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An emerging, globally Web‐based Chinese language virtual library offers unprecedented content availability and user accessibility. Virtual and physical libraries are…
An emerging, globally Web‐based Chinese language virtual library offers unprecedented content availability and user accessibility. Virtual and physical libraries are defined, and compared, in terms of bibliographical searching. Then, the size of the Chinese language virtual library is estimated and its future development is predicted. The quantitative analysis concentrates on the content of this virtual library through examining the subject directories of more than 100 of its search engines. The findings show that 20 percent of the subject categories provide 80 percent of online access activities. Many subject categories characterise values of the Chinese‐speaking world. Discussion continues with structural and functional analyses of Chinese language search engines that support this virtual library. Further, an analytic overview is presented of Chinese language applications that render the necessary and sufficient computational linguistic conditions for utilising Chinese language online resources.
The purpose of this paper is to achieve stable grasping and dexterous in-hand manipulation, the control of the multi-fingered robotic hand is a difficult problem as the…
The purpose of this paper is to achieve stable grasping and dexterous in-hand manipulation, the control of the multi-fingered robotic hand is a difficult problem as the hand has many degrees of freedom with various grasp configurations.
To achieve this goal, a novel object-level impedance control framework with optimized grasp force and grasp quality is proposed for multi-fingered robotic hand grasping and in-hand manipulation. The minimal grasp force optimization aims to achieve stable grasping satisfying friction cone constraint while keeping appropriate contact forces without damage to the object. With the optimized grasp quality function, optimal grasp quality can be obtained by dynamically sliding on the object from initial grasp configuration to final grasp configuration. By the proposed controller, the in-hand manipulation of the grasped object can be achieved with compliance to the environment force. The control performance of the closed-loop robotic system is guaranteed by appropriately choosing the design parameters as proved by a Lyapunove function.
Simulations are conducted to validate the efficiency and performance of the proposed controller with a three-fingered robotic hand.
This paper presents a method for robotic optimal grasping and in-hand manipulation with a compliant controller. It may inspire other related researchers and has great potential for practical usage in a widespread of robot applications.
To review one of the earliest Chinese debates on socialism, highlighting the consequent changes in outlook by Sun Yat‐sen and Liang Qichao; and to demonstrate the…
To review one of the earliest Chinese debates on socialism, highlighting the consequent changes in outlook by Sun Yat‐sen and Liang Qichao; and to demonstrate the influence of Western economic writers especially Richard T. Ely, Henry George, and German Bismarckian socialists.
Textual analysis of original Chinese‐language materials with extensive direct quotations (in translation).
Sun initially gave primary attention to land policy, using a (somewhat inconsistent) combination of George's “single tax” and a very different idea of land nationalization. As a result of the debate, however, Sun gave more attention to economic growth, capital formation, and import restriction. Liang initially favored Bismarckian socialism, but moved during the debate to increasing skepticism about a major economic role for government, recognizing the need for entrepreneurship and capital formation.
Existing literature fails to perceive the radical shifts in viewpoint which developed for both Sun and Liang. This is particularly important for Sun, whose later ideas had a major influence on Chinese economic policy after 1927.