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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2018

Zoltán Krajcsák

The purpose of this study is to describe the relationship between organizational commitment and organizational culture with self-evaluation as a mediator variable. The theoretical…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to describe the relationship between organizational commitment and organizational culture with self-evaluation as a mediator variable. The theoretical framework evaluates the culture–commitment relationship based on the characteristics of the individual and underpins explanations of commitment patterns assigned to certain dimensions of organizational culture.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a purely theoretical approach, an instrument of which is abstract model creation.

Findings

The individual factors that reinforce deliberate, affective and professional commitment are the hierarchy culture; self-esteem; and self-efficacy, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

The existence of the relationship between the four factors of self-evaluation and the dimensions of the competing values framework (CVF) can be justified by secondary data analysis, although the direction of the causality is still questionable. Practical application of the theoretical model should be supported by empirical analyses in the future.

Originality/value

Research activity in organizational psychology is still mapping the elusive relationship between organizational culture and organizational commitment. In terms of organizational culture, the model is based upon the CVF and uses the five-dimension model of employee commitment instead of the mainstream concept of organizational commitment. This theoretical framework is suitable for evaluating the relationship between organizational culture and commitment when considering the individual features of the employee and supports the explanation of commitment patterns assigned to cultural dimensions.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 November 2020

Zoltán Krajcsák

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how employee commitment and identification affect the intra-group conflicts and to demonstrate the moderator role of some dimensions of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how employee commitment and identification affect the intra-group conflicts and to demonstrate the moderator role of some dimensions of core self-evaluation (CSE) on the relationship between commitment and conflict. Exploring relationships can provide a better understanding of the nature of intra-group conflicts and the development of prevention and conflict management strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses case studies to illustrate the factors that amplify and weaken conflicts. Case studies describe conflicts within a single multinational company.

Findings

According to the results, the high levels of affective commitment and the degree of group identification reduce the relationship conflict, and the impact of affective commitment on the relationship conflict is moderated by the degree of self-esteem. The high levels of normative commitment and the degree of organizational identification reduce the process conflict, and the impact of normative commitment on process conflict is moderated by the degree of self-control. The high levels of professional commitment and the degree of occupational identification reduce the task conflict and that the impact of professional commitment on the task conflict is moderated by the degree of self-efficacy.

Research limitations/implications

The results should also be confirmed by research using a quantitative method.

Practical implications

Managers need to increase employees’ commitment in a targeted way to increase their performance and to prevent conflicts. An important lesson for recruitment professionals is that in jobs where conflict prevention is particularly important, CSE levels that determine personality traits should also be tested.

Originality/value

The degree of commitment and identification also largely depends on organizational circumstances and the support of the manager. The factors brought into play by the employees, including the personality of the staff involved in the conflict, also play a role in conflicts. While these do not trigger it, some personality variables influence the outcome of conflicts. The study demonstrates that targeted enhancement of employee commitment and identification can address intra-group conflicts and that CSE is able to prevent certain types of intra-group conflicts through its moderating effect.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2019

Zoltán Krajcsák

The purpose of this paper is to show what motivational strategies can be applied to a successful implementation of total quality management (TQM) and how these support employee…

2084

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show what motivational strategies can be applied to a successful implementation of total quality management (TQM) and how these support employee commitment.

Design/methodology/approach

The relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to employee commitment is illustrated by presenting two case studies.

Findings

Extrinsic motivation plays a role in enhancing normative commitment as a sense of indebtedness. Intrinsic motivation promotes a high level of normative commitment as moral duty and also a high level of affective commitment. Even if a TQM implementation project is not successful, the efforts to increase commitment are likely also have a cultural impact.

Originality/value

The presented framework helps senior executives motivate employees properly to support organizational commitment and also the success of TQM implementation.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 38 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 July 2018

Zoltán Krajcsák

The purpose of this paper is to create a theoretical framework that shows how the specialties of the organizational culture relate to the success of quality management systems’…

2322

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to create a theoretical framework that shows how the specialties of the organizational culture relate to the success of quality management systems’ (QMSs) application. In addition to these variables, the dependent variables of employees’ self-evaluation and some dimensions of commitment are also analyzed.

Design/methodology/approach

Unsuccessful organizational implementations of ISO 9000, total quality management (TQM) and Six Sigma are presented in case studies. These conclusions are utilized to retrieve individual and organizational barriers to the variables considered in each culture.

Findings

The characteristics of adhocracy determine self-efficacy and professional commitment. Through high levels of these variables, Six Sigma can be suggested for adhocracies. The clan culture is characterized by a high level of affective commitment and self-esteem, which support the TQM together with the internal focus dimension of the culture. The market culture is characterized by a high level of continuance commitment and neuroticism, which support ISO 9000 standards together with the control dimension of the culture.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of the findings comes from the small sample size. The model presented is partly based on case studies; therefore, further research studies need to support or refute it.

Practical implications

In the practical use of the results, QMSs can be selected more targeted, reducing the risk of failing quality improvement strategies.

Social implications

Increasing and aligning quality and commitment in organizations supports the strengthening of individual and social well-being.

Originality/value

The study attempts to determine the most appropriate QMSs for organizational cultures in a complex way by analyzing the relationships between multiple organizational and individual variables.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 56 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 June 2019

Zoltán Krajcsák

The purpose of this paper is to discover the relationship between the extended organizational commitment model (EOCM) and self-determination theory (SDT). The author shows that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discover the relationship between the extended organizational commitment model (EOCM) and self-determination theory (SDT). The author shows that specific dimensions of commitment can be associated with the forms of regulation and motivation.

Design/methodology/approach

Using literature analysis, the author sets the theoretical relationships between commitment and regulation (and motivation). The interrelated relationships are illustrated qualitatively by presenting case studies.

Findings

Like the regulation-based motivation scale, the dimensions of organizational commitment (OC) can be sorted and combined with regulation and motivation. The emotional-based OC dimensions (normative commitment as a sense of indebtedness (NC:HiSoI); normative commitment as a moral duty (NC:HiMD); affective commitment (AC)) are influenced by regulation and motivation. In the case of cost-based OC dimensions (deliberate commitment (DC); continuance commitment as a low perceived alternatives (CC:LoAlt); continuance commitment as high sacrifice (CC:HiSac)), the leaders’ motivational strategies are driven by their perceives of the employees’ OC. Commitment dimensions stemming from a degree of necessity are linked to lower levels of regulation, while commitment dimensions stemming from internal conviction are linked to the higher levels of regulation.

Research limitations/implications

The results also must be proved by quantitative researches later. The model presented in this study primarily supports the theoretical understanding of relationships, so its validity should be tested in different cultures, professions or employees with different qualifications and personalities in the future.

Practical implications

Significant resources can be saved for an organization if managers do not want to increase OC in general, rather only its one dimension, depending on the situation and goals, or if managers form their employees’ commitment profiles in a smaller team severally. However, in other cases, the employees’ commitment profiles set the useable motivational strategies, which call into question the suitability of universal motivation systems.

Social implications

From the point of view of employees, the synergy between regulation (and motivation) and OC contributes to the improvement of their psychological well-being and means more efficient use of resources for organizations.

Originality/value

The study shows the hierarchy of dimensions of the EOCM and its relationship with regulations in the SDT.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 January 2022

Zoltán Krajcsák and Anita Kozák

The purpose of this article is to show how remote working affects employees' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB).

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to show how remote working affects employees' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted research on organizations in the financial sector, as this segment was able to easily adapt to the challenges of remote working and teleworking. They used the case study approach: they analyzed organizational documents and management communications related to crisis management back to March 2020, when the pandemic started in Hungary, and conducted semi-structured interviews with managers and subordinates.

Findings

The results highlighted that the dominant organizational culture determines the effects of remote working on OCB. In organizations with a dominant market culture, OCB has changed the least because of the home office, with only a decline in the dimension of civic virtue. In organizations with a dominant clan culture, conscientiousness decreased, while the other three dimensions increased. The dominant hierarchy culture reacted the most unfavorably, excluding the dimension of courtesy, as all dimensions decreased.

Originality/value

The study shows how the pandemic and working in home office have changed the dimensions of OCB in different organizational cultures.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 June 2021

Zoltán Krajcsák

The purpose of this paper is to model the nature of intra-group conflicts and to show how conflict process phases that are beneficial to the organization can be supported and how…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to model the nature of intra-group conflicts and to show how conflict process phases that are beneficial to the organization can be supported and how disadvantageous conflict process phases can be prevented or managed. Task (process) and relationship conflicts can appear alternately in the same conflict process, so the overperformance cannot be estimated by the number of intra-group conflicts alone. By exploring the intra-group conflict processes, the author can identify patterns of employee commitment that can increase, mitigate or prevent certain phases of conflict processes.

Design/methodology/approach

The study presents three intra-group conflicts from the same multinational company using the narrative tool. Qualitative methods are particularly suitable for modeling feelings, thoughts, fears and workplace attitudes. The cases come from the immediate managers of the conflict-affected groups.

Findings

The process of intra-group conflicts can typically be divided into four phases: task (process) conflict; relationship conflict; task (process) conflict; end of conflict (end of teeming). Task conflict, which provides overperformance for the organization, is supported by the employees’ normative and professional commitment, while the prevention of relationship conflict, which is detrimental to performance, is supported by increasing the employees’ affective commitment. The relationship between affective commitment and relationship conflict is moderated by transformational leadership. Finally, the minimum of team performance is affected by both the degree of relationship conflict and the lack of affective commitment, while the maximum of team performance is positively affected by the degree of task (process) conflict and the employees’ normative and professional commitment.

Research limitations/implications

In the future, the results should be confirmed by researches using quantitative methods.

Practical implications

The results suggest to managers that enhancing employees’ affective commitment is primarily important for preventing the disadvantageous relationship conflicts, while enhancing their normative and professional commitment is important for fostering the performance-related task conflict. The results show that increasing commitment goes beyond the organizational value of employees’ loyalty alone, and also highlight the importance of training and development.

Originality/value

In the literature on intra-group conflicts, most studies treat task and relationship conflicts independently of each other in conflict processes. This paper shows that both conflicts can be part of the same process at the same time. In addition, little research had addressed how employee commitment reduces or increases the certain phase of a specific type of conflict process.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 20 July 2023

Hoang Bui and Zoltán Krajcsák

This study aims to investigate the relationship between corporate governance (CG) and financial performance in the case of publicly listed companies in Vietnam for the period from…

16184

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the relationship between corporate governance (CG) and financial performance in the case of publicly listed companies in Vietnam for the period from 2019 to 2021. The topic is crucial in understanding how effective governance practices can influence the financial outcomes of companies. The study sheds light on the link between CG practice and firm financial performance. It also provides insights for policymakers and practitioners to improve CG practices.

Design/methodology/approach

Due to the potential dynamic endogeneity in CG research, this study uses the generalized system methods of moments to effectively address the endogeneity problem. Financial performance is measured by Tobin’s Q, return on equity (ROE) and return on assets (ROA). Based on organization for economic cooperation and development (OECD) standards, these indices were calculated to assess the influence of CG practices on corporate financial performance, namely, for accounting information (ROA and ROE) and market performance (Tobin’s Q and service à resglement différé (SRD) – stock price volatility) for the period 2019–2021. In addition, the study examines the relationship between changes in the CG index and changes in financial performance.

Findings

The study’s main objective is to determine the relationship between CG performance scores and financial performance. The study found a positive relationship between transparency disclosure and financial performance and a positive correlation between CG and company size. The COVID-19 pandemic caused a decrease in transparency and information index scores in 2021 compared to 2019 and 2020 due to delayed General Meetings of Shareholders. The study failed to find a relationship between shareholder rights index (“cg_rosh”) and board responsibility (“cg_reob”) and financial performance, concerning which the findings of this study differ from those of previous studies. Reasons are put forward for these anomalies.

Originality/value

Policymakers need to develop a set of criteria for assessing CG practices. They also need to promulgate specific regulations for mandatory and voluntary information disclosure and designate a competent authority to certify the transparency of company information. The study also suggests that companies should develop CG regulations and focus on regulations relating to the business culture or ethics, as well as implementing a system to ensure equal treatment among shareholders. The study found that good CG practices can positively contribute to a company’s financial performance, which is crucial for investors to evaluate the quality of CG practices for each listed company so that investment risks can be limited.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 16 February 2024

Zoltán Krajcsák and Gyula Bakacsi

This study aims to answer the question of what characterizes organizations with future-potential, and with the help of a model introduced in this study, the authors propose what…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to answer the question of what characterizes organizations with future-potential, and with the help of a model introduced in this study, the authors propose what interventions can be identified and which improvements need to be made in traditional organizations so that they meet the requirements of future-potentiality.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review was conducted to identify management interventions. Citation and co-word analyses were also performed. Content analysis of 311 journal articles from the past five years was performed taking into account relevant keywords, and disciplinary narrowing was also applied. These articles were used to identify knowledge that could be used to suggest micro-, meso- and macro-level changes.

Findings

To develop the future potential of organizations, three organizational levels must be separated. The first is the micro level of relations between leaders and employees, where equity is a key value for future potentiality. It should be emphasized that not all employees’ organizational commitment is equally important for organizations with future potential, and leaders should strengthen their commitment according to individual needs and opportunities. The second is the meso level, where the decisive value is organizational moderation, and this suggests that a careful and restrained development is needed both in satisfying consumer needs and in innovation. The third is the macro level, where the defining value is responsibility and sustainability, which are necessary for achieving a state where the active development of national culture becomes possible.

Originality/value

Contrary to the authors’ expectations, it has been found that there are only a few studies dealing with change management for the purpose of achieving a future potential mode of organizational operation; thus, the results can be considered new and will contribute to the development of a cross-section of change management and future studies.

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 March 2023

Priyanko Guchait, Taylor Peyton, Juan M. Madera, Huy Gip and Arturo Molina-Collado

This study aims to examine the scientific publications related to leadership research in hospitality from 2000 to 2021 by conducting a systematic review (qualitative) and to…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the scientific publications related to leadership research in hospitality from 2000 to 2021 by conducting a systematic review (qualitative) and to discuss implications for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

For the qualitative approach, the authors conduct an in-depth critique of major leadership theories using 167 articles indexed in the Web of Science Core Collection.

Findings

The findings show that transformational leadership, leader–member exchange and servant leadership are the most prominent leadership topics studied from 2000 to 2021, followed by abusive supervision, empowering leadership, ethical leadership and authentic leadership. A framework is presented highlighting the mediators, moderators, outcomes, sample and research designs used in each of these lines of leadership research. Moreover, 16 areas for further research are identified and discussed.

Practical implications

This review uncovers scholars’ general lack of regard for how the study of leadership might benefit from examining hospitality as a special and challenging context for leadership and business performance.

Originality/value

This study reviews and critically analyzes leadership research in hospitality using qualitative methods. Therefore, the authors believe this review is of great value to academics and practitioners because it synthesizes and analyzes the field and identifies important research opportunities.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 35 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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