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Due to the complex mechanism during walking, human gait takes plenty of information reflecting human motion. The method of quantitative measurement of gait makes a…
Due to the complex mechanism during walking, human gait takes plenty of information reflecting human motion. The method of quantitative measurement of gait makes a profound influence in many fields, such as clinical medicine, biped robot control strategy and so on. The purpose of this paper is to present a gait analysis system based on inertial measurement unit (IMU) and combined with body sensor network (BSN).
The authors placed two wireless inertial nodes on the left and right ankles, so that the acceleration and angular velocity could be obtained from both sides at the same time. By using the kinematical model of the human gait, many methods such as time series analysis, pattern recognition and numerical analysis, are introduced to fuse the inertial data and estimate the sagittal gait parameters.
The gait parameters evaluation gains a practical precision, especially in the gait phase detection and the process of how the two feet cooperate with each other has been analyzed to learn about the mechanism of biped walking.
The gait analysis procedure is off line, so that the system ensures sampling at a high rate.
This gait analysis system can be utilized to measure quantitative gait parameters. Further, the coordination of dual gait pattern is presented. Last but not least, the system can also be put into capturing and analyzing the motion of other parts of the body.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate of the effects of Mn nanoparticle addition on the wettability, microstructure and microhardness of SAC0307-xMn(np) (SAC…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate of the effects of Mn nanoparticle addition on the wettability, microstructure and microhardness of SAC0307-xMn(np) (SAC: Sn–Ag–Cu; x = 0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.3 Wt.%) composite solders.
The SAC0307-xMn(np) composite solders were prepared by mechanically mixing different weight percentages of Mn nanopowders into the SAC0307 solder paste with rosin flux. In this study, the wettability of the solders was studied using contact angle and spread ratio methods. Afterward, the microstructure of the solders was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. Moreover, the microhardness of the solders was studied.
The wetting process of SAC0307-xMn(np) composite solders was found to experience four stages. Adding a small amount of Mn nanoparticles (x = 0.05 Wt.%) could improve the wettability compared to Mn-free solder. Beyond this level, the wettability deteriorated. The addition of Mn nanoparticles significantly refined the size and spacing of Ag3Sn grains in the solder matrix. When 0.1 Wt.% Mn nanoparticles was added, both the average size of the Ag3Sn grains and the spacing between the Ag3Sn grains decreased significantly and approached minimum values. Beyond this amount, the size and spacing between Ag3Sn grains increased slightly but remained smaller than those in the Mn-free solder matrix. The refined Ag3Sn grains increased the microhardness of the Mn-containing composite solders by 6-25 per cent, in good agreement with the prediction of the classic theory of dispersion strengthening.
The paper demonstrates that Mn nanoparticle addition could improve the SAC0307-xMn(np) solder wettability and reduce the grain size and spacing between Ag3Sn grains. The enhancement of the solder microhardness shows good correlation with the microstructure.
This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE) applied in the analysis and design of machine elements; bolts and screws, belts and chains, springs and…
This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE) applied in the analysis and design of machine elements; bolts and screws, belts and chains, springs and dampers, brakes, gears, bearings, gaskets and seals are handled. The range of applications of finite elements on these subjects is extremely wide and cannot be presented in a single paper; therefore the aim of this paper is to give FE researchers/users only an encyclopaedic view of the different possibilities that exist today in the various fields mentioned above. An Appendix included at the end of the paper presents a bibliography on finite element applications in the analysis/design of machine elements for 1977‐1997.