Search results

1 – 10 of over 9000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2008

Henar Díez, Ma Casilda Lasso de la Vega and Ana Urrutia

Purpose: Most of the characterizations of inequality or poverty indices assume some invariance condition, be that scale, translation, or intermediate, which imposes value…

Abstract

Purpose: Most of the characterizations of inequality or poverty indices assume some invariance condition, be that scale, translation, or intermediate, which imposes value judgments on the measurement. In the unidimensional approach, Zheng (2007a, 2007b) suggests replacing all these properties with the unit-consistency axiom, which requires that the inequality or poverty rankings, rather than their cardinal values, are not altered when income is measured in different monetary units. The aim of this paper is to introduce a multidimensional generalization of this axiom and characterize classes of multidimensional inequality and poverty measures that are unit consistent.

Design/methodology/approach: Zheng (2007a, 2007b) characterizes families of inequality and poverty measures that fulfil the unit-consistency axiom. Tsui (1999, 2002), in turn, derives families of the multidimensional relative inequality and poverty measures. Both of these contributions are the background taken to achieve our characterization results.

Findings: This paper merges these two generalizations to identify the canonical forms of all the multidimensional subgroup- and unit-consistent inequality and poverty measures. The inequality families we derive are generalizations of both the Zheng and Tsui inequality families. The poverty indices presented are generalizations of Tsui's relative poverty families as well as the families identified by Zheng.

Originality/value: The inequality and poverty families characterized in this paper are unit and subgroup consistent, both of them being appropriate requirements in empirical applications in which inequality or poverty in a population split into groups is measured. Then, in empirical applications, it makes sense to choose measures from the families we derive.

Details

Inequality and Opportunity: Papers from the Second ECINEQ Society Meeting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-135-0

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 25 August 2020

Lan Li, Xingshan Zheng, Siwei Sun and Ismael Diaz

The present study aims to ascertain the relationships between subordinate moqi and leader behaviors, by primarily discussing how and when subordinate moqi is associated…

Abstract

Purpose

The present study aims to ascertain the relationships between subordinate moqi and leader behaviors, by primarily discussing how and when subordinate moqi is associated with leadership empowerment.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-report study was conducted by recruiting 334 employees from 13 firms. All concepts were rated on a seven-point Likert-type response scale. Linear regression analysis (conducted in MPLUS 7) was conducted to verify the hypotheses.

Findings

First, subordinate moqi showed positive association with empowerment. Second, trust-in-supervisor mediated the relationships between subordinate moqi and empowerment. Third, subordinates' power distance orientation (PDO) could moderate the subordinate moqi – leader empowerment relationship. When subordinates reported higher PDO, the relationships between subordinate moqi and empowerment were more robust; likewise, subordinate moqi would have more significantly indirectly impacted empowerment via trust-in-supervisor.

Originality/value

Though researchers have discussed the impacts of subordinate moqi on subordinates' outcomes, the impact of subordinate moqi on supervisors' attitudes or behaviors remains unclear. The relationships between subordinate moqi and supervisor empowerment behaviors are empirically ascertained by emphasizing the leader-subordinate dyadic process. The findings here suggested that subordinate moqi boosted subordinates' trust-in-supervisor, and moqi would also predict the behaviors of leader empowerment. This study extended the PDO literature by identifying the moderating role of PDO in the subordinate moqi – leader empowerment behavior relationship.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 41 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 October 2020

Ramiz Qandah, Taghrid Saleh Suifan, Ra'ed Masa'deh and Bader Yousef Obeidat

The purpose of this research is to identify and clarify the important variables in knowledge management capabilities that affect product/service innovation in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to identify and clarify the important variables in knowledge management capabilities that affect product/service innovation in entrepreneurial companies in Jordan.

Design/methodology/approach

A five-point Likert scale questionnaire was designed for measuring knowledge-based (infrastructural and dynamic) capabilities and product/service innovation in entrepreneurial companies in Jordan that specialized in information and communication technology. A questionnaire was distributed to 297 individuals in 40 companies, and only 202 questionnaires were completely filled and returned by the entrepreneurs at King Hussein Business Park and Al Hassan Business Park. Structural equation modeling was applied to statistically test the research hypotheses.

Findings

The research findings showed that knowledge-based infrastructural capabilities are a prerequisite for knowledge-based dynamic capabilities. On the other hand, knowledge combination capabilities have a statistically significant mediating effect between knowledge based infrastructural capabilities and product/service innovation.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the literature by studying and investigating the key variables in knowledge management that affect product/service innovation and by providing a comprehensive understanding of the knowledge management capabilities and innovation in entrepreneurial companies. This research provides academicians with a framework for better understanding of the different factors of knowledge management capabilities and how they affect product/service innovation.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 August 2020

Wenbo Zhu, Yongfu Chen, Zhihao Zheng, Jing Zhao, Guojing Li and Wei Si

China has experienced a fast economic growth and shown a significant rise in income inequality in the past decades. During the same period, fluid milk consumption in urban…

Abstract

Purpose

China has experienced a fast economic growth and shown a significant rise in income inequality in the past decades. During the same period, fluid milk consumption in urban areas has rapidly expanded. The objective of this paper is to analyze and simulate the influence of income distribution changes on fluid milk consumption of households in urban China.

Design/methodology/approach

This study applies an inverse hyperbolic sine (IHS) double-hurdle model to modeling at-home fluid milk consumption of households across different income strata based on a sample of 11,861 urban households in five provinces in China, and simulating the impact of changing income distribution, including five income growth patterns, on fluid milk consumption of total households as well as specific household groups.

Findings

The fluid milk consumption in urban China will continue to increase, with the unconditional income elasticity being 0.334 for the full sample and 0.347, 0.335 and 0.162 for the low-, middle-, and high-income groups, respectively. The simulation results show an evidence that, compared with distribution-neutral and disparity-enlarging income growth patterns, a rising income equality would lead to a more significant increase in fluid milk consumption. And the inequality-reducing income growth pattern has a larger impact on fluid milk consumption of households with seniors and no children, as well as households having no local urban household registration (hukou).

Practical implications

The government should strengthen the supply measures of fluid milk in urban areas, enlarge domestic dairy production, and diversify the sources of milk imports. It is also necessary to subsidize low-income families, especially households with seniors or households migrated from other areas without getting local urban hukou, which could simultaneously improve nutritional benefits and alleviate financial pressures.

Originality/value

A simulation considering the evolution of income distribution as well as different household groups is conducted. Widely distributed data with a large sample size and detailed demographic information are used. The problems of zero consumption and non-normal distribution are addressed by the IHS double-hurdle model.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 26 August 2021

Amr M. Wahaballa, Seham Hemdan and Fumitaka Kurauchi

Road pricing is an efficient strategy for managing urban traffic to relieve congestion. The macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD), which relates the average network…

Abstract

Purpose

Road pricing is an efficient strategy for managing urban traffic to relieve congestion. The macroscopic fundamental diagram (MFD), which relates the average network density and flow, is a simple tool for assessing road pricing effects on transportation network performance. However, recent research indicates that it may have complexity (an MFD hysteresis loop), especially for city-scale networks. Although ignoring MFD hysteresis may provide inaccurate results, pricing models that consider this hysteresis are scarce. This paper aims to assess road pricing effects on network performance considering MFD hysteresis characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper evaluated different pricing strategies spatially and temporally and compared network performance based on MFD shape in the presence of MFD hysteresis loops. These strategies were developed on a multimodal (cars and buses) network using a multi-agent transport simulation (MATSim).

Findings

This study found that pricing some links for a short duration with an optimum charge calculated based on the MFD provides higher travel time savings than the previous relevant studies.

Originality/value

These findings may facilitate assessing road pricing effects on multimodal network performance considering MFD hysteresis.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Feihu Zheng, Hao Jiao, Junyi Gu, Hwy-Chang Moon and Wenyan Yin

This study aims to examine how different modes of knowledge flows affect the changes of asset specificity and how ownership control moderates the relationship between…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how different modes of knowledge flows affect the changes of asset specificity and how ownership control moderates the relationship between knowledge flows and asset specificity in the open innovation paradigm.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper selects information technology outsourcing as the research base. It uses the feasible weighted least squares modeling method for its analysis and has collected the data from 2,369 research and development contracts of multinational vendor firms in China.

Findings

The coupled and outbound knowledge flows have a direct and positive effect on asset specificity. Moreover, the results show that weak corporate control has significant moderating effects on the relationship between both coupled and outbound knowledge flows and asset specificity; the strong control positively moderates the relationship between outbound knowledge flows and asset specificity.

Practical implications

In open innovation, firms build a higher degree of asset specificity to maximize the efficiency of knowledge flows, which then helps them to enhance innovation capacity and market performance.

Originality/value

Preceding studies have tended to examine the influences of asset specificity as an independent variable in a closed innovation paradigm. Asset specificity is hence often left as the antecedent “black box.” This paper, however, opens the “black box” of asset specificity, which is set as a dependent variable, by investigating the influences of knowledge flows on the asset specificity in the context of open innovation. It also reinterprets the role of asset specificity by adopting the lens of open innovation theory.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2021

Yinxuan Zhang, Tong Li, Xuan Yu and Yanzhao Tang

This study aims to examine the influence of task interdependence on team members’ Moqi in virtual teams in China. The authors also aim to identify virtual collaboration as…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the influence of task interdependence on team members’ Moqi in virtual teams in China. The authors also aim to identify virtual collaboration as a mediator and distributive justice climate as a moderator in this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from a sample of 87 virtual teams (including 349 individuals) from various Chinese companies through a three-wave survey. Hierarchical regression analysis, path analysis, bootstrapping method and multiple validity tests were used to examine the research model.

Findings

In virtual teams in China, task interdependence has a significantly positive influence on team members’ Moqi; Virtual collaboration mediates the relationship between task interdependence and team members’ Moqi; The distributive justice climate positively moderates the relationship between task interdependence and virtual collaboration, as well as the indirect effect of virtual collaboration on the relationship between task interdependence and team members’ Moqi.

Practical implications

In virtual teams, leaders can facilitate team members’ Moqi by designing highly interdependent tasks, encouraging team members to engage in virtual collaboration and cultivating a climate of high attention distributive justice.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies to pay to the Moqi among team members rather than supervisor-subordinate relationships and further examine how team members’ Moqi is predicted by task interdependence via the mediation of virtual collaboration with the distributive justice climate playing a moderating role.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2008

Coral del Río and Olga Alonso-Villar

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of several intermediate inequality measures, paying special attention to the unit-consistency…

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of several intermediate inequality measures, paying special attention to the unit-consistency axiom proposed by Zheng (2007). First, we demonstrate why one of the most referenced intermediate indices, proposed by Bossert and Pfingsten (1990), is not unit-consistent. Second, we explain why the invariance criterion proposed by Del Río and Ruiz-Castillo (2000), recently generalized by Del Río and Alonso-Villar (2008), leads instead to inequality measures that are unaffected by the currency unit. Third, we show that the intermediate measures proposed by Kolm (1976) may also violate unit-consistency. Finally, we reflect on the concept of intermediateness behind the above notions together with that proposed by Krtscha (1994). Special attention is paid to the geometric interpretations of our results.

Details

Inequality and Opportunity: Papers from the Second ECINEQ Society Meeting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-135-0

Content available
Article
Publication date: 28 December 2020

Qinjie Yang, Guozhe Shen, Chao Liu, Zheng Wang, Kai Zheng and Rencheng Zheng

Steer-by-wire (SBW) system mainly relies on sensors, controllers and motors to replace the traditionally mechanical transmission mechanism to realize steering functions…

Abstract

Purpose

Steer-by-wire (SBW) system mainly relies on sensors, controllers and motors to replace the traditionally mechanical transmission mechanism to realize steering functions. However, the sensors in the SBW system are particularly vulnerable to external influences, which can cause systemic faults, leading to poor steering performance and even system instability. Therefore, this paper aims to adopt a fault-tolerant control method to solve the safety problem of the SBW system caused by sensors failure.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper proposes an active fault-tolerant control framework to deal with sensors failure in the SBW system by hierarchically introducing fault observer, fault estimator, fault reconstructor. Firstly, the fault observer is used to obtain the observation output of the SBW system and then obtain the residual between the observation output and the SBW system output. And then judge whether the SBW system fails according to the residual. Secondly, dependent on the residual obtained by the fault observer, a fault estimator is designed using bounded real lemma and regional pole configuration to estimate the amplitude and time-varying characteristics of the faulty sensor. Eventually, a fault reconstructor is designed based on the estimation value of sensors fault obtained by the fault estimator and SBW system output to tolerate the faulty sensor.

Findings

The numerical analysis shows that the fault observer can be rapidly activated to detect the fault while the sensors fault occurs. Moreover, the estimation accuracy of the fault estimator can reach to 98%, and the fault reconstructor can make the faulty SBW system to retain the steering characteristics, comparing to those of the fault-free SBW system. In addition, it was verified for the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control framework.

Research limitations/implications

As the SBW fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control in this paper only carry out numerical simulation research on sensors faults in matrix and laboratory/Simulink, the subsequent hardware in the loop test is needed for further verification.

Originality/value

Aiming at the SBW system with parameter perturbation and sensors failure, this paper proposes an active fault-tolerant control framework, which integrates fault observer, fault estimator and fault reconstructor so that the steering performance of SBW system with sensors faults is basically consistent with that of the fault-free SBW system.

Details

Journal of Intelligent and Connected Vehicles, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-9802

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 26 June 2020

Byron Marlowe, Tianshu Zheng, John Farrish, Jesus Bravo and Victor Pimentel

The purpose of this study was to create a more balanced, comprehensive and valid illustration of the relationships between casino gaming volume and employment during…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to create a more balanced, comprehensive and valid illustration of the relationships between casino gaming volume and employment during economic downturns in urban and rural locations in nondestination gaming states.

Design/methodology/approach

This study analyzes gaming volumes and employment prior, during and after the recession of 2007–2009, using a time series with intervention analysis on a monthly coin in, table drop and regression analysis on employment impacts of casinos.

Findings

Findings indicate that while there was a slight drop in gaming revenue and employment figures during the economic downturn, nondestination gaming locations such as Indiana proved relatively resilient to an economic downturn.

Originality/value

The Great Recession had no significant impact on gaming volume because gamblers chose to spend their more limited entertainment dollars on less expensive gaming options; in other words, casinos closer to home requiring the expenditure of fewer dollars on travel and/or hotel rooms. The current pandemic and pressures of the macro-environment again threaten the US gaming and casino market with an economic downturn and the results of this study are as timely as ever for hospitality professionals and social scientists to understand the behavior of casinos in recessionary environments.

Details

International Hospitality Review, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-8142

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 9000