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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2020

Michelle Westerlaken

This paper articulates a counter-concept to the notion of speciesism with the aim to encourage thinking beyond critique, towards imagining what non-speciesist worlds can…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper articulates a counter-concept to the notion of speciesism with the aim to encourage thinking beyond critique, towards imagining what non-speciesist worlds can actually look like.

Design/methodology/approach

By using the concept of “multi-species-isms” (or “multispecies”, as a simpler adjective), and linking it to feminist and relational ethics of “care”, the paper seeks to unite perspectives from both Critical Animal Studies as well as feminist, posthumanist theories. Already existing traces of multi-species-isms that exemplify different forms of multispecies care are visualised through annotated illustrations that accompany the text. These traces offer a cue for negotiating multispecies worlds without attempting to define their content in all too definite forms.

Findings

Rather than focusing on critiquing oppressive structures, the paper contributes narratives of multispecies worlds that inspire further imagination towards the positive ingredients of such worlds and show more concretely how multispecies care is practised in everyday life.

Social implications

These insights frame a starting point for a repertoire that shows the numerous ways in which multispecies relationships between humans and other animals are already given form.

Originality/value

By articulating the actual ingredients of multi-species-isms, rather than focusing on what they are not, the paper seeks to advance a move towards adding multispecies possibilities that can be especially helpful for those researchers, designers and activists concerned with imagining alternative futures.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 41 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2020

Wolfgang Leyk

Human–animal economic relations range from exploitative objectification and mass killing of animals in industrial livestock to species-appropriate husbandry or…

Abstract

Human–animal economic relations range from exploitative objectification and mass killing of animals in industrial livestock to species-appropriate husbandry or collaboration of humans and animals in therapy or rescue work. Should they be abolished or are there options for their moral permissibility? I propose using a three-level model to distinguish between morally impermissible and acceptable economic relations of humans and animals. A further step explores how an animal-oriented economy can be implemented on existing markets against the background of a philosophical theory for acceptable use of animals in the economy. Rather than developing a theory, it suggests research projects for an animal friendly economy. Market sociology reveals that sophisticated markets are a potential platform for animal welfare and that they allow a countermovement against animal exploitation. This understanding of markets also connects animals to value theory or to the idea of social cost. This way a consistent theoretical frame for animal welfare in economy is imaginable and suggested for further research.

Details

The Capitalist Commodification of Animals
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-681-8

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Book part
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Debra Merskin

Rarely acknowledged, particularly in business and communications, is that animals have interests in decisions that affect them. This chapter raises questions about how…

Abstract

Rarely acknowledged, particularly in business and communications, is that animals have interests in decisions that affect them. This chapter raises questions about how stakeholding is defined and explains why the circle of ethical consideration has been limited to human beings but should be expanded when so much of what we do impacts animalsanimals who often labor for our benefit, not theirs, whose bodies are used as food, whose skins are used for fashion and furniture, and who are experimented upon, all without their consent, nor representation of their interests beyond essential physical needs. Animals as laborers/workers for our interests is an important expansion to business and public relations (PR) ethics. While labor is deeply raced and gendered, it also is species dependent. Many practices allowed with animal workers would never be permitted or certainly regarded with concern, if among human beings. Freeman's (1984) two-tiered sense of stakeholders is applied and the argument made that animals should be included in the array of stakeholders, the argument being they are not only silent but also silenced as have been marginalized human groups. This chapter offers a textual analysis of the cover of the December 09, 2013 issue of Time magazine and a response article which serve as a case study for considering animals as stakeholders integral to PR–corporate social responsibility–diversity, equity, and inclusion intersection. I examine deer in the urban landscape and ask whether their perspectives are included in decisions about population, habitat, and health. If communications are to be ethical, inclusive, and socially responsible, animals must be affirmed as part of DEI commitments. Action steps/recommendations for doing so are included.

Details

Public Relations for Social Responsibility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-168-3

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2018

Giovanna Bertella

This study raises and discusses questions concerning the assumptions of sustainability to uncover aspects that might lead to new critical ways of understanding it. More…

Abstract

Purpose

This study raises and discusses questions concerning the assumptions of sustainability to uncover aspects that might lead to new critical ways of understanding it. More specifically, the aim of this study is to discuss the adoption of the sustainability approach in wildlife tourism and challenge its underlying anthropocentric assumptions.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach adopted is one of animal ethics, more precisely Ecofeminism.

Findings

The discussion ends by highlighting the possibility for new thinking. In particular, the concept of entangled empathy is presented as a potentially central element for re-thinking wildlife tourism.

Research limitations/implications

This study raises critical questions and starts the conceptualization of a non-anthropocentric approach in wildlife tourism. This can be viewed as a mental exercise that should be developed further and translated into practical suggestions.

Originality/value

This study views innovation as a process of re-thinking sustainability through the adoption of the animal ethics lens.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 74 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Wilhelm E.J. Klein

This paper aims to examine exceptionalisms in ethics in general and in the fields of animal and technology ethics in particular.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine exceptionalisms in ethics in general and in the fields of animal and technology ethics in particular.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviews five sample works in animal/technology ethics it considers representative for particularly popular forms of “exceptionalism”.

Findings

The shared feature of the exceptionalisms exhibited by the chosen samples appears to be born out of the cultural and biological history, which provides powerful intuitions regarding the on “specialness”.

Research limitations/implications

As this paper is mostly a critique of existing approaches, it contains only a limited amount of counter-proposed alternative approaches.

Practical implications

This is a discussion worth having because arguments based on (human or biological) exceptionalism have more chance of resulting in significantly altered theoretical conclusions and practical suggestions for normative guidance than non-exceptionalist perspectives.

Social implications

The approaches critiqued in this paper have a significant effect on the way the authors approach animals, machines/technologies and each other.

Originality/value

The paper identifies intuitive notions of exceptionalism and argues in favour of a reformist, ethical expansionist stance, which views humanity as residing (and other biological organisms) on the same plane of ethical significance as any other entity regardless of its material composition.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2008

Amir Shani and Abraham Pizam

The aim of this paper is to discuss the issues of animal rights in the hospitality and tourism (H&T) industry, and to suggest ethical guidelines for the operation of animal

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to discuss the issues of animal rights in the hospitality and tourism (H&T) industry, and to suggest ethical guidelines for the operation of animal‐based attractions.

Design/methodology/approach

The issue is presented through an extensive literature review, in addition to current examples and demonstrations from the industry.

Findings

For years, the H&T industry has been heavily criticized for its inconsiderate and even cruel use of animals for entertainment purposes. However, there are clear indications, presented in this paper, of a growing tendency to adopt approaches that emphasize animal welfare and even animal rights.

Research limitations/implications

The growing awareness of animal rights, the changing public opinion and the influence of animal rights' movements is forcing animal attractions to re‐evaluate their attitudes toward the use of animals. Generally, animal attractions should adopt an approach that combines entertainment, education and welfare concerns. Specific guidelines for each component and recommendations are provided. However, this issue requires further discussion and research to clarify key problems.

Originality/value

The paper is of value to researchers and practitioners who are interested in the development of H&T ethics regarding the use of animals.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 20 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Book part
Publication date: 19 September 2015

Ingrid Molderez and Perrine De Landtsheer

This chapter highlights an unexplored aspect of corporate social responsibility, that is animal violence and welfare. According to (Dadds, M. R., Turner, C. M., & McAloon…

Abstract

This chapter highlights an unexplored aspect of corporate social responsibility, that is animal violence and welfare. According to (Dadds, M. R., Turner, C. M., & McAloon, J. (2002). Developmental links between cruelty to animals and human violence. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 35(3), 363–382), cruelty against animals can be a predictor of future violence. If one wants to avoid violence in general, one has to think about ways to prevent violence against animals. No longer accepting violence against animals in the fashion industry, a sector that has a big impact on youth, can be a major step in the reduction of violence.

The purpose of this chapter is to analyse how non-violence against animals is integrated as a business strategy into the fashion industry and how companies are trying to influence each other. The methodological approach is based on qualitative comparative studies between small and large firms. Five cases are selected taking multiple levels of corporate sustainability into account: JBC, ARFshop, Doekjes en Broekjes, Bellerose and Fake Fur.

The research shows that large companies do more to benefit human welfare, whereas the smaller ones attach more importance to the environment. Yet all companies agreed that long-term relationships are crucial in partnerships and that the process of exchanging information is valuable in order to act in a transparent way. They are all aware that animal welfare and environmental welfare will gain importance in the future, and therefore something must be done about the impact companies have. Hence, they are implementing strategies at their own pace to benefit the welfare of animals. A change in mind set is growing, slowly but certainly and partnerships with NGOs can benefit this transition process.

Details

Business, Ethics and Peace
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-878-6

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2009

Ian Steers

By examining the literature on the ethical dilemmas of H/RM practitioners, the paper aims to put an “H” in H/RM.

Abstract

Purpose

By examining the literature on the ethical dilemmas of H/RM practitioners, the paper aims to put an “H” in H/RM.

Design/methodology/approach

Analysing the significant contribution which H/RM scholars have made in studying the ethical dilemmas of H/RM practitioners, the paper builds a view of an H/RM practitioner as a “conscientious HR manager” loosely connected to an ethical dilemma, a “Rubik's Cube”. Using these linguistic devices to simplify others scholarly work, the paper introduces a complex autopoietic system to provide a more “connected knowing” of ethical dilemmas and the “H” in H/RM.

Findings

Generalising from this analysis, the paper connects a social sub‐system (H/RM) with a living human system.

Research limitations/implications

Naturalistic “grounds” for launching a normative critique of H/RM that celebrates humans as social and biological animals are provisionally outlined.

Originality/value

The paper adapts Capra's complex autopoietic system to present a normative critique of H/RM from the Darwinian left.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2019

Stefan Mann and Tatjana Visak

Since 2010, Swiss slaughterhouses have no longer accepted end-of-lay chickens, so egg producers have had to slaughter the animals on the farm and deliver them to biogas…

Abstract

Purpose

Since 2010, Swiss slaughterhouses have no longer accepted end-of-lay chickens, so egg producers have had to slaughter the animals on the farm and deliver them to biogas plants for gasification. However, the producers’ association, GalloCircle, has recently contracted a German slaughterhouse to process end-of-lay chickens into meat. As a consequence, an increasing number of these animals are now transported abroad. The purpose of this paper is to compare the two chains from a utilitarian perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

An interview with a central actor is analyzed by objective hermeneutics. In addition, a utilitarian comparison of the two chains is carried out.

Findings

The interview with a core stakeholder reveals that he considers this to be worse for both the animals and the farmers. The system change has been motivated by the (either merely perceived or actual) ethical preferences of consumers. The authors ethical evaluation of the system change shows, however, that highly controversial assumptions would need to be made in order to justify it. The authors doubt that the (alleged) consumer preferences are based on a proper ethical analysis of the two options.

Practical implications

The authors make a case for rationally reconsidering the choice of sending the chickens abroad.

Originality/value

The paper shows that utilitarian analysis is useful to consciously choose between different value chains.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 46 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 31 July 2012

Cynthia Townley

There is much discussion about the moral standing of animals and the scope of human responsibilities to the more-than-human world. As yet, there has been little discussion…

Abstract

There is much discussion about the moral standing of animals and the scope of human responsibilities to the more-than-human world. As yet, there has been little discussion about whether cross-species collectives (such as a human and a dog) can constitute composite or plural agents analogous to those proposed in epistemic and moral cases. If so, fruitful new ways of understanding how we live and work with animal companions will likely emerge. This chapter takes a first step towards those new understandings by arguing that cross-species collectives are possible.

Details

Applied Ethics: Remembering Patrick Primeaux
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-989-9

Keywords

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