Search results

1 – 10 of over 10000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Reinhard Müllner and Andreas Riener

Conventional street lighting systems in areas with a low frequency of passersby are online most of the night without purpose. The consequence is that a large amount of…

Abstract

Purpose

Conventional street lighting systems in areas with a low frequency of passersby are online most of the night without purpose. The consequence is that a large amount of power is wasted meaninglessly. With the broad availability of flexible‐lighting technology like light‐emitting diode lamps and everywhere available wireless internet connection, fast reacting, reliably operating, and power‐conserving street lighting systems become reality. The purpose of this work is to describe the Smart Street Lighting (SSL) system, a first approach to accomplish the demand for flexible public lighting systems.

Design/methodology/approach

This work presents the SSL system, a framework developed for a dynamic switching of street lamps based on pedestrians' locations and desired safety (or “fear”) zones. In the developed system prototype, each pedestrian is localized via his/her smartphone, periodically sending location and configuration information to the SSL server. For street lamp control, each and every lamppost is equipped with a ZigBee‐based radio device, receiving control information from the SSL server via multi‐hop routing.

Findings

This research paper confirms that the application of the proposed SSL system has great potential to revolutionize street lighting, particularly in suburban areas with low‐pedestrian frequency. More important, the broad utilization of SSL can easily help to overcome the regulatory requirement for CO2 emission reduction by switching off lampposts whenever they are not required.

Research limitations/implications

The paper discusses in detail the implementation of SSL, and presents results of its application on a small scale. Experiments have shown that objects like trees can interrupt wireless communication between lampposts and that inaccuracy of global positioning system position detection can lead to unexpected lighting effects.

Originality/value

This paper introduces the novel SSL framework, a system for fast, reliable, and energy efficient street lamp switching based on a pedestrian's location and personal desires of safety. Both safety zone definition and position estimation in this novel approach is accomplished using standard smartphone capabilities. Suggestions for overcoming these issues are discussed in the last part of the paper.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Shulin Gu

This work aims to address source and dynamics of institutional change. It seeks to develop analytic tools by adaptation of Schumpeterian notion on entrepreneurship…

Abstract

Purpose

This work aims to address source and dynamics of institutional change. It seeks to develop analytic tools by adaptation of Schumpeterian notion on entrepreneurship, Nelson's work on basic institutions and specific institutions, and Nonaka's middle‐up‐down framework of knowledge management in contrast to top‐down process. Pragmatically it attempts to understand how to improve policy capacity that challenges China seriously.

Design/methodology/approach

The work adopts a detailed case study method. A paired case is chosen with the criteria that they have widespread impact in China, and are representative of general and specific institutional change, respectively. Data came from mixed sources: field work and publications. Comparison of the paired cases identifies similarities and differences of different institutional change.

Findings

Similarities in the cases are in the important role of institutional entrepreneurs, crucial necessity of field experimentation, and regulatory and legislative means of knowledge processing. Differences are that centralized “top‐down” process of knowledge development, together with committed and centrally guided field experimentation, characterizes general institutional change. In contrast, coordinated and distributed “middle‐up‐down” process, together with autonomously emerged creation at the grassroots, characterizes specific institutional change.

Research limitations/implications

This is a new research area. Many more empirical and theoretical works are needed.

Practical implications

As to how China should improve policy capacity, the study indicates: to focus policy learning on specific parts and facets of institutional settings; to change policy‐makers' role from omni‐competent controller to catalyst/promoter of institutional change; to assign an active role to middle levels and allow broader participation and diverse experimentations.

Originality/value

The author explores interesting details of institutional entrepreneurship and institutional changes based on the two case studies. This work fills the gap of how to analyze institutional change from the innovation/innovation systems perspective.

Details

Journal of Science and Technology Policy in China, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-552X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Sara María Torres Outón

The purpose of this paper is to explore, through the analysis case, how the revitalization of a historic centre has been carried out and the role of tourism in this process.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore, through the analysis case, how the revitalization of a historic centre has been carried out and the role of tourism in this process.

Design/methodology/approach

This case study area is well-documented as there has been extensive fieldwork on the transformation of the commercial sector in the Monumental Zone of Pontevedra in the last three decades. In order to prepare this paper, a bibliographic review, in-depth interviews, premises registration data and population data have been used.

Findings

The findings show that the processes of change and revitalization do not conform to a single reality common to all historical centres, although similar strategies are developed, the role of the participating actors and, especially, the idiosyncrasy of these spaces change the outcomes. On the one hand, gentrification does not occur and the increase of residential uses is still a goal. On the other hand, the tourism strategy brings more visitors and complements the commerce activity and attraction.

Social implications

The new challenge of these spaces, and the urban contribution from this research, is that in the appropriation of space by citizens, tourism may be a complement for commerce, and shops and hospitality (facilities) make these spaces more livable. Although tourism does not necessarily increase the number of residents, the revenue from tourism may prevent the reoccurrence of abandonment.

Originality/value

The paper focusses on both gentrification and touristification; processes that have led to the substitution of residents and activities and the conflict with the local population and the normalization of urban life. This case has been selected because despite a seemingly successful revitalization process, recently some old threats seem to be returning.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Michael Rehm and Olga Filippova

The purpose of this paper is to explore and quantify the impact of geographically defined school zones on house prices in New Zealand.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore and quantify the impact of geographically defined school zones on house prices in New Zealand.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper develops a series of hedonic pricing models to analyse 10,000 house sales transactions over a 21‐year period within a compact group of inner Auckland suburbs, which represents the epicentre of the school zoning debate in New Zealand. The study diverts from past research, which mainly focuses on school quality measures such as standardised test scores, and instead analyses the comprehensive price impacts of access to popular state schools. Its unique approach employs a geographic information system to divide the study area into effective school zones and then further subdivide into suburbs, thus offering a vital indicator of internal validity.

Findings

The study's findings indicate that the influence of school zoning on house prices is not uniform and the variation in price effects is largely a function of the uncertainty of future zone boundary definitions. Although some “in‐zone” suburbs have enjoyed accelerated house price growth following the reintroduction of zoning in 2000, peripheral suburbs’ price premiums have diminished.

Originality/value

In contrast to standard hedonic studies on school quality, this paper offers an innovative approach that integrates geography to solve what is essentially a spatial economic problem.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Justin Birch and Graham Squires

The purpose of this paper is to consider heritage for buildings within Enterprise Zones – a programme promoted by central government to improve the UK economy. A central…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider heritage for buildings within Enterprise Zones – a programme promoted by central government to improve the UK economy. A central view has been focusing on economic growth, with little thought given to the wider implications of heritage when imposing these zones of deregulation.

Design/methodology/approach

An illustrative case study of Bristol Temple Quarter Enterprise Zone is used that includes primary interviews with key stakeholders involved in the zone. This is synthesised with secondary literature review allowing an investigation of the way in which heritage issues are being dealt with and the resulting implications for both Bristol and in other zones in the UK.

Findings

Conflicts are demonstrated between the objectives of the Enterprise Zone scheme and those of heritage protection, indicating that they are not natural partners. It is argued that existing statutory protection is not necessarily enough to safeguard the heritage of these areas, given that the balance of power is now tipped in favour of economic growth.

Originality/value

If lessons can be learnt from this study then potential heritage issues from similar zoned developments can be avoided. The study encourages positive engagement with heritage by central government. Furthermore, it presents the first academic study that considers heritage within the latest tranche of spatially targeted fiscal incentive programmes.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

James J. Divoky and Mary Anne Rothermel

The purpose of this paper is to explore and analyze the effectiveness of long period supplementary zone rules that can simultaneously increase chart sensitivity to small…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore and analyze the effectiveness of long period supplementary zone rules that can simultaneously increase chart sensitivity to small process drift and not significantly increase the false alarm rate.

Design/methodology/approach

A stable, on‐target process was simulated and drift induced into the process. The rates of drift varied from 0.03σ to .0003σ per subgroup measurement. A total of 613 different supplementary zone rules were implemented in conjunction with the three‐sigma limiting rule. For each combination, 100,000 observations were simulated and the effect on the false alarm rate and increase in chart sensitivity estimated. An effectiveness measure was developed to relate false alarm rate to chart sensitivity.

Findings

A total of 87 rules were uncovered which effectively detected a wide range of process drifts. When the increase in chart sensitivity is discounted by the false alarm rate, 13 rules increased chart sensitivity by over 10 percent. These rules were based on longer rather than shorter rule length.

Research limitations/implications

The effective rules discovered form a nonlinear pattern in the space the examined rules define. This indicates a direction for future research outside the scope of this study. These rules are also easy to implement in existing Shewhart chart applications where the process drifts at an unknown rate.

Originality/value

While supplementary trend rules have been studied in the past, the extension to zone rules has not been made. This study begins to fill that void and indicates the direction for future efforts in the area.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Rolf F.H. Schroeder

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the Tausch- or barter-centers that existed in Germany during the 1940s. These small but unique platforms for the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the Tausch- or barter-centers that existed in Germany during the 1940s. These small but unique platforms for the exchange of consumer durables represent an almost unknown chapter in economic history. This contribution aims to describe the major characteristics of these organizations and to investigate the implications of these findings for community currencies in general.

Design/methodology/approach

An analysis is conducted of primary sources, which bring to light different types of these alternative markets. This is complemented by a comprehensive study of secondary sources.

Findings

Theoretically, these exchange systems are interpreted as operating within boundaries. The results of this research project are not only relevant for our understanding of the war and post-war economy in Germany, at a time when the market mechanism was suppressed, this peculiar case also sheds some light on the functioning of markets. Furthermore, a better knowledge of the structure of the Tausch- or barter-centers is relevant with regard to our understanding of the functioning of community currencies in general.

Originality/value

This paper provides the first survey of these organizations.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article

Tarun Dhingra, Tripti Singh and Ambalika Sinha

The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for the firms located inside special economic zones (SEZs) in India and to assess the effect of location on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for the firms located inside special economic zones (SEZs) in India and to assess the effect of location on competitiveness of the firm.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review is done to identify the variables and intermediate variables including sub‐variables which affect the location competitiveness of the firm that leads to superior firm performance. Literature support for all the variables in the framework is discussed to establish a logical sequence.

Findings

Hypotheses are formulated in a sequential framework to draw relationships between location of a firm in an SEZ as latent function, intermediate functions, and superior firm performance as a dependent function.

Research limitations/implications

This developed framework is yet to be empirically tested. Such a paper can be applied in manufacturing industries located in an SEZ.

Practical implications

Location competitiveness is an important strategic decision for industries. The paper on location strategy for competitiveness of SEZs helps in identifying a framework including various prepositions that lead to superior firm performance.

Originality/value

The value of the paper lies in its attempt to propose a relationship between firm location and its effect on firm competitiveness. The approach emphasizes multiple interrelationships between sets of variables and also suggests a quantitative research methodology, i.e. structured equation model, to test empirically.

Details

Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1059-5422

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part

Per Gårder

Purpose – This chapter aims to advise the public as well as municipal, state and national agencies about how pedestrian safety can be improved through changes in our built…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter aims to advise the public as well as municipal, state and national agencies about how pedestrian safety can be improved through changes in our built environment. Higher safety can lead to more walking and thereby a more sustainable society.

Methodology – The chapter is based on a review of literature, including a review of published papers and field studies by the author himself.

Findings – To reach ‘acceptable’ safety levels, all arterials and collector roads – at least segments with more than 50 pedestrians a day – should have sidewalks. The sidewalks should be separated from the roadway by a curb if speeds are low and by a barrier or wide separation strip in high-speed areas; that is, where speeds are higher than 50 km/h. Local roads also need sidewalks unless traffic volumes and speeds are very low. The major safety issue for pedestrians is, however, where they cross streets. Elderly pedestrians and pedestrians in a great hurry or under the influence of intoxicants in particular need streets to be narrow and have low speeds for them to be able to cross safely. Marking crosswalks or even signalising them will have only marginal safety effects at best. Posting them for low speed is also not enough unless we have photo speed-enforcement ensuring that everyone drives slowly. Rather, using narrow cross-sections or speed cushions at the approaches ensuring that 90-percentile speeds are no more than 30 km/h at crossing points is key to safety. In between crossing points a speed of 50 km/h is acceptable with pedestrians on adjacent sidewalks.

Social implications – We as a society need to encourage walking as a mode of transportation since walking promotes better health and a cleaner environment; that is, a more sustainable society. However, it has to be safe to walk or people will prefer to drive to their destinations. Also, distances between destination points have to be kept reasonably short and the environment, where people walk needs to be interesting and aesthetically somewhat pleasing to encourage walking.

Details

Safe Mobility: Challenges, Methodology and Solutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-223-1

Keywords

Content available
Article

Lissette Aliaga Linares

The purpose of this paper is to challenge the default portrayal of street trade as an informal occupation and spatial practice, by examining comparatively the changes in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to challenge the default portrayal of street trade as an informal occupation and spatial practice, by examining comparatively the changes in the regulatory frameworks of two politically distinct city administrations in Latin America since the introduction of the informal economy debate.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper draws from a comparative case study design to synthesize evidence from historical administrative records, secondary research and materials from a two-year fieldwork carried out in Lima and Bogotá in 2008 and 2009.

Findings

The author argues that the incorporation of the informal economy framework into local governments’ policymaking has reframed street trade as a subject of policy. Since the 1970s, the author traces a shift from worker-centered initiatives, through the deregulation of street trade, to entrepreneurial-centered approaches. Nowadays, both, Lima’s neoliberal governance focusing on “formalizing” and Bogotá’s socialist/progressive governance aiming at “upgrading” street trade respond more explicitly to distinct assessments about the informal economy – legalist and dualist, respectively. Yet, both cities converge in that the closer street trade is perceived as an informal occupation; the more likely policy initiatives decouple the right to work from the right to access public space, spurring more marginal forms of street vending.

Originality/value

Even though the informal economy framework has helped to draw attention to important policy issues locally, nationally and internationally, this paper calls for a critical revision of such framing at the local level to allow for inclusive urban governance.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 38 no. 7-8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 10000