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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2021

Ailing Wang, Yong Deng, Kaihong Li, Wenlei Li, Dongliang Yu, Gan Cui, JianGuo Liu and Zili Li

Alternating current (AC) corrosion is a type of corrosion that occurs in buried pipelines under AC stray current interference, which can increase the hydrogen…

Abstract

Purpose

Alternating current (AC) corrosion is a type of corrosion that occurs in buried pipelines under AC stray current interference, which can increase the hydrogen embrittlement sensitivity of pipelines. However, rare research works have been conducted on the hydrogen permeability characteristics of pipeline steel under AC stray current interference. The purpose of this paper is to study hydrogen permeation behavior of X80 steel under AC stray current interference.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the hydrogen permeation behavior of X80 steel under AC interference is studied by AC hydrogen charging experiment in a dual electrolytic cell. The relationship between hydrogen evolution rate and hydrogen permeation flux is studied using the gas collection method. The difference between AC hydrogen permeability and direct current (DC) hydrogen permeability is also discussed.

Findings

The anodic dissolution caused by AC corrosion promotes the chemical desorption reaction of the adsorbed hydrogen atoms on the surface, reducing the hydrogen atom absorption ratio by 70%. When the AC is smaller than 150░ A/m2, the hydrogen permeation process is controlled by the hydrogen atom generation rate, and the hydrogen permeation flux increases with the increase in hydrogen atom generation rate. When the AC exceeds 400░ A/m2, the hydrogen permeation process is controlled by the absorption ratio. The hydrogen permeation flux decreases with the decrease in the absorption ratio. Under AC interference, there is a maximum hydrogen permeation flux that linearly correlates to the H+ concentration in the solutions.

Originality/value

The high-strength steel is very sensitive to hydrogen embrittlement, and X80 steel has been widely used in oil and gas pipelines. To date, no research has been conducted on the hydrogen permeation behavior of pipeline steel under AC interference, and the hydrogen permeability characteristics of pipeline steel under AC interference are not clear. The research results of this paper are of great significance for ensuring the intrinsic safety of high-strength pipelines under AC stray current interference.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 68 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 January 2020

JiaYu Zhou, Zili Li, JianGuo Liu, Xiao Xing, Gan Cui, ShouXin Zhang, Ran Cheng and YiShu Wang

The purpose of this paper is to quantify the influence of alternating current (AC) interference on hydrogen evolution reaction of X80 steel.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to quantify the influence of alternating current (AC) interference on hydrogen evolution reaction of X80 steel.

Design/methodology/approach

The hydrogen evolution potential was obtained by cathodic potentiodynamic polarization curve. The instantaneous potential under AC interference was obtained by high-frequency acquisition with three-electrode system. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and Tafel polarization curves were used to study the influence mechanism of AC interference on instantaneous potential.

Findings

It was concluded that the hydrogen evolution reaction could occur on X80 steel under AC interference. There were critical AC current densities of about 100 to 200 A/m2, beyond which the cathode reaction of X80 steel changed from oxygen absorption to hydrogen evolution. Besides the pH value, the initial polarization potential EZ and impedance module of the steel/electrolyte interface under AC interference were also the factors that affected the critical AC densities in different solutions.

Originality/value

This research quantified the hydrogen evolution capacity of X80 steel under AC interference, which could be applied to clear the effect of AC interference on hydrogen evolution reaction.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 67 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 December 2018

Zili Li, Chao Yang, Gan Cui, Shouxin Zhang and Chengbin Zhang

When hydrogen evolution reaction occurs on a metal surface, on the one hand, the generated hydrogen atom may penetrate into the metal that causes the hydrogen…

Abstract

Purpose

When hydrogen evolution reaction occurs on a metal surface, on the one hand, the generated hydrogen atom may penetrate into the metal that causes the hydrogen embrittlement failure of materials; on the other hand, the hydrogen generation may increase the local pressure in the coating and cause coating blistering. The purpose of this study is to study the effect of NaCl concentration and pH on hydrogen evolution reaction of X60 steel.

Design/methodology/approach

A cathodic polarization curve 257E-2V vs OCP and EIS was obtained by conventional three-electrode system in different NaCl concentrations, 257E3.5 and pH. Second, various parameters such as hydrogen evolution, over-potential current–density polarization resistance and capacitance of double electric layer were obtained based on fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the reaction mechanism was determined by Tafel curves.

Findings

It was concluded that in different NaCl concentrations, diffusion layer induced by concentration polarization affects the diffusion process of H+ ions, which makes over-potential increase. Under great effect of concentration polarization, the reaction is different in acid and alkaline environments, and the dielectric layer shows the characteristic of meta-alkaline adsorption, which makes difference in mechanism.

Originality/value

This research not only has theoretical significance but also gains utilization prospect. Ultimately, this research could be applied to clear hydrogen evolution process and protect long-distance pipeline against delamination.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 January 2019

Jun Wang, Zili Li, Gan Cui, JianGuo Liu, Chuanping Kong, Long Wang, Ge Gao and Jian Guo

The purpose of this paper is to study the corrosion behaviors of X70 steel under direct current (DC) interference at 0-1,200 A/m2 in simulated soil solution.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the corrosion behaviors of X70 steel under direct current (DC) interference at 0-1,200 A/m2 in simulated soil solution.

Design/methodology/approach

The Tafel polarization curves of X70 steel under DC interference were tested using electrochemical method, the corrosion rate was calculated using weight-loss method and the change in steel surface was analyzed by optical microscopy.

Findings

The results showed that E-I polarization curves under 200-1,200 A/m2 interference were linear; with an increase in the DC density, the corrosion potential of X70 steel shifted positively, solution pH after the weight-loss tests increased and corrosion rate increased linearly. A mathematical relationship between polarization resistance Rp and current density was established. Corrosion morphology indicated that pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion occurred on the X70 steel under DC interference in simulated soil solution.

Originality/value

All tests were conducted at a relative higher DC density (200-1,200 A/m2). The linear fitting method is proposed to fit data of Tafel polarization curves under DC interference. This study provides guidelines for safe operation of X70 steel pipelines.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 August 2019

Yuanpeng Cheng, Yu Bai, Shanfa Tang, Dukui Zheng, Zili Li and JianGuo Liu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the corrosion behavior of X65 steel in the CO2-saturated oil/water environment using mass loss method, potentiodynamic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the corrosion behavior of X65 steel in the CO2-saturated oil/water environment using mass loss method, potentiodynamic polarization technique and characterization of the corroded surface techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

The weight loss analysis, electrochemical study and surface investigation were carried out on X65 steel that had been immersed in the CO2/oil/water corrosive medium to understand the corrosion behavior of gathering and transportation pipeline steel. The weight loss tests were carried out in a 3 L autoclave, and effects of water cut and temperature on the CO2 corrosion rate of X65 steel were studied. Electrochemical studies were carried out in a three-electrode electrochemical cell with the test temperature was 60°C, and the CO2 partial pressure was 1 atm by recording open circuit potential/time and potentiodynamic polarization characteristics. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies of corrosion product scales were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The phases of corrosion product scales were investigated using x-ray diffraction.

Findings

The results showed that due to the wetting and adsorption of crude oil, the corrosion morphology of X65 steel changed under different water cuts. When the water cut of crude oil was 40-50 per cent, uniform corrosion occurred on the steel surface, accompanied by local pitting. While the water cut was 70-80 per cent, the resulting corrosion product scales were thick, loose and partial shedding caused platform corrosion. When the water cut was 90 per cent, the damaged area of platform corrosion was enlarged. Crude oil can hinder the corrosion scales from being dissolved by the corrosive medium, and change dimension and accumulation pattern of the crystal grain, thickness and structure of the corrosion scales. Under the corrosion inhibition effect of crude oil, the temperature sensitive point of X65 steel corrosion process moved to low temperature, appeared at about 50°C, lower corrosion rate interval was broadened and the corrosion resistance of X65 steel was enhanced.

Originality/value

The results can be helpful in selecting the applicable corrosion inhibitors and targeted anti-corrosion measures for CO2-saturated oil/water corrosive environment.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2016

Gan Cui, Zili Li, Chao Yang and Xiaoyong Ding

Under normal conditions, there are different protection objects inside and outside the gas station, so two sets of independent cathodic protection systems are adopted. At…

Abstract

Purpose

Under normal conditions, there are different protection objects inside and outside the gas station, so two sets of independent cathodic protection systems are adopted. At the same time, an insulating flange is applied at the position where trunk pipelines access to the gas station, which realizes electrical isolation of the structures inside and outside the station. However, as a result of short distance between the two cathodic protection systems, there will be stray current interference between them. The purpose of this paper was to study on the interference between cathodic protection systems of gas station and long distance trunk pipeline.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the above, in this paper, first, the mathematical model of interference between cathodic protection systems was established and the control equations solved using the boundary element method. Second, the influence of cathodic protection system of gas station on long distance trunk pipeline and the influence of cathodic protection system of long distance trunk pipeline on gas station were studied separately using BEASY software. Finally, a new thought of cathodic protection design for local station was put forward.

Findings

It was concluded that there were serious interference problems between the cathodic protection systems of gas station and long distance trunk pipeline. By moving the potential control point to area outside the influence scope of anode ground bed could avoid the influence of cathodic protection system of gas station on long distance trunk pipeline. By moving the auxiliary anodes away from gas station could avoid the influence of cathodic protection system of long distance trunk pipeline on pipelines in gas station. The new thought of cathodic protection design could avoid the interference between the cathodic protection systems effectively.

Originality/value

It is considered that the results can guide cathodic design for gas station and long distance trunk pipeline. The results can also avoid the interference corrosion between the structures in gas station and trunk pipeline.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 63 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 December 2018

Ziqing Yang, Gan Cui, Zili Li and JianGuo Liu

In recent years, the demand for oil and gas pipelines has increased rapidly. Due to the restrictions of the pipeline routing, pipelines are generally laid in parallel or…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, the demand for oil and gas pipelines has increased rapidly. Due to the restrictions of the pipeline routing, pipelines are generally laid in parallel or in the same trench, which results in stray-current interference between the independent cathodic protection (CP) systems. The purpose of this paper is to study the interference between the long-distance parallel pipelines and to obtain the optimized operation for the CP systems.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, first, the numerical model of parallel pipelines was established using the boundary element analysis software (BEASY). Second, the effects of horizontal distance between parallel pipelines, coating damage rate, soil conductivity and anode output current on the interference of parallel pipelines were studied. Finally, by varying the layout or the output currents of CP stations, an optimized operation scheme osf long-distance parallel pipelines was put forward.

Findings

Simulation results showed that with a decrease in soil conductivity or coating damage rate, the interference increased. Moreover, the interference decreased with an increase in horizontal distance between two parallel pipelines or a decrease in anode output current. It was found that there are three methods to reduce the interference between long-distance parallel pipelines: to reduce the output currents of CP stations, combined protection and to close part of the CP stations. Among them, to close part of CP stations was the optimized scheme because of the lowest operating and maintenance cost.

Originality/value

The optimized operation scheme proposed in this study can not only solve the interference between parallel pipelines but also provide guidance for the parallel pipelines to be built in the future. Reasonably arranging the cathodic protection stations using numerical simulation can avoid the interference in the cathodic protection systems, and reduce the construction cost.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 September 2019

Qingmiao Ding, Zili Li, Tao Shen and Gan Cui

This paper aims to research the corrosion behavior of the metal under the disbonded coatings interfered with AC through electrochemical method.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to research the corrosion behavior of the metal under the disbonded coatings interfered with AC through electrochemical method.

Design/methodology/approach

The corrosion behavior of the metal under disbond coating interfered with alternate stray current (AC) was studied by electrochemical methods using the rectangular coating disbonded simulator. The obtained data from electrode potential test, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization curves in simulated soil solution indicated that under the natural corrosion condition, the self-corrosion potential and the corrosion current density of the metal at different depths under disbond coating had obviously changed if there was AC interference.

Findings

The self-corrosion potential of the metal at the same depths under disbond coating shifted negatively with the rising of the AC voltage. Under the condition of cathode polarization, there was still obvious potential gradient with the extension of the deep peeling of the coating gap, and the corrosion current density of the test points was minimum, and the protection effect was best when the cathode protection potential was −1.0 V. When the metal was applied with over-protection, the corrosion rate of the metal increased as AC stray current flowing through it increased.

Originality/value

This paper used the rectangular aperture device to study the corrosion behavior of X80 steel under the disbonded coatings through electrochemical methods when the AC stray current interference voltage was 0V, 1V, 5V or 10V and the protection potential was 0V, −0.9V, −1.0V, −1.2V or −1.3V, respectively. There is great significance to the safe operation and long-term service of pipeline steel in soil environment.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Yuanpeng Cheng, Zili Li, Yalei Zhao, Yazhou Xu, Qianqian Liu and Yu Bai

The purpose of this paper was to investigate the corrosion behaviour of API X65 pipeline steel in the simulated CO2/oil/water emulsion using weight loss technique…

240

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to investigate the corrosion behaviour of API X65 pipeline steel in the simulated CO2/oil/water emulsion using weight loss technique, potentiodynamic polarization technique and characterization of the corroded surface techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

The weight loss analysis, electrochemical study and surface investigation were carried out on API X65 pipeline steel that had been immersed in the CO2/oil/water corrosive medium to understand the corrosion behaviour of gathering pipeline steel. The weight loss tests were carried out in a 3L autoclave, and effects of temperature, CO2 partial pressure, water cut and flow velocity on the CO2 corrosion rate of API X65 pipeline steel were studied. Electrochemical studies were carried out in a three-electrode electrochemical cell with the test temperature was 60°C, and the CO2 partial pressure was 1 atm by recording open circuit potential/time and potentiodynamic polarization characteristics. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies of corrosion product scales were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The phases of corrosion product scales were investigated using X-ray diffraction.

Findings

The results showed that water cut was the main controlling factor of API X65 steel corrosion under the conditions of CO2/oil/water multiphase flow, and it had significant impact on corrosion morphology. In the case of higher water cut or pure water phase, general corrosion occurred on the steel surface. While water cut was below 70 per cent, corrosion morphology transformed into localized corrosion, crude oil decreased corrosion rate significantly and played a role of inhibitor. Crude oil hindered the corrosion scales from being dissolved by corrosive medium and changed dimension and accumulation pattern of the crystal grain, thickness and structure of the corrosion scales; thus, it influenced the corrosion rate. The primary corrosion product of API X65 steel was ferrous carbonate, which could act as a protective film at low water cut so that the corrosion rate can be reduced.

Originality/value

The results can be helpful in selecting the suitable corrosion inhibitors and targeted anti-corrosion measures for CO2/oil/water corrosive environment.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 64 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 December 2018

Yuanpeng Cheng, Yu Bai, Zili Li and JianGuo Liu

The purpose of this paper was to investigate the corrosion behavior of X65 steel in the CO2/oil/water environment using mass loss method, potentiodynamic polarization…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to investigate the corrosion behavior of X65 steel in the CO2/oil/water environment using mass loss method, potentiodynamic polarization technique and characterization of the corroded surface techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

The weight loss analysis, electrochemical study and surface investigation were carried out on X65 steel that had been immersed in the CO2/oil/water corrosive medium to understand the corrosion behavior of gathering pipeline steel. The weight loss tests were carried out in a 3L autoclave, and effects of flow velocity, CO2 partial pressure and water cut on the CO2 corrosion rate of X65 steel were studied. Electrochemical studies were carried out in a three-electrode electrochemical cell with the test temperature of 60°C and CO2 partial pressure of 1 atm by recording open circuit potential/time and potentiodynamic polarization characteristics. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies of corrosion product scales were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. The phases of corrosion product scales were investigated using X-ray diffraction.

Findings

The results showed that corrosion rates of X65 steel both increased at first and then decreased with the increase of flow velocity and CO2 partial pressure, and there were critical velocity and critical pressure in the simulated corrosive environment, below the critical value, the corrosion products formed on the steel surface were loose, porous and unstable, higher than the critical value, the corrosion product ?lms were dense, strong adhesion, and had a certain protective effect. Meanwhile, when the flow velocity exceeded the critical value, oil film could be adsorbed on the steel surface more evenly, corrosion reaction active points were reduced and the steel matrix was protected from being corroded and crude oil played a role of inhibitor, thus it influenced the corrosion rate. Above the critical CO2 partial pressure, the solubility of CO2 in crude oil increased, the viscosity of crude oil decreased and its fluidity became better, so that the probability of oil film adsorption increased, these factors led to the corrosion inhibition of X65 steel reinforced. The corrosion characteristics of gathering pipeline steel in the corrosive environment containing CO2 would change due to the presence of crude oil.

Originality/value

The results can be helpful in selecting the suitable corrosion inhibitors and targeted anti-corrosion measures for CO2/oil/water corrosive environment.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

1 – 10 of 33