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Book part
Publication date: 17 August 2011

Riaz Ahmed Shaikh

Pakistan's present war against extremists has many folds and sheds. The country's initial participation in the Afghan War in 1979 later gave birth to different extremist…

Abstract

Pakistan's present war against extremists has many folds and sheds. The country's initial participation in the Afghan War in 1979 later gave birth to different extremist trends in the country. State patronage of the extremist Wahabi Islamists during the Afghan jihad opened another conflict in Pakistan, and things became more complicated. The combination of external and internal factors gave birth to the worst kind of conflict, which now has not only become dangerous for the country's own existence but also a major threat for global peace. The Afghan jihad initially started as a war against Soviet occupation and later became the hub of global jihad-war against infidels.

This chapter analyzes how external factors promoted internal contradictions in Pakistan due to which the country became not only an exporter of jihadis for the world but also the worst kind of sectarian conflicts, including. Shia–Sunni, Deobandi–Wahabi clashes, entered into in the past two decades. Such a strong link exists with Pakistan's official support to global jihad. Draft sectarian groups now head to head with their opponents have killed thousands of members of rival sectors, have strong support from external sympathizers, and have spread in the country. The well planned terrorist activities of these groups reflect the fact that support to these groups in the past is now leading to a severe crisis in Pakistan. The nexuses of these indigenous extremists like Lashkar-e-Jhangvi, Lashkar-e-Taiba, Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan, and Hizb-ul-Mujahideen with external terrorist organizations like Al-Qaeda, the Taliban, and Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan of Tahir Yuldasher Chechen Guerilla War has led to several bloody clashes in the country and outside.

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Governance, Development and Conflict
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-896-1

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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2020

Zia Ul Islam, Qingxiong (Derek) Weng, Zulqurnain Ali, Usman Ghani, Ataullah Kiani and Rana Muhammad Naeem

This study examines the associations among specific personality traits, job search strategies (JSSs) and job search outcomes.

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the associations among specific personality traits, job search strategies (JSSs) and job search outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Time-lagged data (three-waves) were collected from 528 Chinese graduating students. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

The results revealed a positive association between conscientiousness and both a focused job search strategy (FJSS) and an exploratory job search strategy (EJSS). Neuroticism was positively related to a haphazard job search strategy (HJSS), but negatively associated with both a FJSS and an EJSS. Moreover, FJSS and EJSS were positively related to both the number of job offers (NJOs) and the number of satisfied job offers (NSJOs). However, compared with FJSS, EJSS explained more variance in NJOs but less in NSJOs. Additional analysis showed a significant positive association between conscientiousness and job search intensity (JSI), but no significant relationship between neuroticism and JSI. JSI had significant associations with both NJOs and NSJOs. Further, FJSS and EJSS mediated the association between focal personality traits and both NJOs and NSJOs. Additionally, JSI also mediated the association between conscientiousness and both NJOs and NSJOs.

Originality/value

Previous research has confirmed that JSSs (Stevens and Turban, 2001) are consequential for important job search outcomes. However, whether fresh job seekers are predisposed to the use of JSSs is yet to be explored. This study adds to the job search literature by filling this void.

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International Journal of Manpower, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2020

Rana Muhammad Naeem, Khalil Ahmed Channa, Zahid Hameed, Ghulam Ali Arain and Zia Ul Islam

In this study, the authors aim to explain the mechanism between transformational leadership and job crafting. They predict that job-based psychological ownership…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, the authors aim to explain the mechanism between transformational leadership and job crafting. They predict that job-based psychological ownership (job-based PO) mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and job crafting. Furthermore, job-based PO is more effective when employees have a high level of affective organizational commitment.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected time-lagged data through a paper–pencil survey from the sales department of large pharmaceutical companies in Pakistan.

Findings

The findings of this study suggest that job-based PO mediates the positive relationship between transformational leadership and job crafting. Moreover, the relationship of job-based PO with job crafting is moderated by affective organizational commitment such that the relationship was stronger at the high levels of affective organizational commitment than that of the low levels of affective organizational commitment.

Practical implications

On practical grounds, job crafting can be useful for individuals and organizations. On individuals’ side, it helps them to balance their job demands and resource; on organizations’ side, it provides a solution to the ongoing problem of disengaged employees and suggests managers identify new ways to support employees with their job redesign.

Originality/value

This study suggests that job-based PO and affective organizational commitment are important factors that influence the relationship between transformational leadership and job crafting.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 50 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2007

Zia ul Islam

To present a practitioner’s view on the experiences of the HELP Foundation, Pakistan, in finding practicable ways of helping poor people to escape the poverty trap through…

Abstract

Purpose

To present a practitioner’s view on the experiences of the HELP Foundation, Pakistan, in finding practicable ways of helping poor people to escape the poverty trap through the setting up of sustainable institutions and social enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach

A review of the literature of fund availability and public policies is presented. Discusses the origin and work of the HELP Foundation, a not‐for‐profit organization (NPO) formed by a consortium of professionals, business people, industrialists and public servants, to develop a robust model for poverty‐alleviation through social enterprise. Examines the approaches used to finance the organization and the changes required at public and individual levels to establish sustainable institutions based on the new model. Reports the gathering of data through surveys and interviews with clients, staff and HELP Foundation benefactors to reveal the mixed results of micro‐finance and the difficulties faced when setting up social enterprises in a poor country.

Findings

The success of the HELP Foundation in deriving a novel model for a workable partnership between NPOs and slum‐level entrepreneurs is reported. Argues that social enterprises can be set up in urban slums through joint ventures between an NPO funder and small businesses that have the capacity to expand. Concludes that such joint ventures should be entered into only after trust has been established between the business person and the NPO. While the involvement of respected members of the locality, transparent processes and close monitoring are all necessary for the social enterprise’s success.

Originality/value

Reveals how the social enterprise concept can be made to work even in conditions of extreme poverty.

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Book part
Publication date: 13 October 2008

Kalim Bahadur

The term ‘fundamentalism’ has come of late into popular usage more than any other. It has been used for various Christian movements. During the twentieth century, the term…

Abstract

The term ‘fundamentalism’ has come of late into popular usage more than any other. It has been used for various Christian movements. During the twentieth century, the term came to be used in Christian–Protestant circles in an effort to define beliefs that are fundamental to Christian religion. The world that emerged after the Second World War saw the emergence of many former colonial and semi-colonial countries as independent nations. Their development caused ferment among the Muslim countries also. It took the form of a resurgence of fundamentalism, Islamic fundamentalism. During the last several decades, the Islamic revival that is sweeping from Morocco in the West to Mindanao in the Philippines is considered with some reason as a response to the predatory policies of Western imperialism. This was the reassertion and the response of the Muslims to the challenge of the West. This was the promise of the fundamentalist Muslims: self assertive Islamic nationalism and simplicity of argument in the hope of recapturing the pristine purity and political glory of Islam (Ahmad, 1991). The first Muslim to react against the alien accretions to Islamic society, not necessarily the result of external or foreign influence, was Shah Waliullah (1703–1762) who was almost a contemporary of Abdul Wahab (1703–1787) in Arabia. Both evolved from attempting to purge the Islamic society of foreign accretions to protesting oppression and corruption of Westernisation (Jansen, 1979). The fundamentalism today is different from that of the eighteenth century. It is not of much use to trace historical continuity in the fundamentalist ideology; although, this does not negate some linkages between Islam's past history and modern day fundamentalist movements (Ahmed, 1994).

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Conflict and Peace in South Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-534-5

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Mohd Tariq and Mohd Afaq Khan

Among various factors which help in shaping the attitude of consumers, religion and religiosity too play a vital role. This paper aims to inquire into the impact of…

Abstract

Purpose

Among various factors which help in shaping the attitude of consumers, religion and religiosity too play a vital role. This paper aims to inquire into the impact of religion and religiosity on the attitudes of Hindu and Muslim consumers of Northern India toward offensive advertising and the reasons which make the advertising offensive.

Design/methodology/approach

Responses regarding advertising of 11 controversial products and 7 reasons which make the advertising offensive were taken by distributing a questionnaire to a convenience sample of 250 university students of Northern India (comprising respondents from two major religions of India). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and t-test.

Findings

The findings confirmed that there is a significant difference in the attitude of consumers on the basis of religion and religiosity.

Research limitations/implications

As the study is conducted only in Northern India, findings generated through this may lack generalizability. Other limitations include small sample size and use of convenience sampling. Different sects under religion must be particularly studied.

Practical implications

Advertisers should consider religious sentiments of consumers into account to make advertisements more appealing to consumers.

Originality/value

The studies on religion and its relation with attitude toward advertising are even less frequent in Indian context. Hence, this study is a pioneering work which will open new doors for the marketers in India. It will help the marketers in properly targeting consumers based on their religious beliefs.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2009

Riaz Ahmed Shaikh

The prolonged army rule in the country has affected the policymaking procedure of the state. Specifically, defence and foreign policies of the country are normally decided…

Abstract

The prolonged army rule in the country has affected the policymaking procedure of the state. Specifically, defence and foreign policies of the country are normally decided by the armed forces of Pakistan as per their own priorities, which is against the norms of democratic culture and supremacy of the civilian rule.

The control of important decision-making process in the hands of the armed forces has generated an arms race in the subcontinent. The major portion of the national budget is being spent on the defence forces and other sectors such as education and health and social welfare are not getting their due share from the revenue of the country. The continued sense of insecurity and animosity with neighbour countries, especially India, has resulted in speeding the acquisition of sophisticated arms in the country.

This research discusses the effects of the military's role in the decision-making of the country and its impacts on the relations between India and Pakistan. The confidence building measures and peacemaking process in South Asia is dependent on the attitude of the military of both the countries.

Details

Advances in Military Sociology: Essays in Honor of Charles C. Moskos
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-893-9

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 12 October 2015

Risk of an Islamist coup with the Pakistan military.

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB205919

ISSN: 2633-304X

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Geographic
Topical
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Book part
Publication date: 13 October 2008

Harsh V. Pant

India and Bangladesh are historically, geographically, and culturally tied to each other to an extent that try as they might they cannot escape this reality and so have to…

Abstract

India and Bangladesh are historically, geographically, and culturally tied to each other to an extent that try as they might they cannot escape this reality and so have to inevitably deal with each other. India's role in the establishment of an independent Bangladesh in 1971 meant that for few years India enjoyed a privileged relationship with the new state. India's assistance to the refugees from East Pakistan as well as its relief and reconstruction aid went a long way in establishing the foundations of a new state. India, not surprisingly, was also the first state to grant recognition to Bangladesh; by pulling its troops out of Bangladesh soon after the end of the war it also acknowledged the new state's sovereignty.1 In 1972, the two states even signed a “Treaty of Friendship and Peace” for a term of twenty-five years, declaring that each side would respect the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the other, and also refrain from interfering in each other's internal affairs.

Details

Conflict and Peace in South Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-534-5

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

Salman Yousaf and Li Huaibin

This paper seeks to explore the influential role of religion in developing a nations brand and discusses the possibility of re-positioning the brand Pakistan as a “Sufi…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to explore the influential role of religion in developing a nations brand and discusses the possibility of re-positioning the brand Pakistan as a “Sufi country” that is coherent with the cultural values and social realities of the country.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper follows a case study approach in delineating the image problem encountered by Pakistan and describing how governments in Pakistan related country branding efforts with the religious sentiments to foster their motives. This paper also follows an inductive approach in making a theoretical explanation about promoting Pakistan's image as a “Sufi country”.

Findings

The negative image of Pakistan is gaining worldwide currency due to the absence of proactive management by government and relevant stakeholders. Pakistan as a Sufi brand has a potential to grow into a strong country brand. Branding Pakistan as a Sufi country would not only pave the way for forming a different set of associations that would be positively contradictory to the current militancy and extremism oriented perceptions associated with Pakistan, but it would also benefit her as a tourism destination.

Practical implications

This paper is basically a policy recommendation regarding the reconstruction of brand Pakistan around the Sufi theme that is fairly consistent with the prevailing disposition of Pakistani society, in contrast to the current image of Pakistan cultivated in the World's media as a country with the terrorist roots. With thousands of Sufi Khanqahs, tombs and shrines spread throughout the country conforming to the ancient Islamic architecture with shades of Mughal artifacts presents with a significant ‘spiritual tourism’ opportunity provided with proper management and planning.

Originality/value

The present study makes significant contribution to the theory of nation's branding by discussing the potential role of religion in developing a nation's brand, a topic that hasn't been profoundly inquired. Moreover it discusses the reputation management of a country brand in a crisis, a topic that hasn't been adequately studied.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

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