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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

Nigel L. Williams, Nicole Ferdinand and John Bustard

Advances in artificial intelligence (AI) natural language processing may see the emergence of algorithmic word of mouth (aWOM), content created and shared by automated…

Abstract

Purpose

Advances in artificial intelligence (AI) natural language processing may see the emergence of algorithmic word of mouth (aWOM), content created and shared by automated tools. As AI tools improve, aWOM will increase in volume and sophistication, displacing eWOM as an influence on customer decision-making. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the socio technological trends that have encouraged the evolution of informal infulence strategies from WOM to aWOM.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines the origins and path of development of influential customer communications from word of mouth (WOM) to electronic word of mouth (eWOM) and the emerging trend of aWOM. The growth of aWOM is theorized as a result of new developments in AI natural language processing tools along with autonomous distribution systems in the form of software robots and virtual assistants.

Findings

aWOM may become a dominant source of information for tourists, as it can support multimodal delivery of useful contextual information. Individuals, organizations and social media platforms will have to ensure that aWOM is developed and deployed responsibly and ethically.

Practical implications

aWOM may emerge as the dominant source of information for tourist decision-making, displacing WOM or eWOM. aWOM may also impact online opinion leaders, as they may be challenged by algorithmically generated content. aWOM tools may also generate content using sensors on personal devices, creating privacy and information security concerns if users did not give permission for such activities.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to theorize the emergence of aWOM as autonomous AI communication within the framework of unpaid influence or WOM. As customer engagement will increasingly occur in algorithmic environments that comprise person–machine interactions, aWOM will influence future tourism research and practice.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 75 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2020

Alessandro Inversini, Nigel L. Williams, Isabella Rega and Ioanna Samakovlis

The purpose of this study to shed light on the importance of social media hosted content related to socially-motivated discussions. Moving from the field of communication…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study to shed light on the importance of social media hosted content related to socially-motivated discussions. Moving from the field of communication for development, the research leverages social media as a powerful tool for collecting and analyse peer-to-peer communication towards the conceptualization of eVoices of Unheard. The deep understanding of these conversation can generate recommendations for organizations and governments designing and providing interventions fostering local socio-economic development.

Design/methodology/approach

The study presents a large-scale analysis of social media interactions on the topic “#favela” to generate insights into a social network structure, narrative contents and meaning generated.

Findings

Structurally, the analysed networks are comparable with those presented in current academic literature; automatic text analysis confirmed the promise of the inner value of communication for development opening the floor to conceptualization of the “eVoices of unheard”, which is the collective and conscious use of social media to mediate community discussions about tangible and intangible issues related to socio-economic development.

Originality/value

Framed within the rise of interactive communication for development this research show that social media an support the notion of voice proposed by Couldry (2010) moving from process (i.e. the recording of the voice) towards value (i.e. the possibility of giving an account of one’s life and its conditions to have an impact on human life and resources) thereby understanding intangible issues related with socio-economic development.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 August 2021

Khaoula Akdim

This study, first, reviews the existing literature on electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) and, using communication theory, examines its impact on its readers’ decision-making…

Abstract

Purpose

This study, first, reviews the existing literature on electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) and, using communication theory, examines its impact on its readers’ decision-making processes. Second, this paper aims to propose some elements of eWOM communications that might be further researched.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review of relevant academic articles produced 97 works related to social communication theory, eWOM and new artificial intelligence trends in hospitality. Thereafter, potential avenues for future research were explored.

Findings

The study results showed: valence, relevance, understandability and visual cues are the most important antecedents of message usefulness and the reader’s behavioral intentions; source credibility is the sender characteristic that most affects the reader’s behavioral intentions and consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence is the receiver characteristic that most influences their attitudes and behavioral intentions. In addition, the study highlights four relevant aspects for future research. First, more research into online fake reviews is needed to better understand sender motivations. Second, companies should actively manage negative reviews. Then, the careful choice of platforms on which companies promote their products/services. Finally, the role of artificial intelligence in increasing the effectiveness of eWOM in the hospitality industry.

Originality/value

This paper integrates – grounded on communication theory – results from previous studies about the central elements of communication (message, sender and receiver) and discusses the main trends in hospitality-related eWOM. In addition, the paper examines the potential of specific eWOM elements as future lines of research, in particular: fake reviews, strategies for dealing with negative reviews, the eWOM platform used and artificial intelligence applications.

Propósito

Este estudio, en primer lugar, revisa la literatura existente sobre el boca-oído electrónico (eWOM) y, utilizando la teoría de la comunicación, examina su impacto en los procesos de toma de decisiones de sus lectores. En segundo lugar, proponemos algunos elementos de las comunicaciones eWOM que podrían investigarse más adelante.

Metodología

Una revisión de la literatura de artículos académicos relevantes produjo 97 trabajos relacionados con la teoría de la comunicación social, eWOM y nuevas tendencias de inteligencia artificial en hotelería. A partir de entonces, se exploraron posibles vías de investigación futura.

Hallazgos

Los resultados del estudio señalaron: 1) la valencia, la relevancia, la comprensibilidad y las señales visuales son los antecedentes más importantes de la utilidad del mensaje y las intenciones de comportamiento del lector; 2) La credibilidad de la fuente es la característica del emisor que más afecta las intenciones de comportamiento del lector; 3) La susceptibilidad del consumidor a la influencia interpersonal es la característica del receptor que más influye en sus actitudes e intenciones de comportamiento. Además, el estudio destaca cuatro aspectos relevantes para futuras investigaciones. Primero, se necesita más investigación sobre las reseñas falsas en línea para comprender mejor las motivaciones del emisor. En segundo lugar, las empresas deben gestionar activamente las críticas negativas. Luego, la cuidadosa elección de las plataformas en las que las empresas promocionan sus productos/servicios. Por último, el papel de la inteligencia artificial en el aumento de la eficacia de eWOM en la industria hotelera.

Originalidad

Este artículo integra –con base en la teoría de la comunicación– resultados de estudios previos sobre los elementos centrales de la comunicación (mensaje, emisor y receptor) y analiza las principales tendencias en eWOM relacionadas con la hostelería. Además, el artículo examina el potencial de elementos específicos de eWOM como líneas futuras de investigación, en particular: revisiones falsas, estrategias para lidiar con críticas negativas, la plataforma eWOM utilizada y aplicaciones de inteligencia artificial.

Palabras clave: eWOM, Teoría de comunicación, Revisiones falsas, Revisiones negativas, Inteligencia artificialTipo de artículo: Revisión de la literatura

目的

本研究, 首先, 回顾了现有的关于电子口碑(eWOM)的文献, 并利用传播理论, 研究了它对读者决策过程的影响。其次, 我们提出了一些可能需要进一步研究的电子口碑传播的要素。

方法。

对相关学术文章的文献回顾产生了97篇与社会传播理论、eWOM和酒店业新的人工智能趋势有关的作品。此后, 对未来研究的潜在途径进行了探讨。

研究结果。

研究结果显示。1)价值、相关性、可理解性和视觉线索是信息有用性和读者行为意图的最重要的前因; 2)来源的可信度是最能影响读者行为意图的发送者特征; 3)消费者对人际影响的易感性是最能影响他们态度和行为意图的接受者特征。此外, 该研究还强调了未来研究的四个相关方面。首先, 需要对网上虚假评论进行更多的研究, 以更好地了解发送者的动机。其次, 公司应该积极管理负面评论。然后, 谨慎选择公司推广其产品/服务的平台。最后, 人工智能在提高酒店业eWOM的有效性方面的作用。

原创性。

本文以传播理论为基础, 整合了以往关于传播中心要素(信息、发送者和接受者)的研究结果, 并讨论了与酒店业相关的电子WOM的主要趋势。此外, 本文还研究了特定的eWOM要素作为未来研究方向的潜力, 特别是:虚假评论、处理负面评论的策略、使用的eWOM平台和人工智能应用。

关键词:eWOM, 传播理论, 虚假评论, 负面评论, 人工智能。

Details

Spanish Journal of Marketing - ESIC, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2444-9709

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Pereware Aghwotu Tiemo

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the planned project to create the first presidential library in Africa, the Obasanjo Presidential Library.

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304

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the planned project to create the first presidential library in Africa, the Obasanjo Presidential Library.

Design/methodology/approach

Focusing on public concerns and criticisms in the media, the obstacles that may prevent the Obasanjo Presidential Library from being completed are enumerated.

Findings

While the Obasanjo Presidential Library is intended to record the President's activities, foster democracy and promote good governance, the methods used to raise fund to date have been controversial. There is widespread criticism of the donations raised for the library project, even though most people see the library as a worthy project to pursue.

Originality/value

Provides an example of how even the most worthy project may be headed for failure if not handled properly. The general support for the presidential library may not be enough to see it to completion due to the controversial methods used to secure funds for the project.

Details

The Bottom Line, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2021

Ala' Omar Dandis and Mohammad Badi' Al Haj Eid

This paper investigates the factors affecting customer lifetime value from an attitudinal and behavioural brand loyalty perspective in the Internet service industry…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates the factors affecting customer lifetime value from an attitudinal and behavioural brand loyalty perspective in the Internet service industry. Specifically, willingness to pay more and word of mouth are categorised under attitudinal loyalty, while repurchase intention is classified under behavioural loyalty.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-administered questionnaire online survey via Google Forms was employed comprising a sample of 481 participants from the Internet service providers. The partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach was applied for hypotheses testing.

Findings

The current study found that “brand credibility, special treatment benefits and confidence benefits had a positive and significant influence on willingness to pay more, word of mouth and repurchase intention, with confidence benefits and brand credibility showing as the greatest elements resulting in word of mouth and repurchase intentions, whereas special treatment benefits showing as the greatest element resulting in the willingness to pay more. The results of this study did not show any positive significant between service quality dimensions and true brand loyalty (word of mouth, willingness to pay more and repurchase intention). Results also found that confidence benefits, brand credibility and special treatment benefits had an indirect impact on true brand loyalty through customer satisfaction”.

Practical implications

Internet service providers should develop and maintain good relationships with their customers as the excellence of the customer–service provider relationship can enhance customer lifetime value.

Originality/value

The current work measured customer lifetime value in terms of both the behavioural and attitudinal aspects to represent loyalty, while most previous studies consider only one dimension for this representation. Particularly, customers' true brand loyalty is measured using separate components of repurchase intentions (RIs), willingness to pay more (WPM) and word of mouth (WOM) to deepen the understanding of both managerial interest and academic.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Ala' Omar Dandis, Amr Anwar Jarrad, Jamal M M Joudeh, Ibrahim Lewis Mukattash and Anas Ghassan Hassouneh

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of multidimensional service quality on word of mouth (WOM) in university on-campus healthcare centers.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of multidimensional service quality on word of mouth (WOM) in university on-campus healthcare centers.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from self-administered questionnaires involving a sample of 407 currently enrolled student-patients visiting the on-campus university healthcare centers in the Jordanian capital, Amman. Non-probability convenience sampling was performed in this study. Factor analysis and multiple and hierarchical multiple regression methods were used to analyze the data and test the proposed relationships.

Findings

The results show that the primary dimensions (administration quality, interpersonal quality and technical quality) had a significant and positive impact on WOM, with administration quality appearing as the most influential factor leading to WOM. At the subdimensions level, the findings of this study revealed that interaction activity had the most significant predictive value on WOM compared to the other service quality subdimensions. An insignificant relationship between atmosphere, tangibles, relationship activity and WOM was found.

Practical implications

This study suggests that university administrators and managers of other high-contact service sectors (e.g. hospitality and travel services, tourism education services, financial and insurance services and public services) ought to take into consideration both service quality subdimensions and satisfaction as significant strategic endpoints, as these inputs provide a roadmap for administrators to elicit positive WOM from customers with regard to their businesses.

Originality/value

This study provided its contribution by presenting a comprehensive model of WOM formation and offering specific insights for the on-campus healthcare centers in higher education institutions. This is also the first study conducted in the Middle East, particularly in Jordan.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 29 March 2021

Joyeeta Chatterjee and Nigel Raylyn Dsilva

The purpose of this paper is to determine the role played by social media platforms in promoting sustainable tourism in the states of Assam and Odisha. The study provides…

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3759

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine the role played by social media platforms in promoting sustainable tourism in the states of Assam and Odisha. The study provides insights on sustainable tourism and related products of the above-mentioned destinations that need to be promoted on social media. It also recommends strategies to augment the sustainable tourism in the two states.

Details

Tourism Critiques: Practice and Theory, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2633-1225

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Article
Publication date: 5 March 2021

Vinay Chittiprolu, Nagaraj Samala and Raja Shekhar Bellamkonda

In business, online reviews have an economic impact on firm performance. Customers’ data in the form of online reviews was used to understand the appreciation and service…

Abstract

Purpose

In business, online reviews have an economic impact on firm performance. Customers’ data in the form of online reviews was used to understand the appreciation and service complaints written by previous customers. The study is an analysis of the online reviews written by the customers about Indian heritage hotels. This study aims to understand the dimensions of service appreciation and service complaints by comparing positive- and negative-rated reviews and find the patterns in the determinants of the satisfaction and dissatisfaction of the customers.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 23,643 online reviews about heritage hotels were collected from the TripAdvisor website by using a Web crawler developed in Python. A total of 1000 reviews were randomly selected for further analysis to eliminate the bandwagon effect. Unsupervised text mining techniques were used to analyze reviews and find out the interesting patterns in text data.

Findings

Based on Herzberg two-factor theory, this study found satisfied and dissatisfied determinants separately. The study revealed some common categories discussed by satisfied and dissatisfied customers. The factors which satisfy the customers may also dissatisfy the customers if not delivered properly. Satisfied customers mentioned about tangible features of the hotel stay, which includes physical signifiers, traditional services, staff behavior and professionalism and core products (rooms, food). However, most of the customers complained about intangible service problems, such as staff attitude, services failure, issues with reservation and food, value for money and room condition. The results are contradicting with commercial hotels-based studies owing to the unique services provided by heritage hotels.

Practical implications

The dimensions for satisfaction and dissatisfaction among customer of heritage hotels provide marketers to understand the real emotion and perception of the customers. As these dimensions were extracted through text mining of the reviews written by the customer of heritage hotels, the results would certainly give better insights to the hotel marketers.

Originality/value

The study is a rare attempt to study online reviews of customers on heritage hotels through a text mining approach and find the patterns in the behavior and the determinants of satisfaction and dissatisfaction of customers.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2020

Man Lai Cheung, Hiram Ting, Jun-Hwa Cheah and Mohamad-Noor Salehhuddin Sharipudin

Using the stimulus-organism-response model as the theoretical basis, the purpose of this study is to examine the impact of a social media-based destination brand community…

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1009

Abstract

Purpose

Using the stimulus-organism-response model as the theoretical basis, the purpose of this study is to examine the impact of a social media-based destination brand community (SMDBC) on tourists’ emotions, and the subsequent effect on the intention to co-create value and visit.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical framework was tested using survey data from 551 Chinese social media users who were followers of Japanese social media pages. Partial least squares–structural equation modelling was adopted to perform the latent variable analysis.

Findings

The findings reveal that SMDBC plays a considerable role in shaping tourists’ emotions, including joy, love and positive surprise, which, in turn, have a significant impact on consumers’ intention to co-create value and visit. Contrary to previous studies, the effect of joy on tourists’ intention to co-create and visit is found to be insignificant.

Research limitations/implications

The present study elucidates the importance and relevance of SMDBC in evoking tourists’ positive emotions, and subsequently their intention to co-create value and visit. Future research is recommended to compare and contrast SMDBC with other marketing and branding activities to provide greater insights into the phenomenon in a dynamic environment.

Practical implications

This study enables academics and business practitioners to better comprehend the effectiveness of SMDBC in driving tourists’ favourable assessment and behavioural intentions to improve resource allocation. In particular, destination marketers are recommended to optimise SMDBC and encourage discussion on SMDBC among users.

Originality/value

As literature in relation to the importance of SMDBC in evoking tourists’ emotions incorporating its link with tourists’ intention to co-create value and visit is relatively scarce, this study contributes to the branding and destination tourism research by empirically articulating the relevance of SMDBC in stimulating tourists’ emotions and subsequently value co-creation and visit intention.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 17 April 2020

Jun Wang, Yunpeng Li, Bihu Wu and Yao Wang

The purpose of this paper is to study tourists’ spatial and psychological involvement reflected through tourism destination image (TDI), TDI is divided into on-site and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study tourists’ spatial and psychological involvement reflected through tourism destination image (TDI), TDI is divided into on-site and after-trip groups and the two groups are compared in the frame of three-dimensional continuums.

Design/methodology/approach

By conducting latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) modeling to tourism user-generated content, structural topic models are established. The topics separated out from unstructured raw texts are structural themes and representations of TDI. Social network analysis (SNA) reveals the quantitative and structural differences of three-dimensional continuums of the two TDI groups.

Findings

The findings reveal that from the stage of on-site to after-trip, tourist perception of TDI shifts from psychologically to functionally-oriented, from common to unique, and from holistic to more attribute focused. Also, it is suggested that from a postmodernism perspective, TDI is never unique, fixed or universal, but has different image perceptions and feedbacks for different tourists.

Research limitations/implications

With the assistance of social sensing, a panoramic view of TDI could be established. Targeted and precision destination marketing and image promotion could be applied out to each individual tourist.

Originality/value

Combining with the perspectives of the tourist-destination space system and the tourism involvement theory, this research proposes a TDI transformation model and an explanation of the internal mechanism. The originality of research also lies in the methodological innovation of social sensing data and the LDA topic model.

研究目的

本研究针对旅游目的地形象(TDI)及其体现出的游客空间和心理涉入, 将旅游目的地形象划分为在场形象和游后形象, 并将二者在TDI三维连续体(Three-dimensional continuums)框架下进行比较。

研究方法

本研究应用内容分析法, 通过对旅游用户生成内容(tourism UGC)进行LDA(Latent Dirichlet Allocation)建模, 从非结构化的原始文本中建立起结构化的语义主题模型, 并且应用社会网络分析(Social Network Analysis), 从定量和结构化的角度揭示了游中与游后目的地形象的差异。

研究发现

研究发现, 从游中到游后, 游客的目的地形象感知经历了从心理到功能、从一般到特殊、从整体到属性的转变。同时, 基于后现代主义的视角, 旅游目的地形象并不是唯一的、固定的或放之四海而皆准的, 而是在不同的游客感知中有不同的形象和体现。

研究应用

应用社会感知(Social Sensing)理论可以全面解析旅游目的地形象。同时可以针对特定游客采取精准定点的旅游目的地营销和形象推广手段。

研究价值

本研究从旅游目的地空间系统和旅游涉入理论视角出发, 提出了旅游目的地形象转变的模型和其内在机制解释, 在方法上创新性地使用了社会感知数据和LDA主题模型。

关键词

关键词 旅游目的地形象, 在场形象, 游后形象, 旅游用户生成内容 (tourism UGC), LDA(Latent Dirichlet Allocation)建模, 社会感知

Propósito

Para estudiar el grado de participación espacial y psicológica de los turistas reflejado en la imagen del destino turístico (TDI), el TDI se divide en grupo en el sitio y grupo posterior al viaje, y los dos grupos se comparan en el marco del continuo tridimensional.

Diseño/Metodología

Al modelar la posible asignación de Dirichlet (LDA) del contenido generado por el usuario turístico (UGC), se estableció un modelo de tema estructural. El tema que está separado del texto original no estructurado es el tema estructurado y la representación de TDI. El análisis de redes sociales reveló diferencias en el número y la estructura de los continuos tridimensionales de los dos grupos de TDI.

Resultados

Los resultados de la encuesta muestran que, desde la escena hasta los viajes, la percepción de los turistas de TDI cambia de orientación psicológica a funcional, de lo ordinario a lo único, y de una atención general a más. Además, se sugiere que desde una perspectiva posmoderna, TDI nunca es único, fijo o universal, sino que tiene diferentes percepciones de imagen y comentarios para diferentes visitantes.

Implicaciones practicas

Con la ayuda de la detección social, se podría establecer una vista panorámica de TDI. El marketing de destino y la promoción de imágenes dirigidos y precisos podrían aplicarse a cada turista individual.

Originalidad/valor

Combinando con las perspectivas del sistema espacial de destino turístico y la teoría de la participación turística, esta investigación propone un modelo de transformación TDI y la explicación del mecanismo interno. La originalidad de la investigación también radica en la innovación metodológica de los datos de detección social y el modelo de tema LDA.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 76 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

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