Eye gaze technology may be beneficial for individuals with little or no movement of their limbs. Examples of such users are those who have suffered brainstem stroke, MS or…
Eye gaze technology may be beneficial for individuals with little or no movement of their limbs. Examples of such users are those who have suffered brainstem stroke, MS or high‐level quadriplegia (Cook & Hussey, 2002). Its advantage is that it is a direct access method, with no intermediary steps involved in making a selection, thus, potentially speeding access to applications the user requires (eg. communication and environmental control). Using an eye gaze system may also be preferable for those capable of using an indirect method such as a switch accessible scanning interface. Recent advances in the technology, including demands from clinicians, clients and families, raised awareness, and independent evaluation sources such as the COGAIN (communication by gaze interaction) project have stimulated a competitive commercial market for such systems. In the UK, a number of devices are available through different suppliers. It is vital that careful assessment is conducted prior to choosing an gaze interaction system, an example being that a particular system may not accommodate a large amount of involuntary head movement, such as with athetoid CP. The same system however, may be appropriate for someone with a lesser degree of involuntary movement, as found with spinal cord injury. It is therefore important that the assessment process should include careful consideration of the individuals' strengths, identification of goals and tasks, the environment in which they are to be accomplished and identification of assistive technology options (Aigner & Blalock, 1999). This paper presents two case studies; one describes the assessment and provision of eye gaze technology for a young woman born with severe physical disability and the other for an adult with acquired brain injury.
This study set out to collect data from assistive technology professionals about their provision of speech‐driven environmental control systems. This study is part of a…
This study set out to collect data from assistive technology professionals about their provision of speech‐driven environmental control systems. This study is part of a larger study looking at developing a new speech‐driven environmental control system. A focus group for assistive technology professionals was conducted. This focus group was recorded, transcribed and then analysed using a framework approach. The analysis suggested that professionals have a ‘mental model’ of a successful user of a speech‐driven system and that in general they consider such systems either as a ‘last resort’ or to work in parallel with another system as a back‐up. Perceived poor reliability was highlighted as a major influence in the provision of speech‐driven environmental control systems although there were also positive perceptions about the use of speech under controlled circumstances. Comparison with published data from end‐users showed that professionals highlighted the majority of issues identified by end‐users. Assistive technology professionals think that speech has potential as an access method but are cautious about using speech‐driven environmental control systems predominantly due to concerns about reliability. Professionals seem able to empathise well with the challenges faced by end‐users in use of these systems.
Kazakhstan has taken considerable steps to improve the incoming mobility of international students; however, despite these measures, the number of international students…
Kazakhstan has taken considerable steps to improve the incoming mobility of international students; however, despite these measures, the number of international students studying in Kazakhstan is still very low. Research indicates that in order to attract and retain international students it is necessary to build a thorough understanding of their experiences in the host country. The purpose of this paper is to gain a better understanding of international students’ experiences in Kazakhstan by exploring how they exercise their human agency while adapting to the academic and socio-cultural life in Kazakhstan.
The author used a purposeful criterion sampling to select six international students from Afghanistan, Great Britain, Russia, South Korea, Ukraine and the USA studying at Kazakhstani universities to participate in this research. The primary data collection was semi-structured in-depth interviews. Supportive methods included a demographic questionnaire and a researcher journal.
The study revealed that the international students actively employed their human agency to negotiate their studying and to adapt to their life in Kazakhstan. They did not simply adjust to the host environment, but also learned from it and attempted to transform it according to their circumstances and goals.
The implication is that Kazakhstani universities and any other higher education institutions that seek to increase the number of their international students should consider not only how to attract these students, but also how to adapt their institution’s practices and regulations to create an inclusive learning environment for their diverse student population. It is also very important for higher education institutions to provide international students with the necessary conditions to exercise their human agency because as it was revealed by this study, international students’ human agency is a very powerful mechanism helping them live and learn comfortably in their host country.
Taking into consideration the reviewed previous research, this was the first attempt to use Albert Bandura’s social cognitive theory for the purpose of building an understanding about how international students exercise their agency while adapting to the academic and socio-cultural life in the host country. The social cognitive theory allows investigating international students as active and self-sufficient agents of their own adaptation process who can and do change themselves, and have the potential to navigate and alter their host environment to achieve their own goals. This study encourages researchers and practitioners to think about international students outside the dimension of internationalization as a means of improving country’s economic capital.
The purpose of this paper is to model the relationship between influencing behaviour, personality traits, work roles and role orientation. It builds on previous research…
The purpose of this paper is to model the relationship between influencing behaviour, personality traits, work roles and role orientation. It builds on previous research into team roles, highlighting the relationship between influencing behaviour and team role behaviour.
Statistical analysis on questionnaire data from a mixed, work‐based, UK sample is used to assess relationships between influencing behaviour, role expectations, role orientation and team role behaviour.
The paper argues that team roles access different types of power and influencing behaviours depending on role and role orientation. Findings establish a link between influencing behaviour and team role behaviour, as well as personality traits, developing the idea that there is a significant social dimension to team roles.
The research does not consider specific influence attempts, nor does it present evidence regarding the effectiveness of patterns of influencing behaviour in particular contexts.
The paper highlights the relationship between influencing behaviour and personality and contextual variables. Considering “when” different strategies and styles are used may offer guidelines for action. Findings reinforce the significance of the social dimension of team roles and indicate a need for further research to consider the success of influencing behaviour in different contexts.
Previous research into influencing behaviour has focused on its relationship to either situational variables or personality traits and, where personality variable have been studied, they have been specific traits. This research considers both sets of variables simultaneously and covers the whole personality domain. This is the first study of the relationship between team role behaviour and influencing behaviour.
Purpose – This chapter provides a roadmap for future research and evaluation on violent extremist risk analysis.Methodology/Approach – The authors synthesize the lessons…
Purpose – This chapter provides a roadmap for future research and evaluation on violent extremist risk analysis.
Methodology/Approach – The authors synthesize the lessons learned from process evaluations of general violence risk assessment, bias research, survey designs, linguistic analyses, and spatial analyses, and apply them to the problem of violent extremist risk assessment and management.
Findings – The next generation of violent extremist risk assessment research will necessitate a focus upon process, barriers to effective implementation and taking the human element of decision-making into account. Furthermore, the development of putative risk factors for violent extremist attitudes and behaviors necessitates a movement toward more survey-based research designs. Future risk assessment processes may additionally take language and spatial components into account for a more holistic understanding.
Originality/Value – Based on existing literature, there is a paucity of research conducting process evaluations, survey designs, linguistic analyses, and spatial analyses in this area. The authors provide several roadmaps, assessments of respective strengths and weaknesses, and highlight some initial promising results.
There is limited research on the mental health of pregnant women in prison in England, mother and baby unit (MBU) applications and associated factors. Eighty-five pregnant…
There is limited research on the mental health of pregnant women in prison in England, mother and baby unit (MBU) applications and associated factors. Eighty-five pregnant women were interviewed in eight different prisons in England, UK. Schedules for the Clinical Assessment of Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were used to assess mental health; Severity of Dependence Questionnaire (SOD-Q) for drug misuse; Alcohol Use Identification Test (AUDIT) for hazardous drinking and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-II) to identify personality disorder. About 51% of participants had depression and 57% had anxiety. Those with prior social services involvement, diagnosis of personality disorder or history of suicidality were less likely to be admitted to MBUs. The high levels of depression and anxiety can have negative impacts on both the mother and her unborn child. Factors which influence MBU admission suggest those who might benefit most from MBU placement are least likely to be admitted. Other countries offer feasible alternatives to imprisonment for pregnant women and mothers which could be implemented in England.
This paper challenges readers to reflect on the terms ‘dual diagnosis’ and ‘recovery’ and to consider how the language and concepts that inform practice and policy shape…
This paper challenges readers to reflect on the terms ‘dual diagnosis’ and ‘recovery’ and to consider how the language and concepts that inform practice and policy shape the way we think about our work and relate to service users.