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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2020

Jing Jiang, Yanan Dong, Bin Li, Huimin Gu and Larry Yu

Applying affect-as-information theory, this research analyzed the relationship of leader affective presence and employee proactive customer service performance (PCSP) in…

Abstract

Purpose

Applying affect-as-information theory, this research analyzed the relationship of leader affective presence and employee proactive customer service performance (PCSP) in hospitality organizations. It further explored when and how leader affective presence influenced employee PCSP.

Design/methodology/approach

Taking a sample of 110 teams with 361 pairs of leaders and employees in Chinese hotels, a moderated mediation model was tested across individual and team levels using hierarchical linear modeling.

Findings

This study found that leader positive affective presence (LPAP) had a positive effect on employee PCSP, whereas leader negative affective presence (LNAP) had a negative effect on employee PCSP. Employee prosocial motivation mediated the relationship between leader affective presence and employee PCSP. The employee power distance value weakened the LNAP–employee prosocial motivation relationship, which subsequently mitigated the negative indirect effect of LNAP on employee PCSP through employee prosocial motivation.

Research limitations/implications

The sample was drawn from one hotel group in China, which may limit external validity.

Practical implications

Hospitality organizations should emphasize the affective traits of leaders in employee initiatives. Leader affective presence should be considered during recruitment and promotion. Management should pay more attention to employee emotional management and value alignment.

Originality/value

The findings provide deeper insight into the role of LPAP and LNAP in influencing employees’ PCSP. It sheds new light on the mechanisms and conditions through which leader affective presence might heighten or hinder employee PCSP.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2013

Ryan T Wang and Kyriaki Kaplanidou

This study examines the impact of sport-induced emotions on spectators' purchase intentions towards event sponsors. Spectators who experience positive emotions evoked by a…

Abstract

This study examines the impact of sport-induced emotions on spectators' purchase intentions towards event sponsors. Spectators who experience positive emotions evoked by a home team victory are found to exhibit stronger purchase intentions towards sponsors regardless of the sponsor's ability to improve spectator emotions. Those who experience negative emotions following home team defeat show heightened purchase intentions towards sponsors perceived capable of improving their negative feelings. Purchase intention decreases when sponsors cannot assist in upwardly managing the negative feelings of spectators. Theoretical and managerial implications for sponsors of spectator sports are provided.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2008

Anna Essén and Solveig Wikström

This paper aims to explore the role of emotions in consumers' evaluations of service quality.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the role of emotions in consumers' evaluations of service quality.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses empirical qualitative data from in‐depth interviews with 26 senior citizens who are consumers of long‐term residential care services in a Swedish rural community. The empirical findings are analysed inductively in terms of dimensions derived from the literature on the role of emotions in consumers' evaluations of service quality.

Findings

When explaining their overall evaluations of service quality, the respondents referred exclusively to service dimensions that had evoked emotional reactions. However, although these service dimensions were the only ones to influence the consumers' perceptions of service quality, respondents tended to reflect about these dimensions in a cognitive manner. The remaining service dimensions, which did not evoke any emotional memories, did not influence the respondents' perceptions of the overall quality of services rendered.

Research limitations/implications

Emotional reactions can direct the attention of consumers to certain service dimensions, and subsequently trigger cognitive evaluations of these dimensions. The emotional and cognitive responses of consumers to services are thus interrelated. More research is needed into the mechanism of this interaction.

Practical implications

Service providers should recognise that consumers' emotional and cognitive reactions are intertwined. For providers of aged‐care services, this study suggests certain service dimensions that are worthy of further attention in seeking positive evaluations of services from users.

Originality/value

Previous research has tended to distinguish between emotional and cognitive evaluations of services. This study challenges this distinction by demonstrating that dimensions that have traditionally been viewed as “non‐emotional” can be influenced by “emotional” reactions. Thus, the study shows that “emotional bias” can lead to some dimensions having a disproportionate influence on overall evaluations of service.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2021

Rory Francis Mulcahy and Aimee Riedel

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it seeks to extend service and retailers understanding of how the inclusion of haptics can gamify digital service experiences…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it seeks to extend service and retailers understanding of how the inclusion of haptics can gamify digital service experiences. Second, it seeks to understand the moderating role of consumers orientation towards adventure in service experiences.

Design/methodology/approach

This research adopts a two-study, 2 (haptic technology: present vs absent) × 2 (adventure orientation: high vs low) to test the proposed hypotheses (Study 1 n = 210, Study 2 n = 452). The data are tested using ANCOVA's and Hayes PROCESS Macro to investigate mean differences and the potential presence of two different moderated mediated relationships.

Findings

The results are consistent across the two experimental studies evidencing that the inclusion of haptics to gamify the service experience leads to significantly improved outcomes for service brands and channels. Further, the results demonstrate that the impact of haptics is greater for consumers with a lower, compared to higher, sense of adventure. Thus, the results demonstrate that whilst haptics improves consumers experiences with technological services overall, this is more prevalent for those who have “less sense of adventure”.

Originality/value

This paper sheds insight into the emerging area of haptic technology and is one of the first to specifically examine the impact of consumers “sense of adventure.”

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

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Book part
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Michael Howe, Chu-Hsiang (Daisy) Chang and Russell E. Johnson

Research on self-regulation has tended to focus on goal-related performance, with limited attention paid to individuals’ affect and the role it plays during the…

Abstract

Research on self-regulation has tended to focus on goal-related performance, with limited attention paid to individuals’ affect and the role it plays during the goal-striving process. In this chapter we discuss three mechanisms to integrate affect within a control theory-based self-regulation framework, and how such integrations inform future research concerning employee stress and well-being. Specifically, affect can be viewed as a result of velocity made toward one’s desired states at work. Fast progress results in positive affect, which enhances employee well-being and reduces the detrimental effects associated with exposure to occupational stressors. On the other hand, slow or no progress elicits negative affect, which induces employee distress. Second, affect can also be considered an input of self-regulation, such that employees are required to regulate their emotional displays at work. Employees who perform emotional labor compare their actual emotional display against the desired display prescribed by display rules. Third, affect can function as a situational disturbance, altering employees’ perceptions or assessments of the input, comparator, and output for other self-regulatory processes.

Details

The Role of Emotion and Emotion Regulation in Job Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-586-9

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2021

Anastasiia Popelnukha, Shamika Almeida, Asfia Obaid, Naukhez Sarwar, Cynthia Atamba, Hussain Tariq and Qingxiong (Derek) Weng

Although voice endorsement is essential for individuals, teams and organizational performance, leaders who consider followers' voice to be threatening are reluctant to…

Abstract

Purpose

Although voice endorsement is essential for individuals, teams and organizational performance, leaders who consider followers' voice to be threatening are reluctant to implement followers' ideas. The authors, taking note of this phenomenon, investigate why leaders who feel a threat from followers' voice exhibit voice rejection at the workplace and when this detrimental tendency can be diminished. Thus, based on the self-defense tendency as per self-affirmation theory, the authors argue that those leaders who experience threat triggered by followers' voice, justify voice rejection through the self-defense tactics: message derogation and source derogation. In addition, the authors also propose that a leader's positive (negative) affect experienced before voice exposure may decrease (increase) self-defense and voice rejection.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the authors’ moderated mediation model, they conducted two independent vignette studies (N = 269; N = 208). The purpose of the first vignette study was to test the simple mediation (i.e. the direct and indirect effects), whereas the second study aimed to test the moderated mediation model.

Findings

In Study 1, the authors found that the leader's perceived threat to competence provoked by followers' voice was positively related to voice rejection, and the relationship was partially mediated by message derogation and source derogation. In line with this, in Study 2, the authors tested the moderated mediation model and replicated the findings of Study 1. They found that the effects of leader's perceived threat to competence on voice rejection through self-defense tactics are weaker (stronger) at the high (low) values of a leader's positive affect. In contrast, the effects of a leader's perceived threat to competence on voice rejection through self-defense tactics are stronger (weaker) at the high (low) values of a leader's negative affect.

Originality/value

This study suggests that leaders who experience a threat to competence instigated by employee voice are more likely to think that ideas proposed by employees are non-constructive and employees who suggest those ideas are not credible, and these appraisals have a direct influence on voice rejection. However, if leaders are in a good mood vs. bad mood, they will be less likely to think negatively about employees and their ideas even when they experience psychological threats. The findings highlight several avenues for future researchers to extend the literature on employee voice management and leadership coaching by providing theoretical and managerial implications.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Li Yan, Matthew Tingchi Liu, Xiaoyun Chen and Guicheng Shi

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of pre-existing mood valence, mood arousal and ad-evoked arousal on response to television and print advertising…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of pre-existing mood valence, mood arousal and ad-evoked arousal on response to television and print advertising. It combined the arousal-as-information and arousal regulation approaches into a single arousal congruence theory. It sought an extended application of arousal congruence theory in the persuasion domain with several novel findings.

Design/methodology/approach

Four experiments were conducted to test the hypotheses. Analysis of variance, multivariate analysis of variance and pairwise comparison were used for data analysis.

Findings

Consumer judgment is a joint function of mood valence, mood arousal and ad-evoked arousal. Positive mood does not always generate more positive evaluations and vice versa. Ad-evoked arousal can more strongly influence consumers’ judgments when they are in a negative rather than a positive mood. Furthermore, consumers in a positive mood rate a target more favorably when the ad-evoked arousal level is congruent with their current arousal state, while those in a negative mood rate a target more favorably when the ad-evoked arousal level is incongruent with their current state of arousal. Arousal polarization intensifies such congruence (and incongruence) effects.

Practical implications

The findings reveal a mood-lifting opportunity based on ad-evoked arousal. This has implications for the design of advertisements, promotional materials, marketing campaigns and retailing environments.

Originality/value

This paper’s findings highlight unexpected effects of stimulus-evoked arousal in persuasion when consumers are exposed to multiple emotional cues from the environment. The paper demonstrates the utility of an integrated model, explaining the relative importance of valence and arousal in influencing consumer judgments. It has been the first to examine arousal congruence, arousal polarization and arousal regulation mechanisms jointly.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 50 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 8 March 2013

Cécile Delcourt, Dwayne D. Gremler, Allard C.R. van Riel and Marcel van Birgelen

During service encounters, it has been suggested that emotionally competent employees are likely to succeed in building rapport with their customers, which in turn often…

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6675

Abstract

Purpose

During service encounters, it has been suggested that emotionally competent employees are likely to succeed in building rapport with their customers, which in turn often leads to customer satisfaction and loyalty. However, these relationships have not been empirically examined. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of customer perceived employee emotional competence (EEC) on satisfaction and loyalty. The paper also examines how and to what extent rapport mediates these effects.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on the theory of affect‐as‐information, suggesting that emotions inform human behavior, the paper develops a structural model and tests it on a sample of 247 customers in a personal service setting.

Findings

Customer perceptions of EEC positively influence customer satisfaction and loyalty. Rapport partially mediates both effects.

Practical implications

The extent to which customers perceive employees as emotionally competent is related to the development of rapport, customer satisfaction, and loyalty. Managers of high‐contact services should therefore pay attention to emotional competence when hiring new employees, and/or encourage and train existing employees to develop this type of competence.

Originality/value

Previous studies have used employee self‐reports or supervisor reports of EEC, both of which have significant limitations when used in service encounters to predict customer outcomes. Furthermore, they essentially capture an employee's potential to behave in an emotionally competent way while service managers are interested in the actual display of emotionally competent behaviors as perceived by customers. Accordingly, to overcome these issues, this study adopts a customer perspective of EEC and uses customer perceptions of EEC to predict customer outcome.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2012

Nak Hwan Choi and Yen‐Soon Kim

Cheerful emotions are associated with achievement goals and quiescence emotions are associated with protection goals. The compatibility between consumer's goal orientation…

Abstract

Purpose

Cheerful emotions are associated with achievement goals and quiescence emotions are associated with protection goals. The compatibility between consumer's goal orientation and the types of emotions can be extended to linking the types of emotions with the types of the product attributes used in advertisement. Previous studies have kept silent about the roles of differences between types of feelings induced from different advertisements on evaluating target advertised. The purpose of this paper is to explore the different effects of emotions triggered by the advertising information on evaluating the target.

Design/methodology/approach

Restaurant attributes were classified into hedonic and performance and reliability attributes. In total, three types of scenarios and advertisements were developed to induce the specific affect and 165 undergraduate students were assigned to one of three groups, each group consisting of 55 participants. Different scenarios and advertisements were provided to different group members and participants filled out the questionnaire. ANOVA was used to verify differences of feeling types (cheerful and quiescent) induced from each scenario and advertisement. Multiple regression analysis was used to verify the effects of feeling types induced from each scenario and advertisement on restaurant evaluations.

Findings

The appeals created by using each attribute induce positive emotions differently between the types of attributes which have a strong influence on restaurant appraisal. That is, the appeal using hedonic and performance attributes helps consumers feel cheerful more than quiescence. In addition, the appeal by using reliability attributes helps consumers feel more quiescence than cheerful. Also the cheerful emotions have more positive influences on restaurant appraisal than quiescence emotions do when appealed by using hedonic and performance attributes. Furthermore, quiescence emotions have more positive influences on restaurant appraisal than cheerful emotions when appealed by using reliability attributes.

Practical implications

It is of great importance for restaurant marketers to induce positive affects useful for customers' evaluation in a competitive environment. This research provides the insights into the roles of specific emotions induced from three types of restaurant attributes on the evaluation. Marketers should examine what types of goals consumers have and make an effort to trigger emotions by carefully using product attribute to be advertised to be consistent with the goals.

Originality/value

The main theoretical contribution of this paper is to extend prior affect‐as‐information researches to the effects of specific feelings compatible with certain types of restaurant attributes on evaluation.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Ming-Yi Chen, Ching-I Teng and Kuo-Wei Chiou

Online reviews are increasingly available for a wide range of products and services in e-commerce. Most consumers rely heavily on online reviews when making purchase…

Abstract

Purpose

Online reviews are increasingly available for a wide range of products and services in e-commerce. Most consumers rely heavily on online reviews when making purchase decisions, so an important topic is that of understanding what makes some online reviews helpful in the eyes of consumers. Researchers have demonstrated the benefits of the presence of customer reviews to an online retailer, however, few studies have investigated how images in review content and the facial expressions of reviewers’ avatars influence the judgment of online review helpfulness. This study draws on self-construal theory, attribution theory and affect-as-information theory to empirically test a model of the interaction effects of images in review content and the facial expressions of reviewers’ avatars on online review helpfulness. Furthermore, the purpose of this paper is to identify an underlying mechanism of causal attribution toward store performance on the above effects.

Design/methodology/approach

This study conducted two online experiments. Study 1 is a 2 (images in review content: one person with a product vs a group of people with a product) ×2 (facial expression of the reviewer’s avatar: happy vs angry) between-subjects design. Study 2 is a 3 (image: product alone vs one person with a product vs a group of people with a product) ×2 (facial expression of the reviewer’s avatar: happy vs angry) ×3 (valence of the review: positive vs negative vs neutral) between-subjects design.

Findings

The results indicate that when consumers were exposed to a happy-looking avatar, they were likely to express higher perceptions of online review helpfulness in response to an image showing a group of people in a restaurant than they would for an image of one person in the same situation. In contrast, when consumers were exposed to an angry-looking avatar, their perceptions of online review helpfulness did not differ in response to images of either a group of people or of one person. Furthermore, cause attribution toward store performance mediated the interaction between images in content of reviews and the facial expression of a reviewer’s avatar on the perceptions of online review helpfulness.

Practical implications

The authors provide insights into how to develop guidelines on how online reviews should be written so that readers perceive them to be helpful, and how to design effective reward mechanisms for customer feedback.

Originality/value

Compared with previous studies, this study provides further contributions in three ways. First, it contributes to the literature on review content by showing which images in reviews are deemed to be helpful. Second, it extends previous findings from the literature relating to online peer reviews by demonstrating the importance of facial expressions in reviewers’ avatars (i.e. happy vs angry) when explaining helpfulness, rather than the strength of purchase intent. Third, this study contributes by further highlighting a novel mechanism which shows that a causal attribution toward store performance motivates the perceptions of online review helpfulness.

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