performance, such as quality of care and patient safety.

Details

Advances in Management Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-842-6

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Book part
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Donnalyn Pompper, Tugce Ertem Eray, Eric Kwame Adae, Elinam Amevor, Layire Diop and Samantha Nadel

We enjoin stakeholder theory, radical-cultural feminist theory, and critical race theory with critical intersectionality to critique findings which suggest that there…

Abstract

We enjoin stakeholder theory, radical-cultural feminist theory, and critical race theory with critical intersectionality to critique findings which suggest that there still are significantly more men than women on nearly every Fortune 500 board of directors, with only six corporations featuring (50-50%) gender equity in 2017. Also, only 4.1% board members are women of color and 9% are men of color. Sixty-five people of color on corporate boards serve on more than one board. This means there are even fewer people of color filling top corporate leadership positions than meets the eye. The proposed alternative course of action is for boards of directors to follow the example of the small handful of peer Fortune 500 corporations that have achieved greater levels of board diversity, equity, and inclusion.

Details

Public Relations for Social Responsibility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-168-3

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Book part
Publication date: 25 October 2017

Ron Sanchez, Jeremy Galbreath and Gavin Nicholson

In this paper we develop a model for researching the influence that a board of directors can have on improving an organization’s sustainability performance. Our model…

Abstract

In this paper we develop a model for researching the influence that a board of directors can have on improving an organization’s sustainability performance. Our model explores sources of cognitive flexibility of boards needed to recognize and respond to the need for improved sustainability performance. We first define concepts of sustainability, sustainability competence, and sustainability performance. We then analyze two forms of board capital (a board’s human capital and its social capital) and three aspects of a board’s information processing (its patterns of information search, discussion and debate, and information absorption) that we suggest affect a board’s cognitive flexibility and thereby influence whether a board decides to adopt sustainability performance goals. Our model also suggests that an organization’s strategic flexibility – as represented by its current endowments of resource flexibilities and coordination flexibilities – will moderate the relationship between a board’s decision to adopt sustainability performance goals and an organization’s subsequent achievement of those goals. We also suggest that our model is generally relevant to any research seeking to predict the influence of boards on strategic change in many forms, not just to research focused on sustainability issues.

Details

Mid-Range Management Theory: Competence Perspectives on Modularity and Dynamic Capabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-404-0

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2020

Habib Jouber

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of board diversity on corporate social responsibility (CSR). The aim is twofold; does board diversity has any effect…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of board diversity on corporate social responsibility (CSR). The aim is twofold; does board diversity has any effect on CSR, do structural and demographic differences between one-tier and two-tier board models may impact this effect?

Design/methodology/approach

This paper applies a panel generalized method of moments estimator to a sample of 2,544 non-financial listed firms from 42 countries over the period of 2013–2017.

Findings

The findings reveal that board diversity leads to effective CSR. By distinguishing between diversity among boards from diversity within boards, the results display the effects of the specific variables that make up the manner and latter’s constructs within unitary and two-tier board structures. Specifically, this paper reveals that tenure, ideology and educational level (gender and nationality) predominantly appear to drive a firm’s CSR within one (two)-tier boards settings. These results remain consistent when robustness tests are ruled.

Practical implications

The study provides managers, investors and policymakers with knowledge about how among and within board diversity attributes favor the decision-making process around CSR. The evidence is useful for companies in setting the criteria to identify directors who can support their strategic decisions. It benefits, moreover, academics in better understanding firms’ CSR determinants and practices under different corporate board models.

Social implications

Examining how different sets of board diversity affect firms’ CSR given divergences between one-tier and two-tier board structure is a useful and informative endeavor for all community actors.

Originality/value

Unlike prior studies that identify the limited scope of diversity, the study is the first to examine the effect of broader dimensions of board diversity on CSR under both one-tier and two-tier board settings. This paper provides a contribution to a greater understanding of the impacts underlying board models and different attributes of board diversity on CSR. This new understanding will help to improve predictions of different features of board diversity impacts on decision-making processes around organizational outcomes.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2020

M. Camino Ramon-Llorens, Emma Garcia-Meca and María Consuelo Pucheta-Martínez

This paper aims to analyze the role of female directors on CSR disclosure. It assumes the existence of faultlines when studying gender diversity and classifies female…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the role of female directors on CSR disclosure. It assumes the existence of faultlines when studying gender diversity and classifies female directors into three categories: industry experts, advisors and community leaders. It also examines the influence of the power of female directors as a moderator on the association between female director categories and CSR disclosure.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper bases on a dynamic generalized method of moments panel estimator which allows controlling for the unobservable heterogeneity and endogeneity and reduces the estimation bias.

Findings

Results confirm the double-sided nature of gender diversity, noting different behavior among female directors according to their experience and backgrounds. Moreover, the dominating owner position of female directors can balance and moderate the effect of female directors appointed for their technical knowledge or political and social ties. The results also confirm the necessity to not consider all women directors as a homogeneous group and explore the influence and interrelations of female faultlines on CSR disclosure.

Practical implications

The paper highlights the need to consider the specific skills, expertise, and connections of female board members when analyzing the effect of board composition, and supports the view that firms should emphasize the unique human and social capital of directors to understand how boards impact on firm strategies. Specifically, the authors support the recommendations of the European Commission (2011) regarding the need to increase skills and expertise when selecting new non-executive female board members.

Social implications

At a time when most governments are introducing active policies that require firms to nominate women to boards, the understanding of the consequences of women’s presence on boards and the interrelations between female power and the diverse categories of female directors is timely and important.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper that provides empirical evidence to the scarcely studied area of the human and social capital of female directors’ roles in CSR disclosure, providing an alternative view of the role of women in corporate board effectiveness.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

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