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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Zhichao Fang, Xinhui Guo, Yang Yang, Zhongkai Yang, Qingchun Li, Zhigang Hu and Xianwen Wang

This study aims to analyse the geographical distribution of global research activities and to investigate the knowledge diffusion embodied in scientific papers.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyse the geographical distribution of global research activities and to investigate the knowledge diffusion embodied in scientific papers.

Design/methodology/approach

The geographical summary of Frontiers articles displays the number of visits and categorizes where the visitors hail from. This study uses the records of 23,798 articles published in 16 Frontiers journals from 2007 to 2015 to analyse the geographical distribution of article visits at both country and city levels. The process of knowledge diffusion is investigated on the basis of the different visiting patterns of new and old papers.

Findings

Most article visits are concentrated around major metropolitan areas and some high-tech clusters. The top “visiting countries” include both developed countries and developing countries, and the USA and China are two major players. Publishing cities dominate article visits for new papers; as time passes, there is diffusion from the publishing cities to a broader area.

Research limitations/implications

The data on visiting for open access articles may be generated from various repositories besides the publishers’ websites; these data are ignored, as they are not significant enough to have much influence. There is also a lack of a basic theory in the data processing of outliers in the data set. In addition, only static results are given in this paper, as the data were collected on one day, for one time. A longer time period is necessary to track the dynamic diffusion process of the observations.

Practical implications

Introduction of usage data will propose a novel way to analyse research activities and track knowledge diffusion.

Social implications

The visiting data of articles offer a new way to investigate research activities at the city level in a detailed and timely manner, for the geographical distribution of research activities and the research resource allocation of a specific country to be explored.

Originality/value

This study measured the research activities of scientific papers by examining the usage data. Compared with previous studies that focused on the geographical distribution of scientific activities using publication data, citation data and even altmetrics data, usage data are at the forefront of this research. Therefore, usage data offer a fresh perspective on methodology, providing more detailed and real-time information.

Details

The Electronic Library, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-0473

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2018

Yu Tang, Shaoming Luo, Guoyuan Li, Zhou Yang and Chaojun Hou

The purpose of this paper is to investigate of the effects of Mn nanoparticle addition on the wettability, microstructure and microhardness of SAC0307-xMn(np) (SAC…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate of the effects of Mn nanoparticle addition on the wettability, microstructure and microhardness of SAC0307-xMn(np) (SAC: Sn–Ag–Cu; x = 0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.3 Wt.%) composite solders.

Design/methodology/approach

The SAC0307-xMn(np) composite solders were prepared by mechanically mixing different weight percentages of Mn nanopowders into the SAC0307 solder paste with rosin flux. In this study, the wettability of the solders was studied using contact angle and spread ratio methods. Afterward, the microstructure of the solders was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. Moreover, the microhardness of the solders was studied.

Findings

The wetting process of SAC0307-xMn(np) composite solders was found to experience four stages. Adding a small amount of Mn nanoparticles (x = 0.05 Wt.%) could improve the wettability compared to Mn-free solder. Beyond this level, the wettability deteriorated. The addition of Mn nanoparticles significantly refined the size and spacing of Ag3Sn grains in the solder matrix. When 0.1 Wt.% Mn nanoparticles was added, both the average size of the Ag3Sn grains and the spacing between the Ag3Sn grains decreased significantly and approached minimum values. Beyond this amount, the size and spacing between Ag3Sn grains increased slightly but remained smaller than those in the Mn-free solder matrix. The refined Ag3Sn grains increased the microhardness of the Mn-containing composite solders by 6-25 per cent, in good agreement with the prediction of the classic theory of dispersion strengthening.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates that Mn nanoparticle addition could improve the SAC0307-xMn(np) solder wettability and reduce the grain size and spacing between Ag3Sn grains. The enhancement of the solder microhardness shows good correlation with the microstructure.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2013

Zhelong Wang, Sen Qiu, Zhongkai Cao and Ming Jiang

Due to the complex mechanism during walking, human gait takes plenty of information reflecting human motion. The method of quantitative measurement of gait makes a…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to the complex mechanism during walking, human gait takes plenty of information reflecting human motion. The method of quantitative measurement of gait makes a profound influence in many fields, such as clinical medicine, biped robot control strategy and so on. The purpose of this paper is to present a gait analysis system based on inertial measurement unit (IMU) and combined with body sensor network (BSN).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors placed two wireless inertial nodes on the left and right ankles, so that the acceleration and angular velocity could be obtained from both sides at the same time. By using the kinematical model of the human gait, many methods such as time series analysis, pattern recognition and numerical analysis, are introduced to fuse the inertial data and estimate the sagittal gait parameters.

Findings

The gait parameters evaluation gains a practical precision, especially in the gait phase detection and the process of how the two feet cooperate with each other has been analyzed to learn about the mechanism of biped walking.

Research limitations/implications

The gait analysis procedure is off line, so that the system ensures sampling at a high rate.

Originality/value

This gait analysis system can be utilized to measure quantitative gait parameters. Further, the coordination of dual gait pattern is presented. Last but not least, the system can also be put into capturing and analyzing the motion of other parts of the body.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Liya Wang, Yang Zhao, Yaoming Zhou and Jingbin Hao

The purpose of this paper is to present a detection method based on computer vision for automatic flexible printed circuit (FPC) defect detection.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a detection method based on computer vision for automatic flexible printed circuit (FPC) defect detection.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper proposes a new method of watershed segmentation based on morphology. A dimensional increment matrix calculation method and an image segmentation method combined with a fuzzy clustering algorithm are provided. The visibility of the segmented image and the segmentation accuracy of a defective image are guaranteed.

Findings

Compared with the traditional one, the segmentation result obtained in this study is superior in aspects of noise control and defect segmentation. It completely proves that the segmentation method proposed in this study is better matches the requirements of FPC defect extraction and can more effectively provide the segmentation result. Compared with traditional human operators, this system ensures greater accuracy and more objective detection results.

Research limitations/implications

The extraction of FPC defect characteristics contains some obvious characteristics as well as many implied characteristics. These characteristics can be extracted through specific space conversion and arithmetical operation. Therefore, more images are required for analysis and foresight to establish a more widely used FPC defect detection sorting algorithm.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a new method of watershed segmentation based on morphology. It combines a traditional edge detection algorithm and mathematical morphology. The FPC surface defect detection system can meet the requirements of online detection through constant design and improvement. Therefore, human operators will be replaced by machine vision, which can preferably reduce the production costs and improve the efficiency of FPC production.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 42 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 November 2020

Haixu Bao, Chunhsien Wang and Ronggen Tao

This study aims to explore the relationship between geographic search and business model innovation and proposed a contingent framework to focus on how governmental…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the relationship between geographic search and business model innovation and proposed a contingent framework to focus on how governmental networking and environment turbulence are interdependent moderate the relationship between geographic search and business model innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

A large-scale questionnaire survey was carried out among the firms in three high-tech parks of the Pearl River Delta, with a total of 287 firms as empirical samples. Hypotheses are tested using ordinary least squares analyzes on hierarchical multiple regression to find out how geographic search can drive business model innovation generations.

Findings

The empirical results showed that the more frequent geographic search is, the more favorable it is for firms to generate innovative business models, and firms may be more effective in geographic searching and business model innovation with better governmental networking. However, the above relationship may be weakened if the environment turbulence in emerging markets is further considered. It was argued that firms must take into account both the positive effects of governmental networking and the negative effects of environmental turbulence in conducting a geographic search for external knowledge resources to generate innovative business models. The study results showed how and why governmental networking can be a key catalyst for firms to generate innovative business models.

Research limitations/implications

This study contributes to the business model innovation literature by documenting the large-scale survey evidence that confirms the practicality of geographic search in the business model innovation generations. The findings advance previous studies in the business model innovation by identifying the moderating roles of governmental network and environment turbulence that predict business model innovation behaviors in the emerging market.

Practical implications

The results indicate that the geographic search can be easily operationalized for external resources acquisitions by managers in generating business model innovation. This has applications for external resource acquisitions on the basis of business model innovation in the emerging China market. In addition, to facilitate the business model innovation generations, the focus should be on critical contingency factors; on the one hand, to promote the continued use of external resources, the focus should be on enhancing benefits such as governmental networking.

Originality/value

The findings extend existing theory in three ways as the original value. First, the results show that geographic search is an important driver of business model innovation generations in an emerging market context. Second, this study is the first to take organizational learning and open innovation perspective to examine geographic search as a boundary-spanning search of external resources in business model innovation generations. Third, this study also explores the moderator role of governmental network and environmental turbulence on how to strengthen or impair the geographic search and business model innovation generations.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 October 2019

Yuquan Ni, Guangneng Dong, Qi Liu, Wei Wang and Yihong Li

Babbitt bush is easy to cause severe adhesive wear due to unexpected journal fall. This paper aims to improve wear resistance of Babbitt bush.

Abstract

Purpose

Babbitt bush is easy to cause severe adhesive wear due to unexpected journal fall. This paper aims to improve wear resistance of Babbitt bush.

Design/methodology/approach

A soft/hard hybrid surface mircoprofile of Babbitt alloy/steel was fabricated by a technology of laser texture combined with hot-pressing. The friction and wear performances of bare steel (steel-h), Babbitt bush on steel (steel-s) and Babbitt filled in dimples of steel (steel-hs) were conducted on a ball-on-disc tester under dry and lubricated conditions.

Findings

The results showed that wettability of steel-hs was enhanced by forming soft/hard hybrid surface. Compared with steel-s, the stability of friction coefficient curve of steel-hs was improved without increasing coefficient friction. The wear resistance of steel-hs was remarkably enhanced under dry and lubricated conditions.

Originality/value

The originality of this paper is as following: to improve the tribological properties and to prolong service life of steel-s, soft/hard hybrid surface of Babbitt filled in dimples of steel substrate was successfully fabricated by laser texturing combined with hot-pressing. This paper showed that the lipophilicity of steel-hs was best among those of steel-s and steel-h. Babbitt alloy as a soft filler on dimples of steel substrate improved anti-wear of steel-s remarkably. It provides a new way to fabricate Babbitt as bushing on steel substrate.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 72 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1999

Jaroslav Mackerle

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE) applied in the analysis and design of machine elements; bolts and screws, belts and chains, springs and…

Abstract

This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE) applied in the analysis and design of machine elements; bolts and screws, belts and chains, springs and dampers, brakes, gears, bearings, gaskets and seals are handled. The range of applications of finite elements on these subjects is extremely wide and cannot be presented in a single paper; therefore the aim of this paper is to give FE researchers/users only an encyclopaedic view of the different possibilities that exist today in the various fields mentioned above. An Appendix included at the end of the paper presents a bibliography on finite element applications in the analysis/design of machine elements for 1977‐1997.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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