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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2011

Shun‐wing Ng

The purpose of this article is to report an exploratory study which was designed to illuminate how school cultures and teachers' value orientations are affected by the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to report an exploratory study which was designed to illuminate how school cultures and teachers' value orientations are affected by the educational change of parental involvement.

Design/methodology/approach

The qualitative research that informs this paper is conceptualized within the interpretive paradigm. Two schools were selected purposefully for the study. In‐depth interviews with 12 teachers and their principal were conducted in each school where observation took place for half a year. Eventually themes and dimensions of teachers' value demarcations emerged in times of change.

Findings

The study demonstrates that three balkanized factions of teachers were wrestling at school. The first balkanized teacher group welcomed the innovation of parental involvement. The second faction of teachers who disbelieved such innovation was found diffident and conservative, and demonstrated resistance to change. The third type of teachers was of a majority who might or might not take part in implementing change. However, once incentives were imposed from the management, they would probably be assimilated.

Research limitations/implications

The study aims at illuminating teachers' responses to change. It does not attempt to make generalization.

Originality/value

The study reveals that managing teacher balkanization in times of change, school leaders' personal beliefs and their early intervention, are of paramount importance.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1996

Lawrence A. Bennigson

Balkanization.” The word suggests endless conflict over boundaries, beliefs, and events rooted in history; heart‐wrenching human tragedy; and geopolitical initiatives…

Abstract

Balkanization.” The word suggests endless conflict over boundaries, beliefs, and events rooted in history; heart‐wrenching human tragedy; and geopolitical initiatives aimed at compromise. What makes this phenomenon relevant to the world of strategic leadership?

Details

Planning Review, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0094-064X

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Book part
Publication date: 6 October 2017

Lance Brennan, Les Heathcote and Anton Lucas

This paper attempts to understand how the interaction of natural disasters and human behaviour during wartime led to famines in three regions under imperial control around…

Abstract

This paper attempts to understand how the interaction of natural disasters and human behaviour during wartime led to famines in three regions under imperial control around the Indian Ocean. The socio-economic structure of these regions had been increasingly differentiated over the period of imperial rule, with large proportions of their populations relying on agricultural labour for their subsistence.

Before the war, food crises in each of the regions had been met by the private importation of grain from national or overseas surplus regions: the grain had been made available through a range of systems, the most complex of which was the Bengal Famine Code in which the able-bodied had to work before receiving money to buy food in the market.

During the Second World War, the loss of control of normal sources of imported grain, the destruction of shipping in the Indian Ocean (by both sides) and the military demands on internal transport systems prevented the use of traditional famine responses when natural events affected grain supply in each of the regions. These circumstances drew the governments into attempts to control their own grain markets.

The food crises raised complex ethical and practical issues for the governments charged with their solution. The most significant of these was that the British Government could have attempted to ship wheat to Bengal but, having lost naval control of the Indian Ocean in 1942 and needing warships in the Atlantic and Mediterranean in 1943 chose to ignore the needs of the people of Bengal, focussing instead on winning the war.

In each of the regions governments allowed/encouraged the balkanisation of the grain supply – at times down to the sub-district level – which at times served to produce waste and corruption, and opened the way for black markets as various groups (inside and outside government ranks) manipulated the local supply.

People were affected in different ways by the changes brought about by the war: some benefitted if their role was important to the war-effort; others suffered. The effect of this was multiplied by the way each government ‘solved’ its financial problems by – in essence – printing money.

Because of the natural events of the period, there would have been food crises in these regions without World War II, but decisions made in the light of wartime exigencies and opportunities turned crises into famines, causing the loss of millions of lives.

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 15 June 2021

This intervention is an inevitable consequence of the maturing of the digital economy and the fact that countries have different regulatory preferences. China was the…

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Book part
Publication date: 23 October 2003

Lynn Weber and Deborah Parra-Medina

Scholars and activists working both within and outside the massive health-related machinery of government and the private sector and within and outside communities of…

Abstract

Scholars and activists working both within and outside the massive health-related machinery of government and the private sector and within and outside communities of color address the same fundamental questions: Why do health disparities exist? Why have they persisted over such a long time? What can be done to significantly reduce or eliminate them?

Details

Gender Perspectives on Health and Medicine
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-239-9

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2004

Tarry Hum

New York City’s status as a majority “minority” city is reflected in many local neighborhoods that exemplify the racial and ethnic diversity of the urban landscape in the…

Abstract

New York City’s status as a majority “minority” city is reflected in many local neighborhoods that exemplify the racial and ethnic diversity of the urban landscape in the 21st century. In this quintessential immigrant city, the relative share of foreign-born has reached levels not seen since the historic immigrant wave at the turn of the last century (Foner, 2000; Scott, 2002). While “all the nations under heaven” are represented among old and new New Yorkers, researchers find that patterns of residential segregation persist and in fact, have worsened especially for African Americans (Beveridge, 2001; Logan, 2001). The racial balkanization of New York City, however, is tempered by the expansion of “polyethnic” or “global” neighborhoods. These racially and ethnically diverse neighborhoods are found throughout New York City but their concentration in the borough of Queens is notable. Moreover, the magnitude of ethnic diversity in these neighborhoods has “no parallel in previous waves of immigration” (Foner, 2000, p. 58).

Details

Race and Ethnicity in New York City
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-149-1

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Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

Christopher Bond and Darren J. O'Byrne

This paper, which is conceptual in both nature and approach, builds on a recent contribution to the theorization of “globalization” and seeks to utilise the framework…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper, which is conceptual in both nature and approach, builds on a recent contribution to the theorization of “globalization” and seeks to utilise the framework developed therein to help promote a more complex conceptual understanding of the potential implications of how business operates and responds to these challenges in a global environment. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws primarily on a heuristic framework developed by O'Byrne and Hensby that reviews eight models of global change. In this paper, the authors review and give consideration to the relationship between these models and business practice and contend that this relationship is far more complex than the majority of the current literature in the business and management field represents. Within the paper, the authors explore and discuss the dynamics of the eight models of “globalization” and assess the potential implications for business practice of working within these often conflicting and contradictory paradigms of “globalization”. As part of this review, the authors consider the strategic implications of “globalization” for business practice and propose a conceptual model with eight strategic options which are aligned to the eight models of global change.

Findings

The paper presents a tentative heuristic framework seeking to align the eight models of global change with strategic options that companies might peruse in response to the global forces for change. The paper concludes by advocating a more integrative and complex understanding of globalization than is currently the case and identifies potential for further research in this area.

Originality/value

The paper develops a conceptual framework for assessing the challenges that processes of globalization present to business. The paper places a particular emphasis on considering the strategic implications of the various models of global change and offers a tentative framework for further debate and discussion.

Details

Cross Cultural Management, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 24 September 2019

Mathew Maavak

Big data are indispensable in scientific endeavours ranging from nuclear research to climate studies. However, there is a growing misperception that congeries of data can…

Abstract

Purpose

Big data are indispensable in scientific endeavours ranging from nuclear research to climate studies. However, there is a growing misperception that congeries of data can be easily reconstructed into competitive business insights. Such notions have been encouraged by a plethora of mainstream techno-utopian forecasts.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper investigated such claims and related big data developments, including its “systems-first” and oligopolistic orientations. Due to the paucity of current scholarship on an admittedly pessimistic topic, the paper studied contrarian developments in the industry by relying on secondary data. The study of experts and scholars; industrial trends; and discrepancies and critical gaps in the mainstream data narrative were sourced to prognosticate the likely trajectory of many data giants.

Findings

A key finding was that the big data industry faces an untenable market bubble worth trillions of dollars. This will have severe consequences for common digital access and social stability worldwide. Evidence presented also suggests that the data industrial complex may undergo a function creep by facilitating a transition from surveillance capitalism to surveillance society.

Research limitations/implications

Primary data for a study of this nature may take years to materialize. This is a “first-pass” study that seeks to illuminate latent dangers facing the big data/AI sector. There is a paucity of scholarly study that even remotely touches on this topic. Therefore, supporting arguments was sourced from contemporary reports and expert study (secondary data).

Practical implications

As control of data may have geostrategic implications, balkanization of the wired ecosystem may be underway with Russia and China leading the way. Future superpowers may be defined by the way they handle data. The concentration of data in fewer hands may also affect citizen innovation.

Social implications

A break-down of the data industrial complex may lead to social mayhem as the monetization of presently free software, blogs and social media platforms may be unfeasible.

Originality/value

This topic has hardly been explored due to the novelty of big data, its applications and the daily hype over its potentials. This paper boldly describes dark countercurrents in the industry.

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2011

Christopher M. Bacon, Dustin Mulvaney, Tamara B. Ball, E. Melanie DuPuis, Stephen R. Gliessman, Ronnie D. Lipschutz and Ali Shakouri

The purpose of this paper is to share the content and early results from an interdisciplinary sustainability curriculum that integrates theory and practice (praxis). The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to share the content and early results from an interdisciplinary sustainability curriculum that integrates theory and practice (praxis). The curriculum links new topical courses concerning renewable energy, food, water, engineering and social change with specialized labs that enhance technological and social‐institutional sustainability literacy and build team‐based project collaboration skills.

Design/methodology/approach

In responses to dynamic interest emerging from university students and society, scholars from Environmental Studies, Engineering, Sociology, Education and Politics Departments united to create this curriculum. New courses and labs were designed and pre‐existing courses were “radically retrofitted” and more tightly integrated through co‐instruction and content. The co‐authors discuss the background and collaborative processes that led to the emergence of this curriculum and describe the pedagogy and results associated with the student projects.

Findings

Interdisciplinary student teams developed innovative projects with both campus and community‐based partners. However, the incentives for an integrated sustainability curriculum faced persistent obstacles including the balkanization of academic knowledge, university organizational structure, and the need for additional human and financial investments. The team is currently designing the second phase of this integration and expanding a social learning network through collaborations with five universities in the Americas and Europe.

Originality/value

This paper shows the development process, design and content of an interdisciplinary sustainability curriculum that integrates engineering with the social and ecological sciences while enlivening campus‐community relationships through student projects. Several replicable practices include the contents and integration of topical classes, the strategies to overcome the obstacles for developing interdisciplinary student teams engaged in problem‐based learning and approaches to negotiate institutional hurdles.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1999

Rob Frieden

Tracks the evolution of Internet interconnection and charging arrangements, drawing comparisons with telecommunication carriers’ arrangements. Focuses on how pricing…

Abstract

Tracks the evolution of Internet interconnection and charging arrangements, drawing comparisons with telecommunication carriers’ arrangements. Focuses on how pricing arrangements could change ISP relationship’s nature from peer‐ to hierarchy‐based systems. Spotlights Internet basics and differences between telecoms and Internet pricing systems. Concludes that because of ISP, free riders and non‐explicit service subsidies, days are numbered.

Details

info, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

Keywords

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