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Book part
Publication date: 24 March 2015

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The Broad Autism Phenotype
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-657-7

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2012

Nick Walsh and Ian Hall

The aim of this article is to critically review the Autism Strategy and to discuss its implications.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this article is to critically review the Autism Strategy and to discuss its implications.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a summary and critical review of the Autism Strategy and its implementation. This includes discussion of the political context, reactions to the strategy by stakeholders, economic considerations, equity, integration across health and social care and the role of diagnostic services and specialist interventions.

Findings

The Autism Strategy Fulfilling and Rewarding Lives was published in 2010. It aimed to increase awareness of autism, establish clear pathways for diagnosis and needs assessment, promote independent living and access to work, and help the development of local services. It focuses on intended outcomes, is not prescriptive about how those aims are achieved, and relies on existing legislation such as the Disability Discrimination Act. The emphasis on accessing mainstream services may limit the development of appropriate specialist services, especially in the current economic climate. Specialist interventions that may follow diagnosis are not prioritised, even though the economic case for them has been well made by the Audit Commission. Although the Department of Health has produced “outcomes and ambitions” to measure implementation of the Strategy, local authorities are not required to measure themselves against these targets or publish their results. However, organisations such as the National Autistic Society have already developed training materials to help with implementation, and the NICE guidelines for adults with autism due in 2012 may help the development of better services.

Originality/value

This article provides new insights into the implications of the strategy for service users, service managers and healthcare professionals. Although the strategy applies to England only, the principles are of interest to stakeholders in other countries.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article
Publication date: 14 July 2009

Robin Mackenzie and John Watts

The first autism‐specific piece of legislation in England and Wales, the Autism Bill, put forward by Cheryl Gillan as a private member's bill, has now gone forward to…

Abstract

The first autism‐specific piece of legislation in England and Wales, the Autism Bill, put forward by Cheryl Gillan as a private member's bill, has now gone forward to House of Commons committee stage, after attracting almost universal support among MPs, charities and the media. It seeks to redress the widespread lack of local authority provision for the needs of people with autism (defined in the Bill as including all autism spectrum disorders, including Asperger's Syndrome): children, adults (defined as those over 18) and their families. Currently, despite legislative and policy provision for the disabled, many autism spectrum disorder (ASD) children are without appropriate education or assistance before, during and after the transition to adulthood. At least a third of adults with ASD were estimated in the National Autistic Society's report I Exist to be suffering from serious mental health difficulties as a result of lack of support, while families and carers of adults with ASD have been found to be frequently unable to obtain assistance (Rosenblatt, 2008). This article will provide details of the Bill before considering its implications for ASD children, adults and their families.

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Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Rosa Fontes and Margarita Pino-Juste

The purpose of this paper is to look at recent trends in scientific literature on the portrayal of autism in published and broadcast media and social awareness of the subject.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to look at recent trends in scientific literature on the portrayal of autism in published and broadcast media and social awareness of the subject.

Design/methodology/approach

A bibliometric analysis of content of such publications was performed.

Findings

Results show that portrayals of autism from books, newspapers, news broadcasts, films and TV series are being scrutinized. Research focuses on the social categories of resulting stereotypes, the quality of such depictions, the benefits and downsides, stigmatization of individuals (with autism) and how society responds to these portrayals.

Originality/value

It is important to understand if media portrayals of autism are creating a realistic and constructive awareness of autism in society.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2021

Quan Lu, Bixuan Song, Jing Chen, Iris Xie and Yutian Shen

This study aims to explore the gap between information needs and services for autism in China.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the gap between information needs and services for autism in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The gap is revealed by investigating the status quo of autism information needs and services. The authors extracted categories and subcategories of information needs through content analysis of academic documents and then supplemented the subcategories through text mining of an online forum. Meanwhile, categories and subcategories of information services were extracted through content analysis of autism websites. Finally, the authors matched the two to explore the gap and designed a quantitative index to measure it.

Findings

A total of eight and ten categories of information needs and services are extracted, respectively. In total, six categories of information needs can be partly matched, but nearly half of the subcategories failed. Huge gaps in economic support, sociality and policy mechanisms categories are observed through the quantitative index and medium gaps in social resource services and employment categories while almost no gaps in psychological/emotional counseling, rehabilitation skills training and professional knowledge/information categories.

Originality/value

This study takes a deep insight into the gap between autism information needs and services in China, providing evidences and suggestions for information providers to improve their services. Academic documents and online forum data are adopted to avoid the impact of stigmatization, which provides a multi-source data analysis approach for the information needs of special groups.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 73 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

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Article
Publication date: 30 April 2021

Jennifer R. Spoor, Rebecca L. Flower, Simon M. Bury and Darren Hedley

Although there is growing academic and business interest in autism employment programs, few studies have examined employee (manager and coworker) attitudes toward these…

Abstract

Purpose

Although there is growing academic and business interest in autism employment programs, few studies have examined employee (manager and coworker) attitudes toward these programs. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of workload changes (a job demand) and perceived supervisor support (a job resource) on commitment to the program and employee engagement more broadly.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 229 employees from two Australian public sector organizations completed a survey about the autism employment program in their organization.

Findings

Perceived workload increases were associated with lower affective commitment and higher continuance commitment to the program. Perceived supervisor support was associated with higher affective commitment to the program and employee engagement, but lower continuance commitment to the program. Perceived supervisor support moderated the effect of workload increase on employee engagement, but not in the expected direction.

Originality/value

This research helps to fill a gap in the autism employment literature by focusing on commitment toward autism employment programs among existing employees. The research helps to provide a more complete and nuanced view of these programs within their broader organizational context.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Abstract

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The Broad Autism Phenotype
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-657-7

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2008

Gathogo M. Mukuria and Festus E. Obiakor

It is imperative to understand the salient characteristics of autism before selecting and embarking on curricular experiences. One cannot engage in any innovative…

Abstract

It is imperative to understand the salient characteristics of autism before selecting and embarking on curricular experiences. One cannot engage in any innovative programming for students he/she does not understand. The American Psychiatric Association (2000) indicates that children with autism exhibit three, namely, (a) impairment in reciprocal skill interaction, (b) impairment in verbal and communication, and (c) restrictive, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. These characteristics have direct impact on curriculum innovation and instructional strategies for teachers, parents, and community (see Brock, Nishida, Chiong, Grimm, & Rimm-Kaufman, 2008; Crooke, Hendrix, & Rachman, 2008; Palmer, Didden, & Arts, 2008). The three characteristics should be viewed as a framework that educators and families might employ when communicating about services and planning curricular experiences (Park, 1996). Because on the impact these characteristics have on learning, they are highlighted in the following subsections.

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Autism and Developmental Disabilities: Current Practices and Issues
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-357-6

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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2015

Kevin P. Brady and Cynthia A. Dieterich

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the number of children diagnosed with autism has increased dramatically, especially over the past…

Abstract

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the number of children diagnosed with autism has increased dramatically, especially over the past decade. Most recently, the CDC estimates that an average of one in 88 children have an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In terms of numbers, this translates into approximately 730,000 people between the ages of 0 and 21 who have ASD. While the primary cause(s) of increases in the identification of autistic students continue to generate debate school officials across the nation need to be prepared for the changing legal landscape associated with children diagnosed with ASD. The primary purpose of this chapter is to provide a detailed legal/policy update of the leading legal considerations and concerns involving K-12 students with autism. The chapter will discuss four specific legal topics involving the identification and eligibility of K-12 students with autism. These four legal topics include: Changes in the New DSM-5 Diagnostic Manuel and its Impact on Legal Definitions of Autism; Insurance Reform and Autism Coverage: A Comparison of the States; Developing Legally Compliant Individualized Education Plans (IEPs) for High-Functioning Students with Autism, and; Recent Legal Developments in Case Law Involving K-12 students who are autistic. The chapter will conclude with a detailed discussion of how today’s school officials can become more legally literate and better serve the legal needs of students with autism in their schools.

Details

Legal Frontiers in Education: Complex Law Issues for Leaders, Policymakers and Policy Implementers
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-577-2

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Book part
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Stacey Jones Bock, Christy M. Borders, Kristi Probst and Shaqwana Freeman-Green

In 2018, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released the statistic that 1 out of every 59 children had a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)…

Abstract

In 2018, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released the statistic that 1 out of every 59 children had a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Young children with ASD have unique needs specifically related to the characteristics that impact their communication and social emotional and behavioral development. These unique needs require early and intensive intervention to minimize their lifelong impact. It is important to identify and use evidence-based interventions to help parents support their children at home, and as a continuation of the skills they are being taught in other settings. This chapter will address the prevalence of young children with ASD, the impact and need for family involvement in intervention, and service provision and potential interventions.

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