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Article

Andrew A. Bennett, Stephen E. Lanivich, M. Mahdi Moeini Gharagozloo and Yusuf Akbulut

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how stress appraisals (i.e. cognitive evaluations) influence entrepreneurial outcomes like expected financial well-being, life…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how stress appraisals (i.e. cognitive evaluations) influence entrepreneurial outcomes like expected financial well-being, life satisfaction, business growth and exit intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a mixed-methods approach to provide methodological triangulation by analyzing data from two independent samples (qualitative data from 100 entrepreneurs in Study 1; quantitative regression analysis of a sample of 142 entrepreneurs in Study 2).

Findings

Results from the qualitative exploration (Study 1) show that entrepreneurs appraised venture-related stressors differently as a challenge, threat or hindrance. The quantitative study (Study 2) found that challenge stress appraisals were positively related to expected financial well-being and expected life satisfaction, threat stress appraisals were negatively related to expected financial well-being and positively related to business exit intentions, and hindrance stress appraisals were positively related to expected business growth and negatively related to business exit intentions.

Originality/value

Most entrepreneurship research focuses on stressors rather than appraisals of the stressor. Drawing upon the transactional theory of stress that explains how stress appraisals are an important consideration for understanding the stress process, these two studies showed that stress appraisals differ for each entrepreneur (Study 1) and that stress appraisals explain more variance in many entrepreneurial outcomes than stressors (Study 2).

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article

Peter Dove and Sally Brown

Explores some key issues in appraisal for staff in institutions ofhigher education. Considers the need to address specifically the issuesof equal opportunities in appraisal

Abstract

Explores some key issues in appraisal for staff in institutions of higher education. Considers the need to address specifically the issues of equal opportunities in appraisal, and makes a case for team appraisal. Examines the problems of unwilling appraisers chosen by post rather than person and proposes that there should be an Ombudsperson for dissatisfied appraisees. Discusses the ethics of appraisal, together with the varying appraisal agendas of different constituencies of staff. Consideration is given to the real purposes of appraisal and the policy of delegation to the lowest level. Deplores the proposals to link appraisal to performance‐related pay and argues for the retention of appraisal′s developmental focus.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article

Luis R. Gomez‐Mejia

The objectives of performance appraisal are outlined, and theproblems with performance evaluation are examined. Race, age and sexdiscrimination are discussed in relation…

Abstract

The objectives of performance appraisal are outlined, and the problems with performance evaluation are examined. Race, age and sex discrimination are discussed in relation to Equal Employment Opportunity Commission guidelines. A performance appraisal model is laid down with step by step guidelines. The model is assessed against the key objectives of performance appraisal.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article

Clive Fletcher

From the organisation's point of view, feedback assists effective learning. From the individual's viewpoint it can satisfy any personal need for information on progress…

Abstract

From the organisation's point of view, feedback assists effective learning. From the individual's viewpoint it can satisfy any personal need for information on progress and facilitate social comparison with others. Whether criticism achieves any beneficial effects is dependent on the amount of critical feedback; a balanced review of performance, covering strengths and weaknesses; clear, relevant feedback content emphasising the performance of the individual; the availability of other sources of feedback; the extent of subordinate participation in the interview; and the relationship between the manager and the subordinate. Self‐appraisal may be a more robust approach and may overcome many of the problems normally encountered in discussing performance. There is ample evidence for its effectiveness.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article

James Walker, Clive Fletcher, Richard Williams and Keith Taylor

Over recent years there has been a move towards more open appraisal, with the individual appraised being shown the written assessment of him, but there is little evidence…

Abstract

Over recent years there has been a move towards more open appraisal, with the individual appraised being shown the written assessment of him, but there is little evidence to indicate what effects this change in practice may have had on the value of the appraisals. The survey of appraisal schemes in private and public sector organizations reported in this paper attempts to gauge the influence of greater openness on the standards of written appraisals and on the amount of reliance organizations place upon them in deciding such matters as promotion.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article

Clinton Longenecker and Laurence Fink

The purpose of this paper is to identify the specific steps organizations can take to create value-added appraisal systems.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the specific steps organizations can take to create value-added appraisal systems.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors synthesize 30 years of their research, including countless focus groups and surveys with managers at all levels, to identify the specific steps organizations can take to create value-added appraisal systems.

Findings

The paper explains ten key lessons for improving any organization’s performance appraisal system.

Practical implications

The authors believe that the lessons described in this paper can be applied in all organizations, and not to apply these lessons invites ineffective and potentially destructive appraisal practices.

Originality/value

The paper provides a unique set of lessons that organizations can use to design or re-design their performance appraisal systems and practices.

Details

Strategic HR Review, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1475-4398

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Article

Debbie Wall, Maurice Conlon, Ron Cullen and Aidan Halligan

Effective appraisal is one of the key underpinning systems to allow the practical implementation of clinical governance. Between March and July 2002, over 800 GPs have…

Abstract

Effective appraisal is one of the key underpinning systems to allow the practical implementation of clinical governance. Between March and July 2002, over 800 GPs have attended the national GP “Training the Appraisers” Programme, funded by the Department of Health, and run by the NHS Clinical Governance Support Team (CGST) in partnership with Edgecumbe Consulting Ltd. The one day programme, which includes practical “real life” appraisal sessions for GPs, is well on the way to meeting its remit of training 900 GP appraisers (an average of three appraisers per PCT) in 2002. Once they have completed the course, trained appraisers can begin the process of conducting the first round of appraisals in their local primary care organisations. The GP Appraisal Programme recognises the potential of an effective system of appraisal to develop over time, so that patients can be confident that their family doctor is supported in taking regular, structured steps to ensure they are identifying and fulfilling their professional development needs and thereby enhancing the delivery of high quality care.

Details

British Journal of Clinical Governance, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1466-4100

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Article

Nelda Spinks, Barron Wells and Melanie Meche

Examines the role of appraisals as a way of improving productivity and effectiveness within successful organizations. Identifies ways in which appraisals help both…

Abstract

Examines the role of appraisals as a way of improving productivity and effectiveness within successful organizations. Identifies ways in which appraisals help both employers and employees. Suggests that there is room for improvement in most performance appraisals and discusses various ideas. Computer software is one of the ways in which performance appraisals can be dealt with more proficiently. This article evaluates the three leading software programs available currently and provides a comparison of the features. Concludes that the products do not solve all the problems encountered in performance appraisals, but do give structure to the process and make this sort of appraisal easier to conduct.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article

Tichatonga J. Nhundu

Findings of studies on self‐appraisals conducted mainly innon‐educational settings indicate that self‐ratings are generouslyinflated, do not correlate with other sources…

Abstract

Findings of studies on self‐appraisals conducted mainly in non‐educational settings indicate that self‐ratings are generously inflated, do not correlate with other sources, and show less reliability than ratings from counter‐positions. Reports on self‐appraisals in an educational setting using perceptions of teacher interns and their supervisors. Self – and supervisor appraisals were found to be significantly correlated, with self‐appraisals showing less leniency than corresponding supervisor appraisals. In addition, self‐appraisals were a better predictor of job satisfaction than supervisor appraisals.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article

Tom Redman and Gerard McElwee

Upward appraisal involves a formal input by students/staff into theperformance appraisal of their lecturers/managers. Briefly reviews theliterature on upward appraisal and…

Abstract

Upward appraisal involves a formal input by students/staff into the performance appraisal of their lecturers/managers. Briefly reviews the literature on upward appraisal and examines its practice in higher education by exploring the experiences and perceptions of a sample of lecturers drawn from a UK business school. Examines the integration of upward appraisal into the wider decision‐making processes on teaching and learning strategies and suggests areas for future research on upward appraisal. Argues that potential to facilitate improvements in performance may be undermined in practice by problems in implementation and, paradoxically, may lead to a reduction in student and lecturer commitment. Draws out for higher education some lessons from industry′s more advanced use of upward appraisal.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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