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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Zulfiqar Ali Raza, Aisha Rehman and Rashid Masood

The purpose of this study was to overcome discomfort associated with it, a resin finish was applied in conjunction with hydrophilic polyurethane.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to overcome discomfort associated with it, a resin finish was applied in conjunction with hydrophilic polyurethane.

Design/methodology/approach

The process variables included concentrations of polyurethane and resin finishes, and pH under central composite design (CCD). The fabric specimens were assessed for crease recovery angle (CRA), tensile strength and moisture management properties.

Findings

Some models were developed for prediction of CRA and overall moisture management capability (OMMC) of treated fabric. It was observed that polyurethane concentration showed a parabolic relationship with CRA and a direct relationship with OMMC, whereas resin concentration showed a parabolic relationship with CRA and an inverse relationship with OMMC. Increase in pH from acidic to alkaline resulted in a decrease in CRA but an increase in OMMC. The untreated specimen had the highest tensile strength, whereas the specimen treated with polyurethane showed the least tensile strength loss, and the one treated with resin showed the highest loss in tensile strength.

Practical implications

As the polyurethane-based finish is soft and hydrophilic, so it was expected that it would overcome the uncomfortable feature of durable press finish, and with its flexibility, the strength losses might reduce.

Originality/value

This is the first report about the investigation of effects of increasing flexibility of the cross-link by incorporating polyurethane compounds into a typical dimethylol dihydroxy ethylene urea durable press resin formulation.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 March 2021

Zulfiqar Ali Raza, Faiza Anwar and Sharjeel Abid

Chitosan is widely considered as a natural polymer and a diverse finish to impart antibacterial property and enhanced dye uptake of textiles. Herein, the authors have…

Abstract

Purpose

Chitosan is widely considered as a natural polymer and a diverse finish to impart antibacterial property and enhanced dye uptake of textiles. Herein, the authors have investigated the feasibility of using chitosan/starch blend as a thickener in screen printing of cellulosic fabrics with some natural dyes.

Design/methodology/approach

The polymeric blend of chitosan/starch was prepared and used as a thickener for screen printing with three natural dye extracts, namely, Curcuma tinctoria (turmeric), Beta vulgaris (beet) roots and Lawsonia alba (henna) leaves on cellulosic fabrics like cotton and viscose. The viscosity and rheological properties of print paste as a fresh and after overnight shelving were examined. The influence of polymeric blends on cellulosic fabrics' print properties was inspected by determining their colorfastness, rubbing fastness, tensile strength and antibacterial activity.

Findings

The results depicted that chitosan/starch blend as printing thickener increased the shade depth with good wet and dry rubbing fastness for all the test natural dyes. The antibacterial activity of resultant printed cellulosic fabrics was found to be satisfactory against broad-spectrum bacterial strains.

Practical implications

This study's outcome is the development of chitosan blend thickeners to print the cellulosic fabrics with indigenous natural dyes.

Originality/value

The authors found no previous report on the synthesis of chitosan-based antibacterial blend thickeners with three distinct natural dyes and their application in screen printing of native and regenerated cellulosic fabrics of cotton and viscose, respectively.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 33 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 September 2022

Saima Habib, Farzana Kishwar and Zulfiqar Ali Raza

The purpose of this study is to apply silver nanoparticles on the cellulosic fabric via a green cross-linking approach to obtain antibacterial textiles. The cellulosic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to apply silver nanoparticles on the cellulosic fabric via a green cross-linking approach to obtain antibacterial textiles. The cellulosic fabrics may provide an ideal enclave for microbial growth due to their biodegradable nature and retention of certain nutrients and moisture usually required for microbial colonization. The application of antibacterial finish on the textile surfaces is usually done via synthetic cross-linkers, which, however, may cause toxic effects and halt the biodegradation process.

Design/methodology/approach

Herein, we incorporated citrate moieties on the cellulosic fabric as eco-friendly crosslinkers for the durable and effective application of nanosilver finish. The nanosilver finish was then applied on the citrate-treated cellulosic fabric under the pad-dry-cure method and characterized the specimens for physicochemical, textile and antibacterial properties.

Findings

The results expressed that the as-prepared silver particles possessed spherical morphology with their average size in the nano range and zeta potential being −40 ± 5 mV. The results of advanced analytical characterization demonstrated the successful application of nanosilver on the cellulosic surface with appropriate dispersibility.

Practical implications

The nanosilver-treated fabric exhibited appropriate textile and comfort and durable broad-spectrum antibacterial activity.

Originality/value

The treated cellulosic fabric expressed that the cross-linking, crystalline behavior, surface chemistry, roughness and amphiphilicity could affect some of its comfort and textile properties yet be in the acceptable range for potential applications in medical textiles and environmental sectors.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 October 2018

Zulfiqar Ali Raza, Faiza Anwar, Irshad Hussain, Sharjeel Abid, Rashid Masood and Hafiz Shahzad Maqsood

This study aimed to present fabrication of novel poly(lactic acid) (PLA) mediated chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) and their impregnation on cotton fabric for enhanced…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to present fabrication of novel poly(lactic acid) (PLA) mediated chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) and their impregnation on cotton fabric for enhanced antibacterial and physical properties.

Design/methodology/approach

The PLA-CNPs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and zeta size analysis. The prepared PLA-CNPs were impregnated on cotton fabric via pad-dry-cure method. The finished cotton fabric was then characterized for its antibacterial activity, functional and other physical textile properties.

Findings

The spectral and optical properties demonstrate that the NPs expressed spherical morphologies with an average particle diameter of 88.02 nm. The antibacterial activity of treated fabrics ranged between 75 and 90 per cent depending on the concentration of PLA-CNPs.

Practical implications

Because of enhanced awareness and desire for ecofriendly products, the use of sustainable and functional textiles is increasing day by day. For the said purpose, industries are using different chemical treatments to achieve desired end functionality. Currently, different synthetic antibacterial agents are in practice, but they lack sustainable approach to save the environment. In this study, the researchers have developed PLA mediated CNPs for sustainable antibacterial and physical properties of treated cotton fabric.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is first attempt to fabricate PLA-incorporated CNPs for application on cotton fabric followed by a detailed characterization.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2018

Amna Siddique, Tanveer Hussain, Waseem Ibrahim, Zulfiqar Ali Raza and Sharjeel Abid

This paper aims to investigate the feasibility of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) as an efficient discharging agent for indigo-dyed denim fabrics and identification of key…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the feasibility of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) as an efficient discharging agent for indigo-dyed denim fabrics and identification of key variables for its cost-efficient implication.

Design/methodology/approach

Response surface methodology, which is a statistical technique for the optimization of process variables, was used to study the effect of three key variables, i.e. KMnO4 concentration, printing paste pH and reaction time on whiteness and strength of discharged printed fabric. Regression models were developed to predict response variables, i.e whiteness, tensile strength and tear strength of discharge printed denim.

Findings

It was found that some captivating discharge printing effects could be produced using appropriate KMnO4 concentration, printing paste pH and reaction time without any significant loss in the fabric strength.

Practical implications

This study highlights the practical implication of KMnO4 to be used as a safe and effective discharging agent under different conditions and to optimize the parameters using statistical analysis to ensure minimum loss in textile properties. The use of denim has evolved over the decades from a rough and tough workwear to highly fashionable apparel. Various dry and wet processing techniques have been introduced in recent years for the value-addition of denim – discharge printing is one of them. As lab to bulk reproducibility requires some sort of experience and adjustments in main parameters, the practical feasibility on the bulk scale should be adjusted in advance by means of the lab scale experimentation.

Originality/value

The KMnO4 oxidation process is considered eco-friendly because manganese dioxide, which is formed when permanganate is reduced, can be recycled. Thus, the use of KMnO4 can be considered as an eco-friendly safe process for the discharging of indigo dyes.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 47 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 February 2022

Zulfiqar Ali Imran and Muhammad Ahad

This study aims to compare the safe-haven properties of different asset markets such as gold, dollar, oil and disaggregated real estate sector (house, plot and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to compare the safe-haven properties of different asset markets such as gold, dollar, oil and disaggregated real estate sector (house, plot and residential) against equity returns in Pakistan over the monthly period of January 2011–December 2020.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use wavelet coherence to encapsulate the overall dependence and correlation of asset classes. Further, the authors also study the potential of diversification at the tail of returns distribution by applying the wavelet value-at-risk (VaR) framework.

Findings

The results of wavelet coherence show that the dependence is weaker (stronger) in the short (long)-term investment horizon. Moreover, the findings of wavelet VaR reveal that the degree of co-movement between gold and equity returns greatly affects the portfolio risk followed by residential property and oil.

Practical implications

The findings are beneficial for the individual investor, fund managers and financial advisors looking for the optimal portfolio combination that hedges the excessive negative movements in equity returns subject to the heterogeneity in the investment horizon.

Originality/value

This is a primary effort to estimate safe-haven investments opportunities at a large spectrum, including disaggregated real estate sector against stock returns in Pakistan. Moreover, this study uses wavelet coherence and wavelet VaR which have an advantage over traditional analysis for diversification.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 17 August 2011

Riaz Ahmed Shaikh

Pakistan's present war against extremists has many folds and sheds. The country's initial participation in the Afghan War in 1979 later gave birth to different extremist…

Abstract

Pakistan's present war against extremists has many folds and sheds. The country's initial participation in the Afghan War in 1979 later gave birth to different extremist trends in the country. State patronage of the extremist Wahabi Islamists during the Afghan jihad opened another conflict in Pakistan, and things became more complicated. The combination of external and internal factors gave birth to the worst kind of conflict, which now has not only become dangerous for the country's own existence but also a major threat for global peace. The Afghan jihad initially started as a war against Soviet occupation and later became the hub of global jihad-war against infidels.

This chapter analyzes how external factors promoted internal contradictions in Pakistan due to which the country became not only an exporter of jihadis for the world but also the worst kind of sectarian conflicts, including. Shia–Sunni, Deobandi–Wahabi clashes, entered into in the past two decades. Such a strong link exists with Pakistan's official support to global jihad. Draft sectarian groups now head to head with their opponents have killed thousands of members of rival sectors, have strong support from external sympathizers, and have spread in the country. The well planned terrorist activities of these groups reflect the fact that support to these groups in the past is now leading to a severe crisis in Pakistan. The nexuses of these indigenous extremists like Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, Lashkar-e-Taiba, Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan, and Hizb-ul-Mujahideen with external terrorist organizations like Al-Qaeda, the Taliban, and Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan of Tahir Yuldasher Chechen Guerilla War has led to several bloody clashes in the country and outside.

Details

Governance, Development and Conflict
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-896-1

Book part
Publication date: 23 August 2012

Sadia Saeed

This paper examines the Pakistani state's shift from the accommodation to exclusion of the heterodox Ahmadiyya community, a self-defined minority sect of Islam. In 1953…

Abstract

This paper examines the Pakistani state's shift from the accommodation to exclusion of the heterodox Ahmadiyya community, a self-defined minority sect of Islam. In 1953, the Pakistani state rejected demands by a religious movement that Ahmadis be legally declared non-Muslim. In 1974 however, the same demand was accepted. This paper argues that this shift in the state's policy toward Ahmadis was contingent on the distinct political fields in which the two religious movements were embedded. Specifically, it points to conjunctures among two processes that defined state–religious movement relations: intrastate struggles for political power, and the framing strategies of religious movements vis-à-vis core symbolic issues rife in the political field. Consequently, the exclusion of Ahmadis resulted from the transformation of the political field itself, characterized by the increasing hegemony of political discourses referencing Islam, shift toward electoral politics, and the refashioning of the religious movement through positing the “Ahmadi issue” as a national question pertaining to democratic norms.

Details

Political Power and Social Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-867-0

Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Syed Zulfiqar Ali Shah, Maqsood Ahmad and Faisal Mahmood

This paper aims to clarify the mechanism by which heuristics influences the investment decisions of individual investors, actively trading on the Pakistan Stock Exchange…

8323

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to clarify the mechanism by which heuristics influences the investment decisions of individual investors, actively trading on the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX), and the perceived efficiency of the market. Most studies focus on well-developed financial markets and very little is known about investors’ behaviour in less developed financial markets or emerging markets. The present study contributes to filling this gap in the literature.

Design/methodology/approach

Investors’ heuristic biases have been measured using a questionnaire, containing numerous items, including indicators of speculators, investment decisions and perceived market efficiency variables. The sample consists of 143 investors trading on the PSX. A convenient, purposively sampling technique was used for data collection. To examine the relationship between heuristic biases, investment decisions and perceived market efficiency, hypotheses were tested by using correlation and regression analysis.

Findings

The paper provides empirical insights into the relationship of heuristic biases, investment decisions and perceived market efficiency. The results suggest that heuristic biases (overconfidence, representativeness, availability and anchoring) have a markedly negative impact on investment decisions made by individual investors actively trading on the PSX and on perceived market efficiency.

Research limitations/implications

The primary limitation of the empirical review is the tiny size of the sample. A larger sample would have given more trustworthy results and could have empowered a more extensive scope of investigation.

Practical implications

The paper encourages investors to avoid relying on heuristics or their feelings when making investments. It provides awareness and understanding of heuristic biases in investment management, which could be very useful for decision makers and professionals in financial institutions, such as portfolio managers and traders in commercial banks, investment banks and mutual funds. This paper helps investors to select better investment tools and avoid repeating expensive errors, which occur due to heuristic biases. They can improve their performance by recognizing their biases and errors of judgment, to which we are all prone, resulting in a more efficient market. So, it is necessary to focus on a specific investment strategy to control “mental mistakes” by investors, due to heuristic biases.

Originality/value

The current study is the first of its kind, focusing on the link between heuristics, individual investment decisions and perceived market efficiency within the specific context of Pakistan.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 November 2022

Mosharrof Hosen, Samuel Ogbeibu, Weng Marc Lim, Alberto Ferraris, Ziaul Haque Munim and Yee-Lee Chong

Extant literature on knowledge sharing in higher education institutions (HEIs) concentrates on non-behavioral perspectives and indicates that academics continue to hoard…

Abstract

Purpose

Extant literature on knowledge sharing in higher education institutions (HEIs) concentrates on non-behavioral perspectives and indicates that academics continue to hoard knowledge despite being given incentives to bolster knowledge sharing behavior (KSB). This study aims to examine KSB among academics from a behavioral perspective through the lenses of the theory of planned behavior, perceived trust and organizational climate.

Design/methodology/approach

Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 12 private universities using the drop-off/pick-up approach, resulting in 405 usable responses, which were analyzed using covariance-based structural equation modeling.

Findings

Academics’ salient beliefs – that is, behavioral beliefs, normative beliefs and control beliefs – significantly influence their attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control (PBC). Attitude, subjective norms, PBC, perceived trust and organizational climate directly influence knowledge sharing intention (KSI), whereas attitude, KSI, subjective norms and PBC directly influence KSB. Noteworthily, KSI is a mediator in the relationships between attitude, subjective norms and PBC with KSB.

Originality/value

This study makes a seminal contribution through the novel conceptualization and theoretical generalizability of the theory of planned behavior by which HEIs can reinforce their competitiveness and global position by enhancing KSB among academics using a profound behavioral strategy.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

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