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Article
Publication date: 3 December 2021

Muhammad Kamran, Pakeezah Butt, Assim Abdel-Razzaq and Hadrian Geri Djajadikerta

This study aims to address the timely question of whether Bitcoin exhibited a safe haven property against the major Australian stock indices during the first and second…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to address the timely question of whether Bitcoin exhibited a safe haven property against the major Australian stock indices during the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia and whether such property is similar or different in one year time from the first wave of the COVID-19.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used the bivariate Dynamic Conditional Correlation, Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity model, on the five-day returns of Bitcoin and Australian stock indices for the sample period between 23 April, 2011 and 19 April, 2021.

Findings

The results show that Bitcoin offered weak safe haven and hedging benefits when combined in a portfolio with S&P/ASX 200 Financials index, S&P/ASX 200 Banks index or S&P/ASX 300 Banks index. In regard to the S&P/ASX All Ordinaries Gold index, the authors found Bitcoin a risky candidate with inconsistent safe haven and hedging benefits. Against S&P/ASX 50 index, S&P/ASX 200 index and S&P/ASX 300 index, Bitcoin was nothing more than a diversifier. The outset of the second COVID-19 wave, which was comparatively more severe than the first, is also reflected in the results with considerably higher correlations.

Originality/value

There is a lack of in-depth empirical evidence on the safe haven capabilities of Bitcoins for various Australian stock indices during the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. The study bridges this void in research.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2021

Mahdi Ghaemi Asl, Muhammad Mahdi Rashidi and Seyed Ali Hosseini Ebrahim Abad

The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation between the price return of leading cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Litecoin, Monero…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation between the price return of leading cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Litecoin, Monero, Stellar, Peercoin and Dash, and stock return of technology companies' indices that mainly operate on the blockchain platform and provide financial services, including alternative finance, democratized banking, future payments and digital communities.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs a Bayesian asymmetric dynamic conditional correlation multivariate Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH) (BADCC-MGARCH) model with skewness and heavy tails on daily sample ranging from August 11, 2015, to February 10, 2020, to investigate the dynamic correlation between price return of several cryptocurrencies and stock return of the technology companies' indices that mainly operate on the blockchain platform. Data are collected from multiple sources. For parameter estimation and model comparison, the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is employed. Besides, based on the expected Akaike information criterion (EAIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), deviance information criterion (DIC) and weighted Deviance Information Criterion (wDIC), the skewed-multivariate Generalized Error Distribution (mvGED) is selected as an optimal distribution for errors. Finally, some other tests are carried out to check the robustness of the results.

Findings

The study results indicate that blockchain-based technology companies' indices' return and price return of cryptocurrencies are positively correlated for most of the sampling period. Besides, the return price of newly invented and more advanced cryptocurrencies with unique characteristics, including Monero, Ripple, Dash, Stellar and Peercoin, positively correlates with the return of stock indices of blockchain-based technology companies for more than 93% of sampling days. The results are also robust to various sensitivity analyses.

Research limitations/implications

The positive correlation between the price return of cryptocurrencies and the return of stock indices of blockchain-based technology companies can be due to the investors' sentiments toward blockchain technology as both cryptocurrencies and these companies are based on blockchain technology. It could also be due to the applicability of cryptocurrencies for these companies, as the price return of more advanced and capable cryptocurrencies with unique features has a positive correlation with the return of stock indices of blockchain-based technology companies for more days compared to the other cryptocurrencies, like Bitcoin, Litecoin and Ethereum, that may be regarded more as speculative assets.

Practical implications

The study results may show the positive role of cryptocurrencies in improving and developing technology companies that mainly operate on the blockchain platform and provide financial services and vice versa, suggesting that managers and regulators should pay more attention to the usefulness of cryptocurrencies and blockchains. This study also has important risk management and diversification implications for investors and companies investing in cryptocurrencies and these companies' stock. Besides, blockchain-based technology companies can add cryptocurrencies to their portfolio as hedgers or diversifiers based on their strategy.

Originality/value

This is the first study analyzing the connection between leading cryptocurrencies and technology companies that mainly operate on the blockchain platform and provide financial services by employing the Bayesian ssymmetric DCC-MGARCH model. The results also have important implications for investors, companies, regulators and researchers for future studies.

Details

Journal of Enterprise Information Management, vol. 34 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0398

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Yosuke Kakinuma

This study aims to provide empirical evidence on the return and volatility spillover effects between Southeast Asian stock markets, bitcoin and gold in the periods before…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide empirical evidence on the return and volatility spillover effects between Southeast Asian stock markets, bitcoin and gold in the periods before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. The interdependence among different asset classes, the two leading stock markets in Southeast Asia (Singapore and Thailand), bitcoin and gold, is analyzed for diversification opportunities.

Design/methodology/approach

The vector autoregressive-Baba, Engle, Kraft, and Kroner-generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity model is used to capture the return and volatility spillover effects between different financial assets. The data cover the period from October 2013 to May 2021. The full period is divided into two sub-sample periods, the pre-pandemic period and the during-pandemic period, to examine whether the financial turbulence caused by COVID-19 affects the interconnectedness between the assets.

Findings

The stocks in Southeast Asia, bitcoin and gold become more interdependent during the pandemic. During turbulent times, the contagion effect is inevitable regardless of region and asset class. Furthermore, bitcoin does not provide protection for investors in Southeast Asia. The pricing mechanism and technology behind bitcoin are different from common stocks, yet the results indicate the co-movement of bitcoin and the Singaporean and Thai stocks during the crisis. Finally, risk-averse investors should ensure that gold constitutes a significant proportion of their portfolio, approximately 40%–55%. This strategy provides the most effective hedge against risk.

Originality/value

The mean return and volatility spillover is analyzed between bitcoin, gold and two preeminent stock markets in Southeast Asia. Most prior studies test the spillover effect between the same asset classes such as equities in different regions or different commodities, currencies and cryptocurrencies. Moreover, the time-series data are divided into two groups based on the structural break caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings of this study offer practical implications for risk management and portfolio diversification. Diversification opportunities are becoming scarce as different financial assets witness increasing integration.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2021

Slah Bahloul, Mourad Mroua, Nader Naifar and nader naifar

This paper aims to investigate whether Islamic indexes, Bitcoin and gold still act as hedges or/and “safe-haven” assets during the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate whether Islamic indexes, Bitcoin and gold still act as hedges or/and “safe-haven” assets during the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. This paper examines the role of the Morgan Stanley Capital International all-country world index, Islamic index, gold and Bitcoin as a hedge or safe-haven asset for the world conventional stock market over the period from April 30, 2015 to March 27, 2020.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors re-evaluate the hedge and safe haven properties of Islamic indexes, gold and Bitcoin following Baur and Lucey’s (2010) and Baur and McDermott’s (2010) methodology.

Findings

Empirical results show that the Islamic index is not a hedge or a safe haven asset for the world conventional stock market during the recent coronavirus crisis period. Different from the whole period, the authors find that gold is a strong hedge but only a weak safe or is not a safe haven during the coronavirus sub-period. Bitcoin reports distinctive properties, as it acts as a weak hedge and not a safe-haven asset.

Originality/value

This paper is the first study that investigates whether the global Islamic index still acts as hedges or “safe-haven” assets during the new COVID-19 crisis period. The results can help investors make informed decisions when adding cryptocurrencies and Islamic indexes to their portfolios during the coronavirus crisis.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2021

Daniel Modenesi de Andrade, Fernando Barros Jr, Fabio Yoshio Motoki and Matheus Oliveira da Silva

This paper aims to study the dynamics of bitcoin prices in Brazil, a large emerging economy with an unregulated bitcoin market.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the dynamics of bitcoin prices in Brazil, a large emerging economy with an unregulated bitcoin market.

Design/methodology/approach

First, this study tests if the Law of One Price (LOOP) is valid for bitcoin prices in Brazil, conducting tests with data from three Brazilian exchanges. Next, this study documents bitcoin price dynamics in the short run by studying the price discovery mechanism in these exchanges. This study uses Information Share and Component Share, combining the two measures to obtain an Information Leadership Share (ILS) measure.

Findings

This study finds a common trend within bitcoin prices among a set of exchanges, with cointegration tests between the price series indicating that LOOP is valid in Brazilian markets in the long run. ILS indicated that, for closing prices, the most liquid exchange (Foxbit) leads discovery, whereas the least liquid (Local Bitcoin) lags, with Mercado Bitcoin in the middle both in terms of discovery and liquidity. Finally, this study provides evidence that the price variation in the market that leads price discovery can be used to construct an arbitrage in another exchange.

Originality/value

This research brings the first evidence of a price discovery mechanism for exchanges in Brazilian Reais. Although LOOP is valid in the long run, price leadership in bitcoin markets potentially create arbitrage opportunities in the short run. This study contributes to the growing literature of bitcoin prices with novel evidence from a large emerging economy.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Thibaut Morillon

Professionals and academics alike hold polarized opinions about Bitcoin’s purpose and its fundamental value. This paper aims to describe Bitcoin’s unique features that…

Abstract

Purpose

Professionals and academics alike hold polarized opinions about Bitcoin’s purpose and its fundamental value. This paper aims to describe Bitcoin’s unique features that make it such an intriguing asset and proposes a new way to consider Bitcoin and its underlying value.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper the author discusses Bitcoin’s defining features that make it a unique asset. The author argues that Bitcoin should not be considered as a single purpose asset only, but rather as a new digital financial asset serving several functions, at least partially. The author discusses the role of Bitcoin in the traditional financial system, contrasts Bitcoin to gold, considers the implications of the continuance of expansionary policies on Bitcoin and discusses the impact of the emergence of cryptocurrencies as a new asset class on public policies.

Findings

In addition to functioning as a means of payment (at least partially) and a diversification tool, part of Bitcoin’s value proposition stems from its worth as a short position on modern expansionary monetary policies. Indeed, Bitcoin’s value should rise if expansionary monetary policies are maintained, amounting to a tool to short these policies, which should be considered in future attempts to value Bitcoin.

Originality/value

The author adds a new layer to the ongoing thought process by arguing of a function played by Bitcoin unaccounted for thus far by the literature. Additionally, the author describes the features and mechanisms, allowing Bitcoin to play that role.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

Ngo Thai Hung

This study examines the inter-linkages between Bitcoin prices and CEE stock markets (Hungary, the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania and Croatia).

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the inter-linkages between Bitcoin prices and CEE stock markets (Hungary, the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania and Croatia).

Design/methodology/approach

The dynamic contemporaneous nexus has been analyzed using both the multivariate DECO-GARCH model proposed by Engle and Kelly (2012) and quantile on quantile (QQ) methodology proposed by Sim and Zhou (2015). Our study is implemented using the daily data spanning from 6 September 2012 to 12 August 2019.

Findings

First, the findings show that the average return equicorrelation across Bitcoin prices and CEE stock indices are positive, even though it is found to be time-varying over the research period shown. Second, the Bitcoin-CEE stock market association has positive signs for most pairs of quantiles of both variables and represents a rather similar pattern for the cases of Poland, the Czech Republic and Croatia. However, a weaker and primarily negative connectedness is found for Hungary and Romania, respectively. Furthermore, the interconnectedness between the co-movements in the Bitcoin market and stock returns changes significantly across quantiles of both variables within each nation, indicating that the Bitcoin-stock market relationship is dependent on both the cycle of the stock market and the nature of Bitcoin price shocks.

Practical implications

The evidence documented in this study has significant implications for divergent economic agents, including global investors, risk managers and policymakers, who would benefit from a comprehensive knowledge of the Bitcoin-stock market relationship to build efficient risk-hedging models and to conduct appropriate policy reactions to information spillover effects in different time horizons.

Originality/value

This paper is the first study employing both the multivariate DECO-GARCH model and QQ methodology to shed light on the nexus between Bitcoin prices and the stock markets in CEE countries. The DECO model uses more information to compute dynamic correlations between each pair of returns than standard dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) models, declining the estimation noise of the correlations. Besides, QQ approach allows us to capture some nuanced features of the Bitcoin-stock market relationship and explore the interdependence in its entirely. Therefore, the main contribution of this article to the related literature in this field is significant.

研究目的

本研究旨在探討比特幣的價格與中東歐股市(匈牙利、捷克共和國、波蘭、羅馬尼亞和克羅地亞) 之相互聯繫.

研究設計/方法/理念

研究使用恩格爾與凱利(2012)(Engle and Kelly (2012)) 提出的多變量DECO-GARCH模型及Sim 與Zhou(2015)(Sim and Zhou ( 2015)) 研製的分位數-分位數方法來分析動態同期的聯繫。我們的研究使用由2012年9月6日至2019年8月12日期間取得的每日數據來進行.

研究結果

首先、研究結果顯示、跨比特幣價格與中東歐股價指數的平均回報當量關聯是正相關的,即使在研究期間被發現是隨時間而變化的。第二、比特幣與中東歐股市之聯繫在大多數兩變數分位數對而言出現正相關跡象,而且,這聯繫在波蘭、捷克共和國及克羅地亞而言表現一個頗相似的模式。唯就匈牙利而言、這聯繫則較弱、而羅馬尼亞則主要是負聯繫。研究結果亦顯示: 比特幣市場內的聯動與股票回報間之內在關聯會在每個國家內跨兩個變數的分位數而顯著地改變,這顯示比特幣-股市關係是取決於股市的週期和比特幣價格衝擊的本質.

實際的意義

本研究所記載的證據、對不同的經濟行為者而言極具意義 (這包括國際投資者、風險管理經理和政策制定者),因他們會受惠於對比特幣-股市關係的全面認識,他們可建立有效的風險對沖模型、及在不同時間範圍對資訊溢出效應進行適當的政策反應.

研究的原創性/價值

本文為首個研究使用多變量DECO-GARCH模型和分位數-分位數(QQ)方法、來解釋比特幣價格與中東歐國家之股市的關係。這DECO模型使用比標準動態條件關係模型更多資訊,來計算每對回報間之動態關係,這能減少估測雜訊,而且,QQ方法讓我們可以取得比特幣-股市關係的一些細微特徵及全面地探索其相互依賴性。因此,本文的主要貢獻是在這學術領域內有關的文獻上.

Details

European Journal of Management and Business Economics, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2444-8451

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Book part
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Miguel R. Olivas-Lujan

Blockchains, also known as “distributed ledger technologies” (DLT) are perhaps the emerging innovation that, in the years leading up to and including 2019, is raising the…

Abstract

Blockchains, also known as “distributed ledger technologies” (DLT) are perhaps the emerging innovation that, in the years leading up to and including 2019, is raising the highest expectations for HRM in the 4.0 business environment. In essence, a blockchain is a very specific type of database, with characteristics that made it the ideal application for cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. Within the context of digital- or e-HRM, there is potential to improve human resource management (HRM) processes using blockchains for employment screening, credential and educational verification, worker contracts and payments, among others, notwithstanding questions about its efficiency vis-à-vis conventional alternatives (Maurer, 2018; Zielinski, 2018). The research questions examined in this chapter include the following: What are the main characteristics of blockchains? Will they be adopted in a widespread form, specifically by HRM departments? Constructs from Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) theory (Rogers, 2003) are used to inform the Human Resources scholarly and practitioner communities; this robust theory may help companies allocate resources (e.g., budgets, personnel, managerial time, etc.) in an evidence-informed manner. As of this writing, very few blockchain applications, such as credential verification and incident reporting, seem to hold a strong potential for adoption.

Details

HRM 4.0 For Human-Centered Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-535-2

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Book part
Publication date: 21 October 2019

Miriam Sosa, Edgar Ortiz and Alejandra Cabello

One important characteristic of cryptocurrencies has been their high and erratic volatility. To represent this complicated behavior, recent studies have emphasized the use…

Abstract

One important characteristic of cryptocurrencies has been their high and erratic volatility. To represent this complicated behavior, recent studies have emphasized the use of autoregressive models frequently concluding that generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) models are the most adequate to overcome the limitations of conventional standard deviation estimates. Some studies have expanded this approach including jumps into the modeling. Following this line of research, and extending previous research, our study analyzes the volatility of Bitcoin employing and comparing some symmetric and asymmetric GARCH model extensions (threshold ARCH (TARCH), exponential GARCH (EGARCH), asymmetric power ARCH (APARCH), component GARCH (CGARCH), and asymmetric component GARCH (ACGARCH)), under two distributions (normal and generalized error). Additionally, because linear GARCH models can produce biased results if the series exhibit structural changes, once the conditional volatility has been modeled, we identify the best fitting GARCH model applying a Markov switching model to test whether Bitcoin volatility evolves according to two different regimes: high volatility and low volatility. The period of study includes daily series from July 16, 2010 (the earliest date available) to January 24, 2019. Findings reveal that EGARCH model under generalized error distribution provides the best fit to model Bitcoin conditional volatility. According to the Markov switching autoregressive (MS-AR) Bitcoin’s conditional volatility displays two regimes: high volatility and low volatility.

Details

Disruptive Innovation in Business and Finance in the Digital World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-381-5

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Book part
Publication date: 10 June 2019

Mina Richards

Blockchain is creating many opportunities for business as it is transforming the way sustaining technologies operate in organizations. In blockchain, transactions are…

Abstract

Blockchain is creating many opportunities for business as it is transforming the way sustaining technologies operate in organizations. In blockchain, transactions are recorded as digital blocks and contain immutable properties to preserve data validation, encryption, and algorithms. The goal is to provide uniqueness and resistant to fraud. For example, digital currencies use a shared network to permanently record transactions but operate in decentralized mode to secure independence among participants. The potential applications of blockchain are unlimited and proliferating although several initiatives are still in development. Many industries are already capitalizing on experimental blockchain projects. Leaders in those industries are partnering with R&D and start-up companies to determine opportunities. Also, research universities have dedicated labs to focus on new theoretical concepts or improvements that can be leveraged in healthcare, global rights management, and decentralized publishing to name a few. Blockchain is called as “trustless system” because it can disrupt entire industries. This chapter explores the blockchain origins and its underlying technologies to understand concepts and become familiar with the latest development. A crypto-digital currency like Bitcoin will be introduced in some detail to bring awareness to the benefits, risks, and ethical concerns. A discussion on regulations will be included to investigate how government policy affects cryptocurrencies and related security. In the interest of blockchain inspired projects, the chapter will also introduce a broader discussion on new ventures adopting blockchain attributes and the trends of gradual technology implementation among early adapters.

Details

Advances in the Technology of Managing People: Contemporary Issues in Business
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-074-6

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