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Article

Charles Abiodun Robert

The purpose of this paper is to share knowledge of how annotation can be the basis for knowledge sharing.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to share knowledge of how annotation can be the basis for knowledge sharing.

Design/methodology/approach

The method used was derived from mathematical methods applied to set theory.

Findings

It was presented that one document can be easily used for experience sharing with multiple users. Multiple documents will be difficult to use as source of experience sharing.

Originality/value

Experience sharing has never been presented as intersection of annotation, document and users using mathematic principles.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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Article

Masaki Samejima, Daichi Hisakane and Norihisa Komoda

The purpose of this paper is to annotate an attribute of a problem, a solution or no annotation on learners’ opinions automatically for supporting the learners’ discussion…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to annotate an attribute of a problem, a solution or no annotation on learners’ opinions automatically for supporting the learners’ discussion without a facilitator. The case method aims at discussing problems and solutions in a target case. However, the learners miss discussing some of problems and solutions.

Design/methodology/approach

Because opinions about problems and solutions on the same case are similar to each other, the proposed method uses opinions that are correctly annotated in past discussions for annotating an appropriate attribute on each opinion in discussions of the same case. The annotation on each opinion is identified by Support Vector Machine learned with opinions and annotations in the past discussion.

Findings

Compared to a simple method that uses decision tree classification, this proposed method improves the recall rate and the precision rate of annotating the attribute by over 10 per cent. The proposed method is effective for automatic annotation.

Originality/value

Because the recall rate and the precision rate of annotating an attribute of a problem are over 80 per cent, it is possible to make learners aware of problems that they should discuss. On the other hand, the recall rate and the precision rate of annotating an attribute of a solution are still low. The authors discuss the research issue to improve the rates for automatic annotation.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Book part

Deborah N. Brewis and Sarah Taylor Silverwood

Annotation is a practice that is familiar to many of us, and yet it is a practice so natural that it is hard to pin down its characteristics, to find where its edges are…

Abstract

Annotation is a practice that is familiar to many of us, and yet it is a practice so natural that it is hard to pin down its characteristics, to find where its edges are, and identify what it does for us. In this piece, we use reflections on the practices of annotation in four fields of work: academia, software engineering, medical sonography and visual art as a point of departure to theorise annotation as a set of practices that bridge reading, writing and thinking. We think about annotation being performative and consider what and how it brings into being. Revealing hidden practices in our working lives, such as annotation, helps us to understand how knowledge comes to be created, disseminated, legitimated and popularised. To this end, we make the practices of annotation involved in writing the present piece visible in an effort to write differently in management and organisation studies, unpicking and exposing it as ever dialogical and unfinished.

Details

Writing Differently
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-337-6

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Article

Xiaoguang Wang, Ningyuan Song, Xuemei Liu and Lei Xu

To meet the emerging demand for fine-grained annotation and semantic enrichment of cultural heritage images, this paper proposes a new approach that can transcend the…

Abstract

Purpose

To meet the emerging demand for fine-grained annotation and semantic enrichment of cultural heritage images, this paper proposes a new approach that can transcend the boundary of information organization theory and Panofsky's iconography theory.

Design/methodology/approach

After a systematic review of semantic data models for organizing cultural heritage images and a comparative analysis of the concept and characteristics of deep semantic annotation (DSA) and indexing, an integrated DSA framework for cultural heritage images as well as its principles and process was designed. Two experiments were conducted on two mural images from the Mogao Caves to evaluate the DSA framework's validity based on four criteria: depth, breadth, granularity and relation.

Findings

Results showed the proposed DSA framework included not only image metadata but also represented the storyline contained in the images by integrating domain terminology, ontology, thesaurus, taxonomy and natural language description into a multilevel structure.

Originality/value

DSA can reveal the aboutness, ofness and isness information contained within images, which can thus meet the demand for semantic enrichment and retrieval of cultural heritage images at a fine-grained level. This method can also help contribute to building a novel infrastructure for the increasing scholarship of digital humanities.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

Keywords

Content available
Article

Xinran Zhu, Bodong Chen, Rukmini Manasa Avadhanam, Hong Shui and Raymond Zhuo Zhang

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced many instructors to rapidly shift to online/distance teaching. With a narrow preparation window, many instructors are at a loss of…

Abstract

Purpose

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced many instructors to rapidly shift to online/distance teaching. With a narrow preparation window, many instructors are at a loss of strategies that are both effective in responding to the crisis and compatible with their professional practices. One urgent need in classrooms at all levels is to support social reading of course materials. To fulfill this need, this paper aims to present a systematic literature review on using Web annotation in K-12 and higher education to provide practical and evidence-based recommendations for educators to incorporate social annotation in online teaching.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents a systematic literature review of the use of Web annotation in formal education. The authors reviewed 39 articles that met the inclusion criteria and extracted the following information from each article: level of education, subject area, learning theory, learning activity design, Web annotation technology, research methods and learning outcomes. Studies were further analyzed and synthesized by the genre of learning activity design.

Findings

The authors identified five types of social annotation activity design: processing domain-specific knowledge, supporting argumentation and inquiry, improving literacy skills, supporting instructor and peer assessment and connecting online learning spaces. In addition, the authors developed practical recommendations on setting pedagogical goals, selecting annotation tools, deciding instructor involvement and developing evaluation strategies.

Originality/value

This study provides a timely response to online/distance teaching under the COVID-19 pandemic. It is a hope that these identified application areas, in combination with four practical recommendations, would provide pragmatic and evidence-based support for educators to engage learners in reading, learning and connecting.

Details

Information and Learning Sciences, vol. 121 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5348

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Article

Jeremiah Holden Kalir, Esteban Morales, Alice Fleerackers and Juan Pablo Alperin

Social annotation (SA) is a genre of learning technology that enables the annotation of digital resources for information sharing, social interaction and knowledge…

Abstract

Purpose

Social annotation (SA) is a genre of learning technology that enables the annotation of digital resources for information sharing, social interaction and knowledge production. This study aims to examine the perceived value of SA as contributing to learning in multiple undergraduate courses.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 59 students in 3 upper-level undergraduate courses at a Canadian university participated in SA-enabled learning activities during the winter 2019 semester. A survey was administered to measure how SA contributed to students’ perceptions of learning and sense of community.

Findings

A majority of students reported that SA supported their learning despite differences in course subject, how SA was incorporated and encouraged and how widely SA was used during course activities. While findings of the perceived value of SA as contributing to the course community were mixed, students reported that peer annotations aided comprehension of course content, confirmation of ideas and engagement with diverse perspectives.

Research limitations/implications

Studies about the relationships among SA, learning and student perception should continue to engage learners from multiple courses and from multiple disciplines, with indicators of perception measured using reliable instrumentation.

Practical implications

Researchers and faculty should carefully consider how the technical, instructional and social aspects of SA may be used to enable course-specific, personal and peer-supported learning.

Originality/value

This study found a greater variance in how undergraduate students perceived SA as contributing to the course community. Most students also perceived their own and peer annotations as productively contributing to learning. This study offers a more complete view of social factors that affect how SA is perceived by undergraduate students.

Details

Information and Learning Sciences, vol. 121 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5348

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Article

Yi-Fan Liu, Wu-Yuin Hwang and Sherry Chen

This paper aims to examine how gender differences influence students’ reactions to the use of the annotatable multimedia e-reader (AME). To reach this aim, we develop an…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how gender differences influence students’ reactions to the use of the annotatable multimedia e-reader (AME). To reach this aim, we develop an AME where various annotation tools are provided to help students learn English in-class and after-class.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical study was conducted with 63 fifth-grade students from an elementary school. A pre-test and post-test were used to identify their prior knowledge and learning achievement, respectively. A questionnaire was applied to identify participants’ perceptions towards the AME.

Findings

The results show that students’ post-test scores are significantly related to after-class behaviour, instead of in-class behaviour. Females prefer to use the text annotation and teachers’ voice, but it is voice annotation that is beneficial to improve their learning achievement. Conversely, males prefer to use the text-to-speech only, but it is text annotation that is helpful to improve their learning achievement. Additionally, the ease of use affects males’ intention to use the AME to learn English after-class while it has no effects on females.

Originality/value

This study not only shows the importance of gender differences but also demonstrates the essence of after-class learning behaviour. More importantly, a framework is proposed to support designers to develop e-readers that can accommodate the preferences of females and males.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

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Article

Dimitris Kanellopoulos

This paper aims to propose a system for the semantic annotation of audio‐visual media objects, which are provided in the documentary domain. It presents the system's…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a system for the semantic annotation of audio‐visual media objects, which are provided in the documentary domain. It presents the system's architecture, a manual annotation tool, an authoring tool and a search engine for the documentary experts. The paper discusses the merits of a proposed approach of evolving semantic network as the basis for the audio‐visual content description.

Design/methodology/approach

The author demonstrates how documentary media can be semantically annotated, and how this information can be used for the retrieval of the documentary media objects. Furthermore, the paper outlines the underlying XML schema‐based content description structures of the proposed system.

Findings

Currently, a flexible organization of documentary media content description and the related media data is required. Such an organization requires the adaptable construction in the form of a semantic network. The proposed approach provides semantic structures with the capability to change and grow, allowing an ongoing task‐specific process of inspection and interpretation of source material. The approach also provides technical memory structures (i.e. information nodes), which represent the size, duration, and technical format of the physical audio‐visual material of any media type, such as audio, video and 3D animation.

Originality/value

The proposed approach (architecture) is generic and facilitates the dynamic use of audio‐visual material using links, enabling the connection from multi‐layered information nodes to data on a temporal, spatial and spatial‐temporal level. It enables the semantic connection between information nodes using typed relations, thus structuring the information space on a semantic as well as syntactic level. Since the description of media content holds constant for the associated time interval, the proposed system can handle multiple content descriptions for the same media unit and also handle gaps. The results of this research will be valuable not only for documentary experts but for anyone with a need to manage dynamically audiovisual content in an intelligent way.

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Article

Chih-Ming Chen, Yung-Ting Chen and Chen-Yu Liu

An automatic text annotation system (ATAS) that can collect resources from different databases through Linked Data (LD) for automatically annotating ancient texts was…

Abstract

Purpose

An automatic text annotation system (ATAS) that can collect resources from different databases through Linked Data (LD) for automatically annotating ancient texts was developed in this study to support digital humanities research. It allows the humanists referring to resources from diverse databases when interpreting ancient texts as well as provides a friendly text annotation reader for humanists interpreting ancient text through reading. The paper aims to discuss whether the ATAS is helpful to support digital humanities research or not.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the quasi-experimental design, the ATAS developed in this study and MARKUS semi-ATAS were compared whether the significant differences in the reading effectiveness and technology acceptance for supporting humanists interpreting ancient text of the Ming dynasty’s collections existed or not. Additionally, lag sequential analysis was also used to analyze users’ operation behaviors on the ATAS. A semi-structured in-depth interview was also applied to understand users’ opinions and perception of using the ATAS to interpret ancient texts through reading.

Findings

The experimental results reveal that the ATAS has higher reading effectiveness than MARKUS semi-ATAS, but not reaching the statistically significant difference. The technology acceptance of the ATAS is significantly higher than that of MARKUS semi-ATAS. Particularly, the function comparison of the two systems shows that the ATAS presents more perceived ease of use on the functions of term search, connection to source websites and adding annotation than MARKUS semi-ATAS. Furthermore, the reading interface of ATAS is simple and understandable and is more suitable for reading than MARKUS semi-ATAS. Among all the considered LD sources, Moedict, which is an online Chinese dictionary, was confirmed as the most helpful one.

Research limitations/implications

This study adopted Jieba Chinese parser to perform the word segmentation process based on a parser lexicon for the Chinese ancient texts of the Ming dynasty’s collections. The accuracy of word segmentation to a lexicon-based Chinese parser is limited due to ignoring the grammar and semantics of ancient texts. Moreover, the original parser lexicon used in Jieba Chinese parser only contains the modern words. This will reduce the accuracy of word segmentation for Chinese ancient texts. The two limitations that affect Jieba Chinese parser to correctly perform the word segmentation process for Chinese ancient texts will significantly affect the effectiveness of using ATAS to support digital humanities research. This study thus proposed a practicable scheme by adding new terms into the parser lexicon based on humanists’ self-judgment to improve the accuracy of word segmentation of Jieba Chinese parser.

Practical implications

Although some digital humanities platforms have been successfully developed to support digital humanities research for humanists, most of them have still not provided a friendly digital reading environment to support humanists on interpreting texts. For this reason, this study developed an ATAS that can automatically retrieve LD sources from different databases on the Internet to supply rich annotation information on reading texts to help humanists interpret texts. This study brings digital humanities research to a new ground.

Originality/value

This study proposed a novel ATAS that can automatically annotate useful information on an ancient text to increase the readability of the ancient text based on LD sources from different databases, thus helping humanists obtain a deeper and broader understanding in the ancient text. Currently, there is no this kind of tool developed for humanists to support digital humanities research.

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Article

Michael B. Sherry, Lauriann M. Messier-Jones and Joanelle Morales

English education researchers have used video annotation to connect theory to practice and to encourage prospective secondary English teachers (PSETs) to reflectively…

Abstract

Purpose

English education researchers have used video annotation to connect theory to practice and to encourage prospective secondary English teachers (PSETs) to reflectively evaluate their own and others’ teaching. This study aimed to examine whether and how PSETs’ annotations of their own and others’ teaching videos reveal (dis)connections between visions of English teaching valued in methods courses and those practiced in local school field placements.

Design/methodology/approach

Examination of 538 annotations on 18 lesson videos – recorded in a university teaching-methods course and in local secondary classrooms by 12 PSETs in a rural, northeastern US teacher-preparation program – revealed what kinds of practices PSETs evaluated and with whom they identified (student or teacher) as they made those evaluations.

Findings

Annotations from two PSETs illustrate a trend in the larger data sets: PSETs’ annotations expressed pedagogical values that differed and sometimes conflicted according to their identification with the role of student or of teacher. PSETs’ preferences as students were often superseded by visions of what one must do/be in the secondary English classroom.

Research limitations/implications

This study identifies tensions among PSETs’ annotations that corresponded to their identifications with the role of student or of teacher but does not explore whether and how they reconciled these tensions, or how they might affect student learning. Future research might explore how PSETs negotiate contradictions in their pedagogical preferences as they annotate their own and others’ teaching videos.

Practical implications

English teacher educators who use video-based methods might attend to whether and how such assignments/activities position PSETs as students or as teachers in viewing teaching videos.

Originality/value

PSETs may value different and even conflicting pedagogical practices, regardless of setting and despite their own experiences, based on their identifications with the role of student or of teacher. These identifications may allow them to compartmentalize visions of teaching that might otherwise come into productive conflict.

Details

English Teaching: Practice & Critique, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1175-8708

Keywords

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