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Book part
Publication date: 4 July 2019

Gardenia Harris

This chapter examines the history and evolution of land use regulation in the United States. The economic effect and influence on neighborhood composition is considered…

Abstract

This chapter examines the history and evolution of land use regulation in the United States. The economic effect and influence on neighborhood composition is considered. The work of political theorists Antonio Gramsci and Michel Foucault is utilized to analyze the practice of zoning in the United States. An overview of the Standard Zoning Enabling Act, which sets the foundation for zoning within the United States, is presented. Michel Foucault’s notion of “disciplinary power” and Gramsci’s theory of “environmental hegemony” are highlighted to elucidate how land use regulations have operated to enhance the social and economic status of some populations, while limiting the opportunities of others. The potential for changing land use polices is also discussed.

Details

Political Authority, Social Control and Public Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-049-9

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2020

Honghao Tang, Qi Yue, Chen Wang, Lingling Zhou, Jing Yu, Wen Wu, Ruoyan Feng and Chen Ma

The major marine functional zoning plan (MMFZP) and marine functional zoning (MFZ) are two important kinds of marine spatial planning (MSP) in China. Their developing and…

Abstract

Purpose

The major marine functional zoning plan (MMFZP) and marine functional zoning (MFZ) are two important kinds of marine spatial planning (MSP) in China. Their developing and implementation are integral to rational marine utilization and sustainable marine development. The purpose of this research is to study how these two kinds of MSP work in coordination in China.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reviewed the present status of MSP research in China and abroad and presented a comparative study of the MMFZP and MFZ from different aspects, analyzing the relationship between the two.

Findings

The study found obvious differences between the MMFZP and MFZ, with respect to their concept and connotation, purpose and goal, as well as zoning methods and zoning functions. MFZ provides reference with respect to data, zoning methods and partial zoning results for the MMFZP, which in turn takes measures for addressing issues faced by MFZ and promotes the national MSP work.

Originality/value

In the process of developing and implementing the two zoning plans, this paper emphasizes the necessity to strengthen data sharing, reference of zoning techniques and coordination in zoning work, which will help to improve China's marine spatial management.

Details

Marine Economics and Management, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-158X

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2009

Paul D. Gottlieb and Adesoji Adelaja

This paper aims to build a mathematical model to determine the price of an acre of developable land, whether it is part of a large open tract (farm) or a smaller…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to build a mathematical model to determine the price of an acre of developable land, whether it is part of a large open tract (farm) or a smaller residential parcel that can legally be subdivided. The primary purpose of the model is to explore the effect of various minimum lot‐size regulations on the price of these two types of vacant land. The study also attempts to explain apparently conflicting findings that have recently appeared in empirical studies of “down‐zoning” in the states of Maryland and New Jersey.

Design/methodology/approach

The mathematical model of land value is based on principles of asset valuation under uncertainty at various locations within a metropolitan area. The price of an acre of land is modeled as the present value of a stream of indirect utility to homeowners, and economic rents to farmers, developers or landlords, depending on an endogenous date of development. The cases of New Jersey and Maryland are compared using parameterized simulations, with minimum lot size allowed to vary.

Findings

The simulations reconcile earlier empirical studies on Maryland and New Jersey. The observed absence of any price effect of down‐zoning in rural Maryland appears to be caused by the fact that development is not imminent there. In New Jersey, development is imminent virtually everywhere, and a high proportion of today's vacant land value is due to its development potential. This means that down‐zoning will typically lead to dramatic declines in vacant land value in New Jersey.

Research limitations/implications

The study relies on state averages, so its results should not be applied to particular parcels in Maryland or New Jersey. The study incorporates uncertainty in expected developer profits, but not in future political decisions.

Practical implications

By clarifying the context in which zoning changes will or will not lead to decline in a landowner's asset value, the study can inform legal and political debates over re‐zonings in the USA. Included in these debates is the claim that some re‐zonings violate the “takings” clause of the USA constitution.

Originality/value

The majority of papers on this subject are empirical, using a hedonic or an appraisal methodology. This paper provides a coherent theoretical model of per‐acre land prices under different levels of zoning restriction. It can be used for simulation or prediction with relatively few input parameters.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 69 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2017

Mick Hayes

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the impact of zoning and pooling on brands, something not covered in depth in the historical literature. Also, the paper is…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the impact of zoning and pooling on brands, something not covered in depth in the historical literature. Also, the paper is intended to present research into how brands in the food, drink and confectionery industries during the Second World War used advertising in response to the government control of the market.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on a close reading and interpretation of food, drink and confectionery brands advertisements from the Daily Express and Daily Mirror newspapers across the Second World War. Building on the work by Burridge (2008), it explores different message strategies used by brands in response to shortages, zoning and pooling.

Findings

While rationing has been discussed at length in the historical literature, zoning and pooling have not been. While brands provided information to their customers about rationing, shortages, zoning and pooling, the latter three also caused brands to apologise, look to the future and urge patience.

Research limitations/implications

This study is based on the Daily Express and Daily Mirror from August 1939 to September 1945. Further research could explore other publications or the period after the war as control continued. Exploration of brand and agency archives could also provide more background into brands’ objectives and decision-making.

Originality/value

This is the first research to explore the impact of forms of control other than rationing on advertising during the Second World War.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1998

Malcolm O. Asadoorian

Zoning is typically deemed a negative‐sum game accompanied by a call for the establishment of a market for development rights. Using a formal one‐stage game of a typical…

Abstract

Zoning is typically deemed a negative‐sum game accompanied by a call for the establishment of a market for development rights. Using a formal one‐stage game of a typical zoning lottery, I demonstrate that zoning is not exclusively negative‐sum, but can also be positive‐sum, even with internalized social costs.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 19 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Jeffrey G. Robert and Velma Zahirovic-Herbert

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the parcel-level impacts of the zoning change.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the parcel-level impacts of the zoning change.

Design/methodology/approach

Using hedonic regression and propensity score matching econometric techniques, this paper analyses single-family housing prices within Fulton County Georgia. This paper combines data on the parcel-level zoning changes with nearby housing sales transactions to study the potential externality effects because of rezoning induced by private parties.

Findings

The paper finds evidence of heterogeneous rezoning effects, depending upon the type of rezoning conducted. At a distance within 0.75 miles, housing prices appreciate by 8.31% when nearby privately initiated rezoning maintains the residential character of a neighbourhood. However, housing prices decline by 21.26% when residential housing zones are converted to non-residential housing zones. The negative influences of rezoning residential use to non-residential uses decline as distance increases.

Originality/value

The analysis provides quantitative information on the impact of rezoning on residential property prices. Planning officials and developers can use these results to assuage homeowner fears of potential negative housing price effects associated with rezoning.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

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Book part
Publication date: 16 May 2013

Bruno Lobo

This chapter analyzes the role of new local planning frameworks in the development of urban megaprojects (UMPs). It argues that the way projects are integrated with…

Abstract

This chapter analyzes the role of new local planning frameworks in the development of urban megaprojects (UMPs). It argues that the way projects are integrated with existing planning controls and statutory procedures influences how its costs and benefits are distributed. Drawing on the case studies of the Special Hudson Yards District in New York City, the “Zone d’Amenagement Concerte Clichy-Batignolles” in Paris and the Operacao Urbana Agua Branca in Sao Paulo, it compares how the legislative reforms and strategic plans enacted in each city impacted development programs, implementation process, and public benefits delivered by each project. This is a comparative case study analysis using quantitative and qualitative data collected through planning documents, press articles, interviews, and field research on the planning process of the three case studies, their administrative and institutional frameworks focused combined with quantitative analysis of the development proposals and outcomes of each project. The research shows how the articulation between the new plans and the underlying zoning districts as well as willingness by the city to commit public funds to finance the required upfront investments influence the ability of cities to extract public benefits from urban megaprojects and improve integration with surrounding neighborhoods, transport infrastructure, and regional policy. Based on a succinct review of the related literature the chapter illustrates the evolving role of public agencies and land-use regulation in the development of UMPs, illustrates the material expression of strategic planning on legislative reform and policy statements, provides a comparative analysis of contrasting legal systems, and suggests policy formulations that can improve the “public return” generated by UMPs.

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Book part
Publication date: 30 January 2014

Ram Alagan and Seela Aladuwaka

Participatory geographic information systems (PGIS) have been increasingly employed for decision-making in planning, environmental conservation, zoning, and development…

Abstract

Participatory geographic information systems (PGIS) have been increasingly employed for decision-making in planning, environmental conservation, zoning, and development. This research explores the use of PGIS and its significant role for environmental zoning plans (EZP). PGIS methodology intends to incorporate local knowledge, increase data access, multiple realities, and bottom-up decision-making in EZP in a very sensitive water body in Southern Sri Lanka.

This research presents the lessons learned from a case study of Madu Ganga estuary in Galle District, Sri Lanka. Madu Ganga is an extraordinarily stretch of water body (an estuary) with abundant natural resources and beauty. In recent years, Madu Ganga has faced serious environmental threats due to increase in human activities leading to overexploitation of natural resources. To protect and manage this valuable environment, a team of geographers from the Center for Environmental Studies, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka was invited by the Coastal Resource Management Project to undertake the zoning study. Various participatory methods including PGIS applications were adopted and affected communities were also involved in developing a zoning plan. The study illustrates that the use of PGIS approach is effective in incorporating local people into environmental planning, and it also supports affected people to be actively involved in development activities in their own communities.

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Voices of Globalization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-546-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2004

Marko Kryvobokov

This paper is devoted to urban land zoning for taxation purposes in advance of the establishment of a land market. It typifies most urban areas in Ukraine, a country in…

Abstract

This paper is devoted to urban land zoning for taxation purposes in advance of the establishment of a land market. It typifies most urban areas in Ukraine, a country in transition to a market economy. The assessed values in Ukraine do not reflect market values, as the land market is immature. The disadvantages of the current assessment system are described. The reasons why the usual Western valuation methods cannot be applied are also discussed. A proposal is presented here for a new approach to the analysis of land values and real estate markets. For this purpose, three groups of methods are described and evaluated. In the proposed structure of assessment zoning, several possible approaches to zones formation are foreseen. While the paper proposes methods that could be used, these are not backed up with empirical data. The implementation of the proposed approach is the subject for future research.

Details

Property Management, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article
Publication date: 8 November 2011

Prabhat Kumar, Ashwini Kumar and Amita Sinvhal

For a state like Uttarakhand, which is located in the seismically active Himalayan region and in the vicinity of plate boundaries, estimation of seismic hazards and the…

Abstract

Purpose

For a state like Uttarakhand, which is located in the seismically active Himalayan region and in the vicinity of plate boundaries, estimation of seismic hazards and the preparation of a zoning map are an urgent necessity. This paper aims to focus on this hazard.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 32 potential seismo‐tectonic source zones were identified in a very wide area in and around the state, on the basis of seismicity and tectonics, and the longer ones were segmented. The maximum magnitude that each seismo‐tectonic source zone can support was then estimated. The seismic hazard due to each seismo‐tectonic source zone was assessed at 180 sites, in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA).

Findings

The maximum PGA at each site varied between 0.06g and 0.50g. The seismic hazard was highest around the main central thrust and the main boundary thrust, and five other thrusts between these two thrusts. This assessment was adapted to make a seismic zoning map of Uttarakhand, with five distinct zones.

Research limitations/implications

If seismo‐tectonic source zones from the contiguous regions of Nepal and Tibet were included as part of this assessment, then a higher hazard would be expected in Uttarakhand.

Practical implications

Threat perceptions of a potential earthquake disaster can be assessed in this zoning map. Disaster mitigation strategies will vary geographically, with priorities defined by the zoning map presented here. The methodology evolved has the potential to be extended to other vulnerable states in the Himalayan arc.

Originality/value

The seismic hazard assessed has been adapted to formulate a seismic zoning map of Uttarakhand.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

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