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Article
Publication date: 16 April 2018

Zhihong Gao

This paper aims to examine how the official discourse of frugality evolved in China between 1979 and 2015.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine how the official discourse of frugality evolved in China between 1979 and 2015.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses historical and textual analysis. It divides the Chinese official discourse on frugality between 1979 and 2015 into four periods: 1979-1992, 1993-2002, 2003-2012 and 2013-2015.

Findings

A Chinese official discourse on frugality persisted between 1979 and 2015, even though during the same period, China transformed from a socialist economy of central planning and insufficient supply to a market economy of excessive supply and weak consumer demand. The intensity of this official discourse frequently vacillated, adjusting to both economic and political conditions of the time as part of the larger political-economic contestation between competing ideas and policies.

Originality/value

There have been calls for more studies on how frugality discourses have evolved in international markets, especially in terms of how they are shaped by local historical antecedents and long-standing tensions. Through the Chinese case, this article illuminates why some traditional values persist and obtain a paradoxical co-existence with consumerist ethos in our modern society.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2013

Zhihong Gao, Jincan Xu and Joe H. Kim

Given that global advertising often originates in the West, this study aimed to investigate whether the same racial cues in advertising had different effects on US and…

Abstract

Purpose

Given that global advertising often originates in the West, this study aimed to investigate whether the same racial cues in advertising had different effects on US and Chinese readers who belonged to the majority group in their own country but occupied varied positions in the global racial hierarchy.

Design/methodology/approach

The study included two experiments that used US and Chinese college students as participants to test the effect of model race on model likeability, ad attitude, and brand attitude.

Findings

The experiments confirmed that model race affected the effectiveness of advertising, though the nature and extent of its effects were mediated by factors such as country and product category. The effects of model race were much more pronounced for the Chinese data than for the US data, and for computer than for beer.

Practical implications

The findings illustrate the inadequacy of the center-periphery approach to global advertising planning, expose the limitations of the social identity theory in predicting racial attitudes in international settings, and outline the ethical challenge for global advertisers to develop effective multicultural advertising.

Originality/value

To date, most studies on racial cues in advertising have focused on the USA, and very few have explored the topic in the context of other markets. As an initial cross-country comparative investigation, this study suggests that multicultural advertising does not have the same effect in international markets.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2011

Zhihong Gao and Hongxia Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to investigate consumer attitudes toward advertising regulation in local contexts.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate consumer attitudes toward advertising regulation in local contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was carried out of 211 Chinese consumers and 205 US consumers.

Findings

It was found that the two samples converge in their views on free commercial speech, self‐regulation, and regulation by market forces. Yet, the Chinese are more likely than their US counterparts to support government regulation, endorse legal ban on strong sexual and indecent content, and favor rigorous advertising regulation. The females of both countries are more enthusiastic than their male counterparts about regulating strong sexual images in advertising and requiring advertising to promote positive values. Both countries witness considerable generational gaps, as the older respondents are more conservative in their views and more likely to support rigorous regulation of advertising.

Originality/value

The paper is the first to systematically survey consumers' attitudes toward advertising regulation.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2012

Zhihong Gao, Na Li and Elaine A. Scorpio

The purpose of this paper is to explore the link between consumer psychology and puffery law in China and the USA, by reporting two empirical studies that investigated…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the link between consumer psychology and puffery law in China and the USA, by reporting two empirical studies that investigated whether puff claims had different effects on Chinese and US college students in their perception of advertising truthfulness, brand attitude, and purchase intent.

Design/methodology/approach

The first study tested the six levels of puffery, identified by Preston, with two products, cane sugar and bottled spring water. The second study employed four products to test the interaction effects of product type and the “best” puff claim.

Findings

It was found that puffery had very limited effects on the participants' brand attitude and purchase intent, and the Chinese consistently reported higher purchase intent than the Americans.

Research limitations/implications

The studies had two primary limitations. First, all the participants were college students. Future studies may want to sample the general population and further examine how factors such as age, education, social class, and product experience influence the perception of puffery. Second, to strive for cross‐cultural equivalence, the ad stimuli used consisted of very simple designs and focused solely on puff claims without much context. The findings outline a possible roadmap to regulatory harmonization based on consumer psychology, which bridges the sharp divide between the two models of puffery regulation represented by China and the USA.

Originality/value

Previous empirical studies on the effects of puffery were all confined to the US context. The paper is the first effort to investigate the effects of puffery in a cross‐cultural context.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2007

Zhihong Gao

This paper seeks to propose a framework for systematically investigating international advertising regulation; to provide an in‐depth understanding of the Chinese…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to propose a framework for systematically investigating international advertising regulation; to provide an in‐depth understanding of the Chinese advertising regulation system; and to use China as a case study to examine how various global and local forces interact and negotiate the landscape of international advertising regulation.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs historical analysis; and textual analysis to achieve its purpose.

Findings

Chinese advertising regulation relies largely on government regulation, and self‐regulation plays a much subdued and marginal role. The Chinese regulator aims to control the negative effects of advertising through rigorous regulation as well as certification and censorship programs, but its various advertising laws and regulations are invariably phrased in vague and general terms, so that enforcement and compliance become a major issue. The lack of autonomous trade and consumer organizations combined with minimal public participation in the system further reduces its transparency and effectiveness.

Practical implications

The paper offers a detailed road‐map for advertising professionals to navigate the complex Chinese advertising regulation system.

Originality/value

The paper is the first English article to provide a systematic examination of Chinese advertising regulation.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 January 2009

Zhihong Gao and Joe H. Kim

This paper sets out to examine the formal regulatory framework of controlling soft issues in six Confucian societies: China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper sets out to examine the formal regulatory framework of controlling soft issues in six Confucian societies: China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Singapore, South Korea and Japan. It aims to investigate whether these societies adopt a similar approach to soft issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach takes the form of historical analysis and textual analysis.

Findings

Japan stands out among Confucian societies in regulating soft issues. The other five societies share considerable similarities, though each society's approach ultimately reflects the entanglement and interaction between various economic, political, cultural and historical factors in the local context.

Practical implications

For international advertisers, the ideological facet of advertising regulation in some Confucian societies spells unpredictable traps and troubles.

Originality/value

Only a very few works have systematically examined soft issues in advertising, and few have focused on East Asia. The paper contributes to the literature by comparing how societies with similar cultural traditions regulate soft issues.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2015

Zhihong Gao and Susan O’Sullivan-Gavin

Given the unique cultural-political context of China, this paper aims to investigate two research questions: What has been the development trajectory of policy-making on…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the unique cultural-political context of China, this paper aims to investigate two research questions: What has been the development trajectory of policy-making on consumer privacy protection in China, and what factors have shaped its development over the years?

Design/methodology/approach

This paper adopts a historical approach and examines the development of Chinese consumer privacy policy during four periods: 1980s, 1990s, 2000s and 2010-present.

Findings

Chinese policy-making on consumer privacy protection has made steady advancement in the past few decades due to factors such as technological development, elite advocacy and emulation of other markets; however, the effects of these factors are conditioned by local forces.

Originality/value

To date, most studies of consumer privacy issues have focused on Western countries, especially the European Union and the USA. A better understanding of how consumer privacy policy has developed in China provides important lessons on the promotion of consumer privacy protection in other developing countries.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 18 May 2015

D. G. Brian Jones and Mark Tadajewski

Abstract

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 January 2011

Ian Phau

Abstract

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Content available
Article
Publication date: 30 March 2012

Ian Phau

Abstract

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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