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Article

Xinlei Gao, Tingting Wang and Zhong Cheng

Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has an excellent performance and application value; however, as a tribological material, its main drawback is its poor…

Abstract

Purpose

Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has an excellent performance and application value; however, as a tribological material, its main drawback is its poor performance under dry friction, impacting its ability to work in high-speed dry friction conditions. Modification of UHMWPE can be carried out to overcome these issues. A significant number of inorganic materials have been used to modify UHMWPE and provide it with good tribological performance. However, thus far, there has been no systematic investigation into the methodology of modifying UHMWPE. The authors take a quantitative approach to determine the structure tribo-ability relationship and basic principles of screening of inorganic compounds suited to modify UHMWPE.

Design/methodology/approach

The tribological properties of modified UHMWPE using a series of inorganic additives have been qualitatively studied by the authors’ research group previously. In this study, basic quantitative structure tribo-ability relationships (QSTRs) of inorganic additives for modifying UHMWPE were studied to predict tribological properties. A set of 15 inorganic compounds and their tribological data were used to study the predictive capability of QSTR towards inorganic additives properties.

Findings

The results show that the anti-wear and friction-reducing properties of these inorganic compounds correlate with the calculated parameters of entropy and dipole moment. Increased entropy and smaller dipole moment can effectively improve the anti-wear and friction-reducing ability of inorganic compounds as UHMWPE additives. Additives with larger molecular weight, lower hardness and lower melting and boiling points provide good tribological properties for UHMWPE. For inorganic compounds to act as UHMWPE additives, the chemical bond should be less covalent and have more ionic character.

Research limitations/implications

Only 15 inorganic compounds and their tribological data were used to study the predictive capability of QSTR towards inorganic additives properties. If the samples number is more than 30, the other QSTR methodology can be used to study the modified UHMWPE, and the models finding can be more precise.

Practical implications

A QSTR model for modified UHMWPE has been studied systematically. While the results are not more precise and detailed, the model provides a new way to explore the modified UHMWPE characteristics and to reveal new insight into the friction and wear process.

Social implications

Because the method of studying tribological materials is entirely different from others, the authors want to present the works and discuss it with colleagues.

Originality/value

The paper presents a new method to study the modified UHMWPE. A QSTR is used to study the tribology capability of compounds from calculated structure descriptors. This study uses the Hartree–Fock ab initio method to establish a QSTR prediction model to estimate the ability of 15 inorganic compounds to act as anti-wear and friction-reducing additives for UHMWPE.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article

Hui Li and Cheng Zhong

This study aims to find a feasible precise navigation model for the planed Lunar rover. Autonomous navigation is one of the most important missions in the Chinese Lunar…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to find a feasible precise navigation model for the planed Lunar rover. Autonomous navigation is one of the most important missions in the Chinese Lunar exploration project. Machine vision is expected to be a promising option for this mission because of the dramatic development of an image processing technique. However, existing attempts are often subject to low accuracy and errors accumulation.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, a novel autonomous navigation model was developed, based on the rigid geometric and photogrammetric theory, including stereo perception, relative positioning and absolute adjustment. The first step was planned to detect accurate three-dimensional (3D) surroundings around the rover by matching stereo-paired images; the second was used to decide the local location and orientation changes of the rover by matching adjacent images; and the third was adopted to find the rover’s location in the whole scene by matching ground image with satellite image. Among them, the SURF algorithm that had been commonly believed as the best algorithm for matching images was adopted to find matched images.

Findings

Experiments indicated that the accurate 3D scene, relative positioning and absolute adjustment were easily generated and illustrated with the matching results. More importantly, the proposed algorithm is able to match images with great differences in illumination, scale and observation angle. All experiments and findings in this study proved that the proposed method could be an alternative navigation model for the planed Lunar rover.

Originality/value

With the matching results, an accurate 3D scene, relative positioning and absolute adjustment of rover can be easily generated. The whole test proves that the proposed method could be a feasible navigation model for the planed Lunar rover.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article

Yandong Liu, Dong Han, Lujia Wang and Cheng-Zhong Xu

With the rapid development of e-commerce, logistics demand is increasing day by day. The modern warehousing with a multi-agent system as the core comes into being. This…

Abstract

Purpose

With the rapid development of e-commerce, logistics demand is increasing day by day. The modern warehousing with a multi-agent system as the core comes into being. This paper aims to study the task allocation and path-planning (TAPP) problem as required by the multi-agent warehouse system.

Design/methodology/approach

The TAPP problem targets to minimize the makespan by allocating tasks to the agents and planning collision-free paths for the agents. This paper presents the Hierarchical Genetic Highways Algorithm (HGHA), a hierarchical algorithm combining optimization and multi-agent path-finding (MAPF). The top-level is the genetic algorithm (GA), allocating tasks to agents in an optimized way. The lower level is the so-called highways local repair (HLR) process, avoiding the collisions by local repairment if and only if conflicts arise.

Findings

Experiments demonstrate that HGHA performs faster and more efficient for the warehouse scenario than max multi-flow. This paper also applies HGHA to TAPP instances with a hundred agents and a thousand storage locations in a customized warehouse simulation platform with MultiBots.

Originality/value

This paper formulates the multi-agent warehousing distribution problem, TAPP. The HGHA based on hierarchical architecture solves the TAPP accurately and quickly. Verifying the HGHA by the large-scale multi-agent simulation platform MultiBots.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

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Article

Cheng Zhong and Alexandra Komrakova

This paper aims to demonstrate the capabilities of a diffuse interface free energy lattice Boltzmann method to perform direct numerical simulations of liquid–liquid…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to demonstrate the capabilities of a diffuse interface free energy lattice Boltzmann method to perform direct numerical simulations of liquid–liquid dispersions in a well-controlled turbulent environment. The goal of this research study is to develop numerical techniques that can visualize and quantify drop interaction with the turbulent vortices. The obtained information will be used for the development of sub-models of drop breakup for multi-scale simulations.

Design/methodology/approach

A pure binary liquid system is considered that is subject to fully developed statistically stationary turbulent flow field in a cubic fully periodic box with the edge size of 300 lattice units. Three turbulent flow fields with varying energy input are examined and their coherent structures are visualized using a normalized Q-criterion. The evolution of the liquid–liquid interface is tracked as a function of time. The detailed explanation of the numerical method is provided with a highlight on a choice of the numerical parameters.

Findings

Drop breakup mechanisms differ depending on energy input. Drops break due to interaction with the vortices. Quantification of turbulent structures shows that the size of vortices increases with the decrease of energy input. Drop interacts simultaneously with multiple vortices of the size comparable to or smaller than the drop size. Vortices of the size smaller than the drop size disturb drop interface and pinch off the satellites. Vortices of the size comparable to the drop size tend to elongate the drop and tear it apart producing daughter drops and satellites. Addition of the second phase enhances turbulent dissipation at the high wavenumbers. To obtain physically realistic two-phase energy spectra, the multiple-relaxation-time collision operator should be used.

Originality/value

Detailed information of drop breakup in the turbulent flow field is crucial for the development of drop breakup sub-models that are necessary for multi-scale numerical simulations. The improvement of numerical methods that can provide these data and produce reliable results is important. This work made one step towards a better understanding of how drops interact with the turbulent vortices.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

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Article

Zhicheng He, Guangyao Li, Guiyong Zhang, Gui-Rong Liu, Yuantong Gu and Eric Li

In this work, an SFEM is proposed for solving acoustic problems by redistributing the entries in the mass matrix to “tune” the balance between “stiffness” and “mass” of…

Abstract

Purpose

In this work, an SFEM is proposed for solving acoustic problems by redistributing the entries in the mass matrix to “tune” the balance between “stiffness” and “mass” of discrete equation systems, aiming to minimize the dispersion error. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This is done by simply shifting the four integration points’ locations when computing the entries of the mass matrix in the scheme of SFEM, while ensuring the mass conservation. The proposed method is devised for bilinear quadratic elements.

Findings

The balance between “stiffness” and “mass” of discrete equation systems is critically important in simulating wave propagation problems such as acoustics. A formula is also derived for possibly the best mass redistribution in terms of minimizing dispersion error reduction. Both theoretical and numerical examples demonstrate that the present method possesses distinct advantages compared with the conventional SFEM using the same quadrilateral mesh.

Originality/value

After introducing the mass-redistribution technique, the magnitude of the leading relative dispersion error (the quadratic term) of MR-SFEM is bounded by (5/8), which is much smaller than that of original SFEM models with traditional mass matrix (13/4) and consistence mass matrix (2). Owing to properly turning the balancing between stiffness and mass, the MR-SFEM achieves higher accuracy and much better natural eigenfrequencies prediction than the original SFEM does.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 32 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Book part

Ningzi Li and Qi Song

The goal of this chapter is to respond to the theoretical inquiries by scholars who are interested in how the public–private partnership (PPP) models adapt to China’s…

Abstract

The goal of this chapter is to respond to the theoretical inquiries by scholars who are interested in how the public–private partnership (PPP) models adapt to China’s context where political power dictates economic strategies. We also want to provide suggestions to policy designers who aim to promote a sustainable investment environment for domestic and international investors. We review the literature that explains the upside and downside of PPP projects in contemporary China. (1) We classify the trajectory of PPP evolution into four phases, i.e., emergence, growth, recession and revival. (2) We note that private companies take a disadvantageous position in the partnership compared with governments and state-owned enterprises because of a lack of specialized legislation, unequal competition between private companies and state-owned enterprises and the opposition from the civic society. (3) We identify political risks as the most influential risks. Political risks also lead to the misallocation of other risks between public and private parties that contributes to the high failure rate of China’s PPP projects. Based on these findings, we recommend governments to draft specialized legislation, stabilize the political environment and provide favourable subsidies to local governments to limit the risks involved in PPP projects. We also advise private enterprises and state-owned enterprises to focus on negotiating over task and risk division with governments when they make decisions to participate in PPP projects. This full review of studies on PPP development in China provides reliable recommendations to scholars, governments and enterprises.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Public–Private Partnerships in Developing and Emerging Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-494-1

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Education, Migration and Family Relations between China and the UK: The Transnational One-Child Generation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-673-0

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Article

Hui Li, Cheng Zhong, Xiaoguang Hu, Long Xiao and Xianfeng Huang

Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) offers a fast and effective way to acquire DSM and extract ground objects such as building, trees and so on. However, it is difficult…

Abstract

Purpose

Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) offers a fast and effective way to acquire DSM and extract ground objects such as building, trees and so on. However, it is difficult to extract sharp and precise building boundary from LiDAR data, because its ground sample distance (GSD) is often worse than that of high resolution image. Recently, fusion of LiDAR and high resolution image becomes a promising approach to extract precise boundary. To find the correct and precise boundary, the aim of this paper is to present a series of novel algorithms to improve the quality.

Design/methodology/approach

To find the correct and precise boundary, this paper presents a series of novel algorithms to improve the quality. At first, a progressive algorithm is presented to register LiDAR data and images; second, a modified adaptive TIN algorithm is presented to filter ground point, where a region growth method is applied in the adaptive TIN algorithm; third, a novel criterion based on the density, connectivity and distribution of point cluster is developed to distinguish trees point; fourth, a novel method based on the height difference between neighbor points is employed to extract coarse boundaries; at last, a knowledge based rule is put forward to identify correct building boundary from parallel edges.

Findings

Thorough experiments, it is conducted that: the registration results are accurate and reliable; filtered ground points has good quality, without missing or redundancy; all tree clusters bigger than one grid are detected, and points of walls and edges are eliminated with the new criterion; detected edges exactly locate at real building boundaries, and statistics show the detection correctness is 98 percent, and the detection completeness is 95 percent.

Originality/value

All results prove that precise boundary can be extracted with fusion of LiDAR and high resolution image.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 33 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article

Hui Li, Cheng Zhong and Xianfeng Huang

The fusion of aerial imagery and LiDAR point clouds are considered as one of the most promising approaches for many fields, such as 3D city reconstruction and tree…

Abstract

Purpose

The fusion of aerial imagery and LiDAR point clouds are considered as one of the most promising approaches for many fields, such as 3D city reconstruction and tree detection. The purpose of this paper is to achieve reliable registering LiDAR data and aerial images without orientation parameters based on a progressive optimizing process.

Design/methodology/approach

First, combination of edges and their corners is extracted and considered as registration primitives; then search conjugate primitives globally with a suitable buffer of each edge; after that, a progressive algorithm is adopted to optimize the registration; finally, error analysis and data fusion are carried out.

Findings

After a progressive optimum algorithm, the number and the distribution of the matched pairs are sufficient for generation of reliable and accurate orientation parameters. The results show RMS of residual errors gets close to one DSM cell, which is equal to or even better than that in other literatures.

Originality/value

The method proposed in the paper is feasible and effective to generate reliable and accurate registering results.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

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Article

Cheng Zhong, Hui Li and Xianfeng Huang

Orthophoto suffers from the relief displacement effects magnified by high resolution imaging sensors especially when mapping urban areas. True orthophotos eliminating…

Abstract

Purpose

Orthophoto suffers from the relief displacement effects magnified by high resolution imaging sensors especially when mapping urban areas. True orthophotos eliminating relief displacement with digital surface model (DSM) are presented to assure reliable interpretability and maintain the high quality of the available data. Previous efforts did not provide accurate and fast ways for generating true othorphoto. The purpose of this paper is to try to solve the problem by analyzing the complexity of algorithm processes and finding the optimum manner to allocate them.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, an optimum segmentation number for radial sweep is presented to achieve minimum complexity. First, the scan area, number of azimuth lines and visibility judgment area of radial sweep and spiral sweep method have been discussed with rigorous geometric theory, and then algorithm complexities of both methods are estimated with mathematical computation theory. Finally, minimum complexity of the methods is obtained with extreme point theory of differential calculus.

Findings

Experiments have demonstrated that the proposed method has the best efficiency, and is efficient to avoid “M‐potion” problem, and false occlusions and false visibilities caused by the rolling area, the incompatibility between the DSM and ground image resolution.

Originality/value

The deduction and experiments indicate that the proposed method is a robust, accurate, fast, and effective approach to generate high quality, true orthophoto at a large‐scale.

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